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   接触感染 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.493秒
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接触感染
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  contact infection
     Methods A self-designed questionnaire was conducted among 276 nurse students,which was about knowledge and attitude toward vocational contact infection.
     方法采用自行设计的问卷,对276名实习护士生进行职业接触感染知识和态度调查。
短句来源
     The Investigation and Analysis of the Knowledge to Prevent Vocational Contact Infection for Medical Students
     医学生职业接触感染认知情况的调查与分析
短句来源
     Objective To understand the situation of knowledge to prevent vocational contact infection among college nurse students,and to analyze the influencing factors and discuss the effective measures.
     目的了解实习护士生预防职业接触感染的认知水平,分析其影响因素,探讨相关对策与措施。
短句来源
     Conclusion Students had worse knowledge and consciousness to prevent vocational contact infection.
     结论实习护士生预防职业接触感染方面的意识和知识均严重不足。
短句来源
     There is no contact infection was appeard among susceptible rabbits even after direct contact with febrile infected rabbits for 14-15 days.
     健康兔与感染兔同笼饲养14—15天,未发生接触感染
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  “接触感染”译为未确定词的双语例句
     There were 55.94% patients found to be infected through non-married sexual intercourse, 22.28% cases identified STDs in patients' spouses, and 14.91% ones with acquisition of STDs through indirect contact way.
     非婚性接触感染者11345例,占55.94%,配偶间相互传染也占一定比例(22.28%),间接接触传染占14.91%.
短句来源
     Calculation shows that, after a long enough time, the final infection rate of the system is determined by the index T2 = cNt2 , where is the infection probability of individuals in the system, N the number of individuals, and t2 the average length of the active period of the disease.
     计算结果表明,在经过长时间传播后,该系统的最终被感染率由指数τ2=cNt2决定,这里c是系统内个体的接触感染几率,Ⅳ是系统所包含的个体数量,t2是疾病活动期的平均时间长度.
短句来源
     The HIV infections and AIDS found beffore 1990 in Guangdong all were foreigners and, the first local HIV infection was identified in 1990. From 1990 to 1996, 77. 1% of HIV infections and AIDS in Guangdong were Chinese coming back from abroad, who acquired HIV through sex overseas.
     1990年前发现的HIV感染者为境外人士,1990年首次发现广东省籍HIV感染者,1990~1996年期间广东省籍HIV感染者中77.1%为出境归来人员在境外通过性接触感染;
短句来源
     Human immortal epithelial cell line-Hacat cells without expression of CR2(complement receptor 2, CR2) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor(pIgR) were co-cultivated with marmoset lymphocyte line-B95-8 cells producing EBV for infection by cell-to-cell contacting.
     选用产EB病毒的绒猴淋巴细胞B95-8系和补体受体2型(complementreceptor2,CR2)与多聚免疫球蛋白受体(polymericimmunoglobulinreceptor,pIgR)表达阴性的人永生化上皮细胞Hacat系共培养,进行细胞接触感染实验。
短句来源
     The infection rate of sex contact was only 17.09%.
     性接触感染占6.90%,非婚性行为发生率24.00%; 安全套使用率为17.09%。
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  相似匹配句对
     Transmission occurred commonly after close contact.
     感染的危险因素是密切接触
短句来源
     ACP and MDA of patients with periodontitis infected with E.
     感染 E.
短句来源
     infection;
     感染 ;
短句来源
     Besides that being induced by wearing contact lens, many other factors can also induce the infection.
     ; 许多因素可接触感染
短句来源
     Touching Strangers
     接触陌生人
短句来源
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  contact infection
Transmission of close-contact infection depends on the degree of mixing and age-distribution between susceptible and infected individuals.
      
Contact infection of mice occurred rarely and only after prolonged contact.
      
Since only rats of at least 4 months of age appeared to be infected, contact infection in rats also may be difficult, and early separation of young rats in small groups might, perhaps, be an effective preventive measure.
      
