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温度
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  temperatures
    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF Cr-P-SiO_2 CATALYSTS CALCINATED UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES BY X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY
    不同焙烧温度下Cr-P-SiO_2催化剂表面特征的X射线光电子能谱的研究
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    The Effectiveness Factors of A110-2 Catalyst and the Optimal Temperatures for Ammonia Synthesis
    A110-2催化剂的有效系数和氨合成反应的最佳温度
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    STUDIES OF EXTRACTION MECHANISM OF RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS WITH MONO(2-ETHYL HEXYL)2-ETHYL HEXYL PHOSPHONATE(HEH[EHP])Ⅰ.THE DISTRIBUTION OF RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS IN THE SYSTEM HNO_3-H_2O-HEH[EHP]AND THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURES AND SOLVENTS
    2-乙基己基膦酸单(2-乙基己基)酯(HEH[EHP])萃取稀土元素机理的研究——Ⅰ.稀土元素(Ⅲ)在HNO_3-H_2O-HEH[EHP]体系中的分配及温度和溶剂效应
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    TEMPERATURES IN A GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIZER
    石墨炉原子化器的温度
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    Using Ion-Selective Electrodes to Study the Thermodynamics of Solution——Ⅳ.The Standard Gibbs Free Energies and Entropies of Transfer of Sodium Chloride from Water to N,N-Dimethylformamide—Water Mixture at Nine Temperatures from 5℃ to 45℃
    应用离子选择性电极进行溶液热力学研究——Ⅳ.氯化钠在5—45℃间九个温度下由水至二甲基甲酰胺-水混合溶剂的标准转移 Gibbs 自由能及转移熵的测定
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  reaction temperature
    STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL REACTION TEMPERATURE OF 1-(1-PIPERIDINO-)-2-PROPANOL WITH THIONYLCHLORIDE
    1-(1-哌啶基)-2-丙醇和亚硫酰氯反应温度的研究
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    Study on the Reaction of Aromatiic with Sodium Polysulfide (Ⅱ) Effect of Reaction Temperature、DMF and other Factors on Reaction
    芳香硝基化合物与多硫化钠反应的研究(Ⅱ)反应温度、DMF及其它因素对反应影响
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    The influence of reaction temperature,reaction time and the dosage of catalyst was studied in detail. The best reaction conditions were:a reflux time of 3 h,a ratio of n(Pd(OAc)2)∶n(P(t-Bu)3)=1∶1.2,and a ratio of n(P(t-Bu)3)∶n(9,10-dibromoanthracene)=0.48%.
    研究了反应温度、反应时间、催化剂量比的影响,确定最佳反应条件为:以无水二甲苯为溶剂回流反应3 h,Pd(OAc)2∶P(t-Bu)3=1∶1.2(物质的量比),n(P(t-Bu)3)∶n(二溴蒽)为0.48%;
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    The experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows:the reaction temperature was 185 ℃,the reaction time was 90 min,the vacuum was 25 Pa and the mass ratio of product 2 to product 3 was 80∶20.Under these conditions,the molecular weight of the product could be above 9 000.The polymer was characterized by means of FT-IR and 1HNMR.
    实验结果表明:在反应温度为185℃,反应时间为90 min,真空度为25 Pa,两种预聚物w(产物2)∶w(产物3)=80∶20条件下,聚合物的相对分子质量达9 000以上。 通过FT-IR及1HNMR对合成产物进行了表征。
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    The results showed that when the molar ratio of phenol to ceric ammonium nitrate was 1∶1.05,the yield of 2,4-dinitrophenol was 72% at a reaction temperature of 50 ℃ and a reaction time of 1.5 h.
    最佳反应条件为:苯酚与硝酸铈铵的物质的量比为1∶1.05,反应温度为50℃,反应时间为1.5 h,产率达72%。
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    Determination of Sodium in Natural Brine of Salt Lakes by Digital Thermometric Titration
    数字式温度滴定法测定盐湖天然卤水中的钠
短句来源
    Catalytic thermometric titration and its application in reagent analysis
    催化温度滴定及其在试剂分析中的应用
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    Investigation of Synthesis Process of Perovskite- Like Oxides LnMnO_3 by XRD and TPR
    用XRD和TPR技术考察制备方法和灼烧温度对钙钛矿型结构形成以及性质的影响
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    XPS STUDIES OF MIXED VALENCE IN CERIC SULFATE AND ITSTEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE
    硫酸铈中铈的价态及其温度依赖性的XPS研究
短句来源
    DETERMINATION OF RATE CONSTANT OF Fe~(3+)-CNS-BY STOPPED-FLOW AND TEMPERATURE-JUMP METHODS
    截流法和温度跃升法测定Fe~(3+)-CNS~-体系的反应速率常数
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  temperatures
The glass transition temperatures of the HPAEK-F and HPAEK-OH are 114°C and 162°C respectively.
      
It was found by DSC measurements that the melting point of samples gradually shifted to lower temperatures with the decrease of the solution concentration used for sample preparation.
      
Polycrystal Li2B4O7 (LBO) doped with Cu and In was prepared and then sintered at different temperatures.
      
