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侵染
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  infection
    Mechanisms of Infection and Colonization of the Dominant Endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 on Host Rice Plant
    水稻内生优势成团泛菌YS19对宿主侵染和定殖机制的研究
短句来源
    Study on Effect of Fusarium Infection on Fumonisin B_1 and B_2 Contamination in Asparagus Production and Analysis of Pesticides Residue in Asparagus
    镰刀菌侵染对芦笋产品中伏马菌素B_1、B_2污染的影响及芦笋中农药残留分析
短句来源
    Study on Anthracnose Pathogen of Persimmon and Its Infection Mechanisms
    柿树炭疽病病原菌及其侵染机制研究
短句来源
    Studies on siRNA Interfering TMV Infection and Its Molecular Mechanism
    siRNA干扰TMV侵染及其分子机理的研究
短句来源
    EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON Y VIRUS INFECTION IN POTATO PLANTS
    马铃薯 Y 病毒的侵染与温度的关系
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  infestation
    Pathogens and their isolates inducing virus disease in hot peppers ( Capsicum annuum L) round Chongqing Municipality areas were investigated in the field from 1996 - 2004, Results have indicated the pathogens are CMV and TMV, their infestation rate determined is 32.3% and 7.5% respectively for CMV and TMV and the complex infestation for the two is 46.7%, The isolates identified are TMV-POM, CMV- POM and CMV- PmM.
    针对重庆市辣椒病毒病毒原种类不清,株系分化尚不明确,1996-2004年我所对辣椒病毒病进行了研究,基本摸清辣椒病毒病消长规律,明确了辣椒病毒病毒原种类为CMV和TMV,单独检出率分别为32.3%与 7.5%,二者复合侵染检出率46.7%。
    In order to provent and cure Mycosphaerella citri whiteside endangering blade and fruits of Chanshan shaddock, pesticides effectiveness of 50% Dithane,M-45 70% Topsin and Kocide were tested from 1998-1999. The results showed that,600-800 fold solution of 50% Ditrane could effectively prevent it from diffusing and control infestation.
    为防治黄斑病对常山胡柚的叶片和果实的危害,于1998~1999年连续两年选用50%代森锰锌、70%托布津和进口可杀得(Kocide)进行重复试验,结果表明,用50%代森锰锌600~800倍液及时喷防,能有效地防治黄斑病蔓延,控制病菌再次侵染
短句来源
    Pathogens and their isolates inducing virus disease in hot pepers (capsicum annuum L) round Chongqing Municipality areas were investigated in the field from 1996~2000. Results have indicated the pathogens are CMV and TMV,their infestation rate determined is 32.3% and 7.5% respectively for CMV and TMV and the complex infestation for the two is 46.7%.
    针对重庆市辣椒病毒病毒原种类不清,株系分化尚不明确的情况,在1996~2000年对辣椒病毒病进行了研究,基本摸清了辣椒病毒病的消长规律,明确了辣椒病毒病毒原种类为CMV和TMV,单独检出率分别为32.3%与7.5%,二者复合侵染检出率46.7%。
短句来源
    The root-knot nematode affects greatly the quality and yield of cotton. The species of the root-hnot nematode was identified as Meloidogyne incognita race 4.Besides the infestation of cotton, the nematode also infected 12 species of crops and 17 species of weeds in the cotton field.
    鉴定证实病原线虫系南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)4号生理小种,除为害棉花外,还能侵染常见的12种作物和17种杂草。
短句来源
    After the investigation on the infestation of pests,unhealthy growth and physiological yellowing of Chinese pines in transplantation for certain causes,some measures are provided to reduce the pests in shade tree transplantation.
    通过对本溪市峪明路油松在移植过程中由于多种原因造成病虫害侵染、生长不良和生理原因大量枯黄落叶等现象进行调查分析 ,总结出行道树移栽中把握好选苗、栽植和养护等环节 ,减少病虫害发生的几项措施 ,为今后城市行道树栽植提供切实可行的理论和实践依据
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  “侵染”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Studies on the Mechanism and Inheritance of Resistance to Aspergillus Flavus Link Invasion and Aflatoxin Production in Peanut(Arachis Hypogaea L.)
    花生抗黄曲霉(Aspergillus flavus Link)侵染和产毒机制以及抗性遗传规律的研究
短句来源
    Development of cDNA Clones for RNAs in Vitro Transcription of Wheat Yellow Mosaic Virus and Their Infections of Cell Culture Systems
    小麦黄花叶病毒侵染性cDNA克隆及细胞侵染体系的建立
短句来源
    IDENTIFICATION ON TOBACCO NECROSIS VIRUS INFECTING SOYBEAN AND MULBERRY
    侵染大豆和桑的烟草坏死病毒(TNV)的鉴定
短句来源
    THE DETERMINATOIN OF PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SOLANI (MART.) SACC. F. SP. BATATAS MCCLURE ON GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM L. AND IPOMOEA AQUATICA FORCK
    甘薯根腐病菌[Fusarium Solani(Mart.)Sacc.f.sp.batatas McClure对棉花和蕹菜的侵染测定
短句来源
    BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON A HIRSUTELLA INFECTING THE LARVAE OF THE RICE STEM BORER ( CHILO SUPPRESSALIS WALKER)
    侵染二化螟(Chilo suppressalis Walker)幼虫的瘤状多毛菌(Hirsutella nodulosa Petch)生物学特性研究
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  infection
Two typical delay regimes, i.e., uniform and degree-dependent delays are incorporated into the SIS epidemic model to investigate the epidemic infection processes in the local-world network model.
      