In comparison with an equal number of untreated controls, goats inoculated with high passage culture of mycoplasma strain F38 were significantly less susceptible to contact infection from CCPP cases.
      
Since other possible routes of contact infection,i.e., oral, conjunctival, and rectal routes gave negative results, the intranasal route appears to be the most probable route of transmission of the disease by direct contact.
      
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Since the spring of 1960,an apparently infectious disease has been prevailing among sheep in the range of North-western part of Szechuan,attacking both lambs and adult sheep.The causal bacterium was found to be a streptococcus belonging to the Group C of Lancefleld.It was very similar to Strep.Zoo-epidemicus in several respects except that it did not ferment salicin and caused milk coagulation. The disease usually run an acute course with symptoms of septicemia,causing death in 2-5 days.At other times,it took...

Since the spring of 1960,an apparently infectious disease has been prevailing among sheep in the range of North-western part of Szechuan,attacking both lambs and adult sheep.The causal bacterium was found to be a streptococcus belonging to the Group C of Lancefleld.It was very similar to Strep.Zoo-epidemicus in several respects except that it did not ferment salicin and caused milk coagulation. The disease usually run an acute course with symptoms of septicemia,causing death in 2-5 days.At other times,it took a subacute form,menifested by rise of temperature,re- duced appetite,cough,lachrimation and profuse nasal discharge which was serious at first, then mucoid and finally muco-purulent.Leucocytosis with left depletion of neutrophils was marked.In this form of disease,most animals died usually in 1-2 weeks. Postmortem examination in acute cases revealed congestion and hemorrhage in internal organs.Spleen was softened and enlarged,and the gall-bladder distended markedly.In sub- acute cases the most prominent changes consisted of serofibrinous pleuro-pneumonia and peritonitis.Lymph nodes were swollen and edematous.Microscopically,there were marked edema and leucocytic infiltration in connective tissues.Parenchymatous organs showed de- generation,cellular infiltration,necrobiosis and hemorrhages of various extent.A great number of streptococcus were seen in the blood,as well as pulmonary and pleural exudates,many of them being found within the phagocytes of various kinds.Toxemia and/or septicemia were as- sumed to be the cause of death.

自1960年春季和冬季,在四川西北草地发现绵羊的一种急性败血性传染病。在羔羊及成年羊中均有较高的发病率及死亡率。病原菌易自尸体血液及各组织器官中分离出纯培养。病原菌大小为0.7—0.9×0.6—0.8微米,革兰氏染色阳性,在渗出液及组织中多呈单个、成对及短链排列,荚膜清晰可见。为需氧及兼性厌氧菌,体外培养在培养基中需加入血清或血液。其生化特性在糖发酵方面能发酵葡萄糖、乳糖、蔗糖、麦芽糖和山梨醇产酸但不产气,不发酵蕈糖、鼠李糖、棉实糖、伯胶糖、廿露醇、肌醇和菊糖。在血琼脂上常呈β型溶血。不能溶解人和绵羊血液中的纤维素。不能水解马尿酸钠及马栗苷,但可水解淀粉。在蛋白胨肉汤中产 NH_3。不能液化明胶。在45℃,氯化钠6.5%,40%胆汁血琼脂,及0.1%美蓝牛乳中不生长。10%胆汁肉汤中不被溶解。在葡萄糖肉汤中最终 pH为4.9。沉淀试验按 Lancefield 分类系统属 G 群。小白鼠、家鸽、家兔和山羊对本菌易感,豚鼠、猪和马则具有抵抗力。皮下、静脉和呼吸道人工接种成年绵羊75只,发病率为100%,死亡率为81.4%,口服接种4只仅其中1只发病。接触感染3只有2只发病死亡。绵羊发病后体温升高到40...