This scheme is a supplement to the conventional thermal decomposition of organometallic compounds at higher temperatures.
      
The swelling ratios of the hydrogels at different temperatures were measured.
      
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  reaction temperature
The Fe3O4 magnetic fluid was obtained by one-step method with the W/O microemulsion as microreactor to synthesize magnetic nanoparticles (reaction temperature was 30 °C and reaction time was 5 h) and kerosene as carrier liquid.
      
The effects of operational conditions, such as reaction temperature, pressure, and stirring rate were carefully studied.
      
In addition, the effects of activated carbon dosage, formic acid concentration, initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide, initial concentration of DBT and reaction temperature on the oxidation of DBT were investigated.
      
The concentration of formic acid, activated carbon dosage, initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide and reaction temperature affect the oxidative removal of DBT.
      
Effects of Fe content in catalyst, reaction temperature, reaction time and promoter KOH concentration on the conversion of substrates and enantio-selectivity were investigated.
      
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The velocities of reaction of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide in dioxane- water mixture have been determined in seven different temperatures(5°,10°, 15°,20°,25°,30°and 35°).For each temperature,the compositions of solvent mixture are 0,5,10,15,20,25 and 30% of dioxane.We thus obtain 49 velo- city constants as summarized in the following table. At low temperatures,the velocity constant decreases slightly with decrease of dielectric constant of solvent.At higher temperatures,such decreases of k' become more...

The velocities of reaction of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide in dioxane- water mixture have been determined in seven different temperatures(5°,10°, 15°,20°,25°,30°and 35°).For each temperature,the compositions of solvent mixture are 0,5,10,15,20,25 and 30% of dioxane.We thus obtain 49 velo- city constants as summarized in the following table. At low temperatures,the velocity constant decreases slightly with decrease of dielectric constant of solvent.At higher temperatures,such decreases of k' become more pronounced. The“isocomposition”energy of activation decreases slightly with increase of percentage of dioxane in the solvent mixture. The“isodielectric”energy of activation shows practically no change,when the dielectric constant changes from 80 to 50.Its value is 11300 calories. The experimental data are compared with the three modern theories of ion- molecule reaction,namely,by(1)Moelwyn-Hughes,(2)Laidler and Eyring and (3)Amis and Jaffe.From the viewpoint of influence of dielectric constant on the rate of the present reaction,the first two theories disagree qualitatively with our experimental data,while the last one,though qualitatively successful,fails quantitatively.(The “enhanced moment” and index of refraction as calculated from the last theory with the use of our data are unreasonably large.)

作者在7具不同温度(5°,10°,15°,20°,25°,30°,35°)下,研究了乙酸乙酯和氢氧化钠在二氧六圜和水的混合溶剂中的反应速度。每个温度有7个不同的二氧六圜和水的成分(0%,5%,10%,15%,20%,25%,30%的二氧六圜),因此得到49个速度常数。在每个温度里,反应速度常数随溶剂介电常数的减小而略为下降:温度愈高,下降趋势愈为显著。同溶剂成分的活化能随着溶剂里二氧六圜成分的增加而略为下降。同介电常数的活化能,在80至50的介电常数范围中,却和介电常数的变化无关。它的平均值是11300卡。我们用实验结果检验最近三个溶液里离子和分子反应速度理论:(1)Moelwyn-Hughes 的、(2)Laidler-Eyring 的和(3)Amis-Jaffe 的理论。就介电常数对反应速度的影响来说,理论(1)和(2)在质上就不和实验相符。理论(3)在质上似和实验相符,但在量上却相差太远。因此就乙酸乙酯对氢氧化钠的反应来说,三个理论都是不合的。

In this article it is pointed out that the semi-empirical van der Waals' equation of state for gases is particularly unsatisfactory in the neighborhood of the critical point, as indicated by the fact that the experimental values of the critical ratio (?) seldom agree with the theoretical constant value 8/3. It is also noted that this τ value may serve as a satisfactory measure (at least to a first approximation) of the deviation of the law of corresponding states when applied to gases at high densities. We have...

In this article it is pointed out that the semi-empirical van der Waals' equation of state for gases is particularly unsatisfactory in the neighborhood of the critical point, as indicated by the fact that the experimental values of the critical ratio (?) seldom agree with the theoretical constant value 8/3. It is also noted that this τ value may serve as a satisfactory measure (at least to a first approximation) of the deviation of the law of corresponding states when applied to gases at high densities. We have therefore proposed in this communication a rather straightforward modification of the van der Waals' equation which leads to an empirical three-constant equation of state for gases involving this τ value as an adjustable parameter and thus requiring only critical data for the determination of the three constants. This equation is made to fit the p-V-T data at the critical point, but reduces itself to the simpler forms of the van der Waals' equation and the ideal gas equation for lower values of gas densities. Numerical calculations made for gases of widely different τ values show that this rather simple equation of state is fairly satisfactory even at high densities. The plausibility of using the τ value as an adjustable parameter both for the equation of state and for the law of corresponding states is also briefly discussed.