The results indicate that the infection delay will promote the epidemic outbreaks, increase the prevalence and reduce the critical threshold of epidemic spreading.
      
AM infection was severely restrained by 12% soil water content.
      
Relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, soluble sugar and starch content of EI and EF populations under normal and drought stress conditions were compared to investigate the effect of endophyte infection on the host plant.
      
Both genes were determined to be nonessential in viral replication and infection.
      
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  infestation
Such activities could be the activation and maintenance of an immune system in response to parasitic infestation.
      
Infestation by parasites has no effects on the biochemical parameters studied.
      
Effect of helminthic infestation on the biochemical parameters of gulls of the genus Larus in the Barents Sea region
      
Combined inheritance of oligogenes (Sgr1, Sgr4, Sgr5, and Sgr6) and a weakly expressed resistance to infestation with virulent greenbug clones was studied in sorghum.
      
The dominant resistance genes that are expressed in the cultivar Odesskaya 25 (k-122) in response to infestation with some clones from the natural greenbug population were designated as Sgr14 and Sgr15.
      
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Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith different...

Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith different climatic conditions but also from field to field under similarclimatic conditions.Our data record a range of 18-42 days.Circumstantial eviden-ces indicate that this variation is due,on the one hand,to the rainfall whichinfluences the amounts of sporulation and the frequency of penetration of thepathogene,and on the other hand,to cultural and other factors that determinethe vigor and the rate of aging of the plant itself. Actual counts of lesions formed from secondary infection in the early periodof the spread of the disease in a potato field,reveal that their distribution bearsdirect relation with the direction of the prevailing wind.It is estimated that over90% of spores fall within a rectangle of 800 sq.m.around a diseased plantcenter along the loci of wind directions. On the basis of possible function of absorbed copper ions in the enhancementof plant resistance to late blight,field experiments have been conducted by using0.1 - 0.2% copper sulfate solutions as spray.Results show that spraying 2-3 timesat 7-10 days' interval,started soon after the appearance of diseased plant center,gives remarkable control of late blight and corresponding reduction of loss inyield.The copper sulfate spray,though less effective and stable in comparisonwith the bordeaux spray,has the advantage of being more economical and easierto apply.Further experiments with the pu:pose of modifying and improving themethod are in progress.