自1960年春季和冬季,在四川西北草地发现绵羊的一种急性败血性传染病。在羔羊及成年羊中均有较高的发病率及死亡率。病原菌易自尸体血液及各组织器官中分离出纯培养。病原菌大小为0.7—0.9×0.6—0.8微米,革兰氏染色阳性,在渗出液及组织中多呈单个、成对及短链排列,荚膜清晰可见。为需氧及兼性厌氧菌,体外培养在培养基中需加入血清或血液。其生化特性在糖发酵方面能发酵葡萄糖、乳糖、蔗糖、麦芽糖和山梨醇产酸但不产气,不发酵蕈糖、鼠李糖、棉实糖、伯胶糖、廿露醇、肌醇和菊糖。在血琼脂上常呈β型溶血。不能溶解人和绵羊血液中的纤维素。不能水解马尿酸钠及马栗苷,但可水解淀粉。在蛋白胨肉汤中产 NH_3。不能液化明胶。在45℃,氯化钠6.5%,40%胆汁血琼脂,及0.1%美蓝牛乳中不生长。10%胆汁肉汤中不被溶解。在葡萄糖肉汤中最终 pH为4.9。沉淀试验按 Lancefield 分类系统属 G 群。小白鼠、家鸽、家兔和山羊对本菌易感,豚鼠、猪和马则具有抵抗力。皮下、静脉和呼吸道人工接种成年绵羊75只,发病率为100%,死亡率为81.4%,口服接种4只仅其中1只发病。接触感染3只有2只发病死亡。绵羊发病后体温升高到40.5—41.5℃,同时呈现精神沉郁、食欲减损、咳嗽、流泪和自鼻孔流出浆液性鼻涕,以后转为粘液-浓性鼻涕。在发病过程中,红血球渐有减少,白血球则显著增加由发病前的9,000—15,000/mm~3。增至20,000—30,000/mm~3,个别病例甚至达50,000/mm~3。以上。在白血球分类计数中,嗜中性球由30—50%增至60—80%,少数可达90%以上。共中幼稚型和杆状核者占1/3—1/2。病理解剖变化,依据病程不同,可分为急性(败血)型及亚急性(胸)型。前者病程为2—5天,病变以浆膜与粘膜出血、实质器官变质、全身淋巴结充血、出血同髓样肿胀,脾髓软化,胆囊肿大等为主。后者病程为1—2周,有明显的纤维素性胸膜肺炎及腹膜炎。病理组织学观察,见病原链球菌存在于体内各组织中及血液中,引起血管和淋巴管的损伤,血液循环及淋巴循环障碍,实质器官的实质细胞营养不良与渐进性坏死,以及间叶结缔组织的水肿、坏死和溶解。与此同时,机体防卫反应虽有吞噬细胞的剧烈增生、活动与吞噬,但由于细菌具有荚膜和迅速大量繁殖的结果,其产生的毒素终于使机体屏障机构的瓦解,导致毒血症及败血症而死亡。

The principal facts presented in this paper may be summarized below.1. Experiments are designed to determine whether the infective larvae can penetrate the unbroken skin of both piglets aud full grown pigs, with the result that they are capable of penetrating the skin of the former but fail to do so in the latter. It is evident that the intact skin of piglet is considerably more tender than that of the full grown pigs, and hence less resistant to the attacks by the larvae.2. When infection occurs orally, the...