本文指出任何僅含兩個常數的氣態方程,在臨界點附近的缺點是特別顯著的。同時也指出,對應態定律應用到高密度氣體的偏差,可以相當滿意地用臨界係數(?)來衡量。因此我們建議將van der Waals方程,修改爲三常數的經驗方程,它的優點是這三個常數可以直接從氣體的臨界點數據計算出來;而且實例計算(包括極性很強和τ值很大的甲醇)說明它在相當大的温度和密度範圍內可以適用。將這個經驗式,寫成對比方程顯然含有臨界係數τ,就離開臨界點不太遠的氣體來說,這個函數關係可以相當满意地用本文方程總結出來。

4-Methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine was prepared by heating 4-methyl-uracil with phosphorous oxychloride in the presence of phosphorous pentachloride; and it boiled at 97° at 7 mm, at 102° at 10 mm, or at 113° at 13 mm. 4-Methyl-2,6- dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium methoxide in anhydrous methyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6- dimethoxy-pyrimidine, which was isolated by ether extraction and pnrified by vacuum distillation. Pure 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine boiled at 85-87° at 7 mm, or at 103° at 13 mm,...

4-Methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine was prepared by heating 4-methyl-uracil with phosphorous oxychloride in the presence of phosphorous pentachloride; and it boiled at 97° at 7 mm, at 102° at 10 mm, or at 113° at 13 mm. 4-Methyl-2,6- dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium methoxide in anhydrous methyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6- dimethoxy-pyrimidine, which was isolated by ether extraction and pnrified by vacuum distillation. Pure 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine boiled at 85-87° at 7 mm, or at 103° at 13 mm, and melted at 62-65°. It was recrystallized from petroleum ether, m.p. 65-66°. In the above reaction, there was isolated a white solid, suspending in the ethereal solution and being collected separately. This white solid, considered as a by-product, was dissolved in hot water and acidified with acetic acid, whereupon it separated in needles. After recrystallization from water, it melted at 201-202°. It was tentatively assigned to be 4-methyl-2-methoxy- uracil. Further, 2,6-dialkoxy-pyrimidines were prepared similarly as 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxy- pyrimidine: 4-Methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium ethylate in anhydrous ethyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6-diethoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 110°/11 ram. 4-Methyl- 2,6-dichloropyrimidine was treated with sodium n-propoxide in normal propyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6-di-n-propoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 120°/5 mm. 4-Methyl- 2,6-dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium iso-propoxide in isopropyl alcohol, forming 4-methyl-2,6-di-isopropoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 103°/3 mm. The action of sodium n-butoxide in normal butyl alcohoI upon 4-methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidnie gave 4-methyl- 2,6-di-n-butoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 147-148°/5 mm. The action of sodium isobutoxide in isobutyl alcohol upon 4-methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine gave 4-methyl-2,6- isobutoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 132-133°/6 mm. The action of sodium isopentoxide in isopentyl alcohol upon 4-methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine gave 4 methyl-2,6-di-isopentoxy- pyrimidine, which boiled at 145-146°/3 mm. 4-Methyl-2,6-dichloropyrimidine reacted with sodium benzoxide in benzyl alcohol, giving 4-methyl-2,6-dibenzoxy-pyrimidine, which boiled at 231°/6 mm. 4-Methyl-2,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine was heated in a sealed tube at 330-350°, giving the completely rearranged isomeric compound, 1,3,4-trimethyl-uracil, which was purified by vacuum sublimation at 130° at 10 mm and then by recrystallization from 95% alcohol. The latter melted at 107-109°. Nevertheless, 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine was dis- solved in methyl iodide, and kept at room temperature in the dark with occasional shaking; whereupon the partially rearranged product, 2-oxy-3,4-dimethyl-6-methoxy-pyrimidine, gradually separated out. After recrystallization from absolutealcohol, it melted at 134-135.5°. Its structure was established as follows: Pure 2-oxy-3,4-dimethyl-6-methoxy-pyrimidine was heated with dilute hydrochloric acid for one hour; whereupon 3,4-dimethyl-uracil, m.p. 220-221°, separated out. This partially rearranged product, 2-oxy-3,4-dimethyl-6-methoxy- pyrimidine was heated at 335-350° and was again transformed into its stable and completely rearranged modification, 1,3,4-trimethyl-uracil, which was purified by vacuum sublimation and then recrystallization from 95% alcohol. The latter melted at 109-110°.

(1)4-甲基-2,6-二氯代嘧啶與鈉醇和醇的溶液作用,可以形成相應的2,6-二烴氧基嘧啶。 (2)4-甲基-2,6-二甲氧基嘧啶加熱至高温度即可轉變成其穩定結構的異構體1,3,4-三甲基-2,6-二羥基嘧啶。另一方面,在碘代甲烷催化劑的影響下,部份轉變成2-氧代-3,4-二甲基-6-甲氧基嘧啶;此化合物加熱卽可發生完全的轉變作用而形成其異構體1,3,4-三甲基-2,6-二羥基嘧啶。

 
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