從馬鈴薯的開花期起可能在田间出现的晚疫病中心病株是本田當年病害即將大量發生的重要標誌。每次再侵染的潛育期,在張家口壩下地區的氣候下,大約4天。從病害的最初發現到全面枯死所經過的日期囚種種外界環境條件而有很大的差別,我們所觀察到的是18—42天。根據調查资料來推測,一方面,促進病菌孢子形成数量和侵入數量的雨水,另一方面,决定植株衰老速度的栽培條件,是這種差別的主要原因。田間再侵染所形成的病斑之分佈情况說明病菌孢子的傳播与風向有直接的關係。估計90%以土的孢子落在中心病株附近順着風向的800平方米的長方形面積上。根據馬鈴薯地上部吸收銅素以提高共抗病力的可能性,利用0.1—0.2%硫酸銅溶液作為噴射劑,在田间中心病株發現的時期開始每隔7—10天喷射共2—3次,可以顯著地降低晚疫病的為害,提高產量。這個方法在共效驗及穩定性上不如波爾多液,在藥劑費用的節省及施用的方便上則勝之?椒ǖ母牧己吞岣哒谶M一步研究中。

High percentage of chlamydospore germination of Neovossia horrida (Tak.)P.& K.with abundant basidiospore production was obtained by placing moistenedspores in a Petri dish with limited supply of water,the dish-cover being inkedblue to insure a favordable light condition.Moistened spores applied on the sur-face of kernels of a growing rice head enclosed in a paraffin paper bag was alsofound to germinate by producing a very short basidium and a large number ofbasidiospores.It is,therefore,concluded that not only...

High percentage of chlamydospore germination of Neovossia horrida (Tak.)P.& K.with abundant basidiospore production was obtained by placing moistenedspores in a Petri dish with limited supply of water,the dish-cover being inkedblue to insure a favordable light condition.Moistened spores applied on the sur-face of kernels of a growing rice head enclosed in a paraffin paper bag was alsofound to germinate by producing a very short basidium and a large number ofbasidiospores.It is,therefore,concluded that not only light but also oxygen isrequired for normal germination of the spores of the rice kernel smut. Results of a series of inoculation experiments conclusively show that thefungus infects rice kernels during the milky dough stage.Basidiospore inoculationgives higher percentage of infection than chlamydospore inoculation. Field observation indicates that the incidence of high percentage of infectionis coincident with the excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer.Fluctuationof the amount of infection from year to year is probably determined chiefly by theduration of high moisture period from heading to dough stage.There are someevidences of varietal difference in the susceptibility of rice to the kernel smut.

(一)稻粒黑穗病菌厚垣孢子的正常萌发,在外界环境條件的關係上,不僅要求一定的光照,而且需有充分的氧氣供給。至於對水分的要求,只要空氣中?窒喈敐穸?已足供萌发的需要,不一定要有水滴的經常存在。(二)接種試驗證明病原係在水稻的灌漿期侵入種实。在自然界中,這種侵染顯然是通過氣流傳播而實现的。但種子與土壤所荷带的病原菌厚垣孢子,都是侵染的來源。(三)过量的氮素肥料,與高的稻粒黑穗病感染率有密切的關係。(四)稻粒黑穗病发生程度的年份间差異可能主要是决定於抽穗至乳熟期的高濕度的持續時間。(五)初步調查的資料表示水稻品種间具有顯著的感病性差別。

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the...