The principal facts presented in this paper may be summarized below.1. Experiments are designed to determine whether the infective larvae can penetrate the unbroken skin of both piglets aud full grown pigs, with the result that they are capable of penetrating the skin of the former but fail to do so in the latter. It is evident that the intact skin of piglet is considerably more tender than that of the full grown pigs, and hence less resistant to the attacks by the larvae.2. When infection occurs orally, the larvae penetrate into the wall of stomach or intestine, reaching to the mesentery, where the third moulting takes place. The larvae are arrested there at least for a time by the nodule-forming reaction of the host tissue. Then they migrate to the liver through the parenchyma tissue. If infection occurs by penetrating the skin, they pass into the muscular tissue and migrate to the lung and liver. Some larvae may become encapsulated in the lung. If the infective larvae are injected directly into the blood stream, the larvae would reach to the lungs immediately, but they can not develop at this location. On the other hand, examinations of the lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, vena cava and veins of the experimental animals fail to reveal any larvae. It may be concluded, therefore, that the migration of the early-stage larvae must be accomphlished through the parenchyma tissus to the various organs, and rarely through the blood vessel or lymphatic duct.3. When placed on the intact skin of guinea pigs, Stephanurus larvae penetrate into the skin and take the third moult in 3-5 days; they reach the liver in about 20 days. But the worms develop and migrate rather slowly in its swine host. In pigs about one month old, the larvae reach the liver in 36 days after infection. When injected subcutanously, they arrive the liver in 32 days.Experimental infection through the oral route shows that the larvae reach the liver at about the 16th day in guinea pigs, and 25th day in pigs. The difference in time may be explained by the difference in body size of the two host animals.4. Experimental infection of white rats indicates that some larvae are capable of penetrating into the skin and take the third moult, but can not develop any further and die in six days. Experimental infections with Macaca mulatto, and Rhinopithecus roxellanae both orally and by subcutanus injection of infective larvae are similar in results to those experiments in using the white rats with stunted growth. Similar experiments carried on guinea pigs indicate that the larvae migrate to the lungs, liver and other organs, and grow up to the third and fourth stage, but do not reach the surrounding fat tissue and kidney to become the adult worm in about five months.All the previous investigators who reported kidney worms from the cattle (Bos tanurus) either from experimental or natural infections have recorded only sexually immature specimens. In our present study, mature worms consisting of 4 males and 5 females are secured from the perirenal tissue of a calf in a slaughter house in Foochow. Thus the cattle is recorded as a new host of Stephanurus dentatus.

1.猪肾虫从口吞食和皮肤接触均可感染,小猪皮肤接触和吞食感染相同,大猪皮肤较厚,幼虫不易侵入,其获得感染是以口吞食为主。 2.小猪从皮肤接触感染,经3—5天在皮下结缔组织行第三次蜕皮,38天移行至肝,150天虫体穿出肝表面向腹腔柔组织移行,157—185天在输尿管壁上形成包囊发育为成虫。从口吞食感染,经3—4天在胃壁大网膜和肠系膜等处停留,形成结节病变行第三次蜕皮,25天移行至肝,30天雌雄已明显分化,40日前后行弟四次蜕皮,118天离开肝向腹腔移行,156天后在输尿管壁形成包囊发育为成虫。皮下注射感染与皮肤接触感染相同。血管注射感染,幼虫到肺后多数不发育而死亡。 3.猪肾虫侵入宿主后,有嗜组织的习性,在组织中停留和移行,移行的方向不定,可向体前部移行,亦可向体后部移行。在淋巴结中常检得虫体,门静脉中虽有虫体栓塞,但未见在血管和淋巴管中移行。 4.猪肾虫在宿主体中发育的时间,除因虫体停留在组织结节中长短不定外,移行的速度与宿主大小有关系;宿主小,移行较速,成熟较快;宿主体大,移行时间较长,成熟较慢;因此致使过去学者报告猪肾虫成熟时间有4个月,5个月,6个月和9个月等不同结论。 5.从豚...

1.猪肾虫从口吞食和皮肤接触均可感染,小猪皮肤接触和吞食感染相同,大猪皮肤较厚,幼虫不易侵入,其获得感染是以口吞食为主。 2.小猪从皮肤接触感染,经3—5天在皮下结缔组织行第三次蜕皮,38天移行至肝,150天虫体穿出肝表面向腹腔柔组织移行,157—185天在输尿管壁上形成包囊发育为成虫。从口吞食感染,经3—4天在胃壁大网膜和肠系膜等处停留,形成结节病变行第三次蜕皮,25天移行至肝,30天雌雄已明显分化,40日前后行弟四次蜕皮,118天离开肝向腹腔移行,156天后在输尿管壁形成包囊发育为成虫。皮下注射感染与皮肤接触感染相同。血管注射感染,幼虫到肺后多数不发育而死亡。 3.猪肾虫侵入宿主后,有嗜组织的习性,在组织中停留和移行,移行的方向不定,可向体前部移行,亦可向体后部移行。在淋巴结中常检得虫体,门静脉中虽有虫体栓塞,但未见在血管和淋巴管中移行。 4.猪肾虫在宿主体中发育的时间,除因虫体停留在组织结节中长短不定外,移行的速度与宿主大小有关系;宿主小,移行较速,成熟较快;宿主体大,移行时间较长,成熟较慢;因此致使过去学者报告猪肾虫成熟时间有4个月,5个月,6个月和9个月等不同结论。 5.从豚鼠皮肤接触感染,经3—5天幼虫皮下结缔组织,肠系膜和大网膜等柔组织形成结节病变,行第三次蜕皮,经5—8天移行至