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the water-soaked appearance and then extend upwardly,and eventually become blackenedand rotted.As a rule,ths leaves of the infected plants show an abnormal coloror pale yellow,and drooping appearance.In the meantime,the root tips of theadventitious roots of the vines lose their cortex and begin to lot.Wilting followsquite rapidly and finally the entire plant dies.If the disease infects the plantafter the potatoes beginning to form,it may extend throughout the vine and in-to the roots,causing the enlarged roots to show brown streaks and finally blackenedand rotted with pungent odor. The cause of the disease may appropriately be considered as due to bacteriaand Fusarium spp.Four types of bacteria,i.e.white smooth type,yellow smoothtype,white rough type and yellow rough type,are able to cause the disease.Atleast four kinds of Fusarium,i.e.white aerial mycelium type,white mycelium withred of a purple tint substratum type,pink mycelium with red of a purple tint sub-stratum type and without aerial mycelium type are responsible for the disease.Which is the main cause of the disease? Either bacteria or Fusarium alone or theboth in combination is able to cause the disease,further tests should be madebefore a definite conclusion may be drawn. The dissemination of the wilt organisms may appropriately be considered inthree ways,namely,(1) by infested roots and vines,(2) by sick-soil,and (3) byinsects,as the sweet-potato weevil (Gycas formicarius Fabr.).The former twoways of dissemination are more definite than the latter,however,further testsand observations should be made. According to the results of 2-years field experiments in Tsen-shi and Peh-liustations,it shows that different varieties of sweet-potato possess different resis-tance to the disease.Among several varieties tested,it is found that Tai-nung No.3being a promising one,because it yields very high and is highly resistant to thedisease and to the drought.Although it is occasionally found to be susceptibleto the disease in the experiment field of Tsen-shi and is more commonly foundin the experiment field of Lin-kwei.The second variety is Tai-nung No.46 dueto its high degree of disease resistance. The results of preliminary tests indicate that the method of reproduction byold vines would decrease both in disease resistance and in yield within the samevariety. From tests conducted in two different fields,i.e.one at dry land and the ??other in the rice field,it shows that the discrepancies were found in the occur-rence of the disease and also in the relation of the method of manuring to thepercent of infection. Dipping cuttings in different disinfectants did not show any significant results.There are discrepancies in both plowed and sunned field test and two methodsof setting the vines test.These may be due to methods of treatment,landand varieties used for experiment being different. According to the results of date of planting tests in Peh-liu,it indicates thatthe occurrence and the development of the disease are closely related to the highhumidity and the high temperature.These climatic factors affect the health ofthe early growth of the plant which in turn would increase the disease resistance.It is suggested that the most suitable date for planting sweet-potato in Peh-liu isin the first decade of August. In comparing the weather records of the three districts—Lin-kwei,Peh-liu andTsen-shi—in relation to the date of early and last occurrences of the disease,itshows that an average air temperature of 23.4-28.4℃ is most suitable for the oc-currence of the disease,and an average relative humidity of 80 per cent is alsoneeded for the infection of the disease.Based on these facts,we may say thatsweet-potatoes in Lin-kwei are capable to be easily infected by the wilt organisms.except the last date of the infection would be preceded 10-20 clays.Any otherregions with similar climatic factors,it is also very possible to be infected. According to the results of 2-years experiments and facts from surveys,sug-gestive control measures are proposed: (1) excluding the disease by regulationthrough the use of quarantines enforced by an inspection station empowered torestrict or eradicate diseased roots and vines to prevent them from becomingsources of infection in disease-free districts; (2) selection of disease resistant varie-ties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.For the present time,we suggest that the use of Tai-nung No.3 in Tsen-shi and Peh-liu may meet the requirement,and promotingthe method of root reproduction in place of an old method of reproduction byrepeating vine cuttings from old vines can prevent the degeneration of the plantand decrease the infection of the disease.

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能...

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試驗田也会發生过多次。老藤繁殖会降低同一品种的抗病性和产量,值得我們注意。在旱地和水田不同試驗地上所得結果,可初步说明發病情况很不一致,追肥与不追肥处理的發病率也不一致。藥剂处理种苗效应不显著,翻晒土壤及二种种植法試驗结果不一致,想与試驗方法、試驗地不同和供試品种不同有密切关系。薯瘟的發生与發展和高温潮湿有密切关系,而这些气候因素对于植株的早期生??長壮健及增强抗病性也有关系。初步建議,在北流地区以立秋(8月上旬)种植較为适当。从临桂雁山、北流和岑溪三处的气候記录,和薯瘟开始發生与最后發生日期的記录看来,可以初步說平均气温23.4—28.4℃最适于薯瘟的發生。相对湿度平均在80%以上亦适于本病的發生。由此可見,在临桂雁山地区,薯瘟可能是容易發生的,不过停止發病日期会提早10—20天。其他地区如有相似气温与湿度情况,那也是会發生薯瘟的。根据二年試驗結果和調查所得情况,初步提出防治薯瘟的办法如次:(1)应采取种薯和种苗的檢疫措施,禁止病区的种薯运往無病地区,以防蔓延;(2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;多施草木灰,适当施用石灰,根外追肥,适期种植等,以增强植株的抗病性,避免病害的侵染,保証丰产。目前在岑溪及北流地区,可先推广种植“台农三号”品种,并提倡以薯塊育苗,切勿采用老藤繁殖,以避免植株的衰退,减少薯瘟的發生。

 
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