Summary 1. Rabbit adapted hog cholera virus of decreased virulence has been an effective means of the control of hog cholera. For this purpose, serifal passages of four different strains of hog cholera virus have been transfered through long ear white rabbits during past few years and a lapinized virus variant of decreased virulence and potent to pigs of good quality has been selected after hundred more passages through rabbits. It was observed that the infected rabbits could searcely initiate any visible symptoms...

Summary 1. Rabbit adapted hog cholera virus of decreased virulence has been an effective means of the control of hog cholera. For this purpose, serifal passages of four different strains of hog cholera virus have been transfered through long ear white rabbits during past few years and a lapinized virus variant of decreased virulence and potent to pigs of good quality has been selected after hundred more passages through rabbits. It was observed that the infected rabbits could searcely initiate any visible symptoms and characteristic pathological lessions except exhibiting prominant thermal reactions. 2. The susceptibility of rabbits to the lapinized virus varies with the increasing numbers of rabbits passages. The frequency of thermal response of rabbits tended to increase as the passage numbers increased. During the early passages, the percentage of rabbits showing hyperthermia was 50-70%. There were more than 90% of rabbits thermal reacted during 178-280 passages and reached 97% more thermic after 390-430 passages. This served sufficient proof for the satisfactory adaptibility of the virus strain to rabbits. 3. The rabbits were given spleen suspension by the intravenous route and the temperature of the infected rabbits was taken 3-4 times daily(6 to 8 hours interval after inoculation). The febrile course was estimated with regard to the first and last hour of the temperature rise. The average incubation period in the case of typical febrile forms was 24 to 33 hours while in the case of mild fever rabbits became little longer (39 hours in average), and the duration of thermal reaction only lasting 18 hours in average. Virus harvestations were taken only from the selected febrile rabbits and bled during the febrile course or a few hours afterwards. 4. Rabbits cold be infected by the virus either administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously, orally or intranasally but showed prolonged incubation period and lower degree of thermal reaction while the virus was applied orally or intranasally. There is no contact infection was appeard among susceptible rabbits even after direct contact with febrile infected rabbits for 14-15 days. 5. Samples of various tissues from infected rabbits were tested for virus titer by means of rabbits titration. The results indicated that the virus titer of either spleen, lymph-node, lung & thymus, heart muscle, blood, liver & kidney and brain was 10~(-5), 10~(-4) 10~(-5), 10~(-3), 10~(-2), 10~(-2), 10~(-1) 10~(-2) and 10~(-2) respectivelly. It was worthy to point out that there was same virus titer could be demonstrated in the tissue from the infected rabbits without febrile reaction. For example, the virus titer of those rabbits spleen was 10~(-5) also and produced similar solid immunity for pigs. This makes certain to believe that rabbits has been perfectly adapted with the lapinized hog cholera virus. 6. The study of the duration of the virus maintained in the infected rabbits indicated the spleen still posses 10~(-4) in titer within 3 to 6 day following virus inoculation, and decline in titer after 7 days, bus there is no virus could be detectd after 12 days. 7. Haematological studies of the infected rabbits showed that there is no variation about total leucocyte counting but lymphocytes were decresed and polynuclcar neutrophiles were incresed during febrile course but return to normal as soon the temperature became normal.

(一)用四株猪瘟病毒感染家兔,从中选育出一株能适应于家兔同时减弱了对猪的致病力。这株猪瘟兔化毒自1954年初至1958年底已通过大耳白兔430代。家兔感染兔化毒仅发生体温反应,无其他临床症状及特征性病理变化。 (二)病毒在通过大耳白兔的过程中,家兔出现的热反应率,随通过兔体代数的增多而增高。1955年通过兔体120代,平均热反应率80%,定型热占63.75%,自80代往后,热反应率开始上升;1956年通过兔体100代,平均热反应率达92.96%,定型热占78.33%;1957年全年平均热反应率一直维持在90%以上,到1958年,平均热反应上升到97.97%,定型热反应占87.87%。显然较早期毒的热反应率为高。 (三)经由静脉接种,反应兔的定型热潜伏期平均为33小时。热稽留期平均为22小时左右,温差达1℃以上。轻热反应潜伏期平均为39小时左右,熱稽留期平均为18小时左右。病毒传代时,按连续每6—8小时测体温一次,就可掌握体温曲线。一般在接种病毒后,体温降达常温前后剖杀采毒。 (四)不同产地家兔接种病毒后,热反应率稍有不同,敏感的大耳白兔和长毛种兔,出现热反应率较高。 (五)兔毒经皮下、肌肉、口腔、鼻腔、静脉接...

(一)用四株猪瘟病毒感染家兔,从中选育出一株能适应于家兔同时减弱了对猪的致病力。这株猪瘟兔化毒自1954年初至1958年底已通过大耳白兔430代。家兔感染兔化毒仅发生体温反应,无其他临床症状及特征性病理变化。 (二)病毒在通过大耳白兔的过程中,家兔出现的热反应率,随通过兔体代数的增多而增高。1955年通过兔体120代,平均热反应率80%,定型热占63.75%,自80代往后,热反应率开始上升;1956年通过兔体100代,平均热反应率达92.96%,定型热占78.33%;1957年全年平均热反应率一直维持在90%以上,到1958年,平均热反应上升到97.97%,定型热反应占87.87%。显然较早期毒的热反应率为高。 (三)经由静脉接种,反应兔的定型热潜伏期平均为33小时。热稽留期平均为22小时左右,温差达1℃以上。轻热反应潜伏期平均为39小时左右,熱稽留期平均为18小时左右。病毒传代时,按连续每6—8小时测体温一次,就可掌握体温曲线。一般在接种病毒后,体温降达常温前后剖杀采毒。 (四)不同产地家兔接种病毒后,热反应率稍有不同,敏感的大耳白兔和长毛种兔,出现热反应率较高。 (五)兔毒经皮下、肌肉、口腔、鼻腔、静脉接种,都可使兔发生感染。不过经皮下、肌肉和口腔感染发生热反应率稍低;口腔及鼻腔接种的潜伏期,要延长到47—100小时。健康兔与感染兔同笼饲养14—15天,未发生接触感染。 (六)热反应兔的各种脏器中均有病毒。用兔滴定的毒价是:脾达10~(-5),淋巴结达10~(-4)—10~(-5),肺、胸腺达10~(-3),心肌达10~(-2),血达10~(-2),肝、肾10~(-1)—10~(-2),脑10~(-1)。无热反应兔的脏器中,也有与热反应兔相等的病毒,测定脾脏毒价也达10~(-4)—10~(-5),对猪免疫性同样好,证明兔毒确已100%感染家兔。 (七)用大耳白兔测知兔毒在反应兔体内存活期,在接种兔毒后第3—6天内,毒价维持在高峰,第7天开始降低,到第12天在兔体内已测不到病毒。 (八)感染兔在发热期內,白血球总数无变化,但出现淋巴球减少和中性白血球增多,消长时间与体温升降基本吻合,在体温恢复正常后,白血球分类比数也恢复正常。

 
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