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     Compared with the 6∶8 NCWMC, the average bit error number for one 2 BREE of the 6∶8 OCWMC can be reduced 0.5884 bits.
     6∶8 OCWMC与6∶8 NCWMC相比,一个2 BREE所致的平均比特数下降了0.5844比特.
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     The relative standard deviation of benzaldehyde was 0.86%,average recovery was 100.1%,average relative error was 1.24%.
     苯甲醛的平均RSD为0.86%,平均加标回收率是100.1%,相对差值为1.24%;
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     The LD50 of 4 times/4 days toxicant given way was 9.739 mg/kg and the standard error was 0.079, the confidence limit on 95% was (9.739±3.443) mg/kg;
     4d四次给药LD50值为9.739mg/kg,标准为0.079,其95%平均可信限为(9.739±3.443)mg/kg;
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     The relative standard deviation of benzoic acid was 0.41%,average recovery was 100.7%,average relative error was-0.37%.
     苯甲酸的平均RSD为0.41%,平均加标回收率是100.7%,相对差值是-0.37%。
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     The results of the survey were as follows: sample rate P=1.47%, standard error Sp=0.65%, rate of entrapment 1.47%+0.65%, and 95% confidence interval (0.20%-2.74%).
     统计结果为样本P=1.47%,样本标准Sp=0.65%,卡压率:(1.47±0.65)%,95%的可信区间为(0.20%-2.74%)。
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     Incompatible Transfusions—Report of 9 Cases
     输不合血9例报告
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     Methods of Recovering Misdeleted File UnderCP/M86
     CP/M86操作系统下恢复删除文件的方法
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     The Programming of Auto-Recovery Misdeleted Files of Disk on IBM PC Computer
     自动恢复IBM PC机磁盘删文件的程序设计
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     Errors and Difficulties in English Phonemes of the Students of BUPE and Its Teaching
     北京体育大学学生英语语音难、及其教学
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     Designing Automatical Error - judged Mark - meter of Test Paper
     试卷自动判记分仪设计
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     2) choice of improper connectives;
     2. 选;
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     Mistakes of Mode
     众数之
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  error
When a function does not belong to such a space, the sampling series may converge, not to the object function but to an "alias" of it, and an aliasing error is said to occur.
      
Aliasing error bounds are derived for one- and two-channel sampling series analogous to the Whittaker-Kotel'nikov-Shannon series, and for the multi-band sampling series, and a "derivative" extension of it, due to Dodson, Beaty, et al.
      
Where possible, the sharpness of the error bounds is discussed.
      
We investigate the $L_p$-error of approximation to a function $f\in L_p({\Bbb T}^d)$ by a linear combination $\sum_{k}c_ke_k$ of $n$
      
Then, we describe a numerical method to compute the dual function and give an estimate of the error.
      
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The so-called "truss rigid frames" are those rigid frames with trusses as their horizontal beams, of which the two ends are rigidly connected to columns. Within the author's knowledge, all the methods available at present for analyzing such rigid frames are based on Certain special assumptions such as (1) that the positions of the points of contra-flexure in all the columns are previously known; (2) that the end rotations of a truss may be reprensented by that of its assumed line of axis as in the case of an...

The so-called "truss rigid frames" are those rigid frames with trusses as their horizontal beams, of which the two ends are rigidly connected to columns. Within the author's knowledge, all the methods available at present for analyzing such rigid frames are based on Certain special assumptions such as (1) that the positions of the points of contra-flexure in all the columns are previously known; (2) that the end rotations of a truss may be reprensented by that of its assumed line of axis as in the case of an ordinary beam; or (3) that the end verticals of trusses may be given certain prescribed deformations. Of course, the adoption of any of such assumptions leads to only approximate results inconsistent with the actual deformations of such rigid frames under any loading. Heretofore, the author did not know any correct method for analyzing such rigid frames. In this paper, the author presents two principles of the correct analysis of truss rigid frames. The first principle is that of "moment action on column" for computing the angle change constants of columns, and the second principle is that of "effect of span-change in truss" for computing the angle and span change constants of trusses.As, for computing the angle change constants of a truss, the dummy unit moment is a couple applied to its end verticals, so, for computing the angle change constants of a column, the dummy unit moment must also be a couple applied to the section of column rigidly connected to the end of a truss, in order to effect a consistent deformation at the joint of the two. This is the first principle.A truss just like a curved or gabled beam of which the effect of span-change can not be neglected, so truss rigid frames belong to the same category of what may be called "span-change" rigid frames such as rigid frames with curved or gabled beams. Therefore the span-change constants of trusses should be included besides their angle-change constants for analyzing truss rigid frames. This is the second principle.With the constants of columns and trusses are all computed in accordance with respectively the first and second principles mentioned above, truss rigid frames may be analyzed by any method including the effect of span-change as in the case of rigid frames with curved or gabled beams, and the results thus obtained will be exactly the same as by the method of least work or deflections without any special assumptions.In this paper, after the two principles are described and the formulas for computing the constants of columns and trusses are derived, the correctness of the two principles are then proved by the methods of least work, deflections and slope-deflection. A two-span truss rigid frame is analyzed under the following three conditions:Ⅰ. Applying both of the two principles to obtain the correct results.Ⅱ. Applying only the first principle to show the discrepancies of neglecting the effect of span-change in trusses as born out by comparing the results of Ⅱ with Ⅰ.Ⅲ. Applying neither of the two principles, and the truss rigid frames being analyzed by the special assumption (2) mentioned above with the line of axis at the bottom chord of truss, in order to show the discrepancies of neglecting the moment action on column as born out by comparing the results of Ⅲ with Ⅱ. For the sake of brevity, only the results are given in Tables 1 to 5 without computations in details.Although the discrepancies of neglecting the moment acticn on column are only slight as shown by comparing the results of Ⅲ with Ⅱ in Tables 2, 4 and 5, there is no reason why special assumptions should not be replaced by the correct principle of moment action on column to obtain correct results. As shown by comparing the results of Ⅱ with Ⅰ in Tables 2, 4 and 5, the discrepancies by neglecting the span change in trusses are generally considerable and, in certain particular part, as large as 3000%. Therefore, for the safe and economical design of truss rigid frames, the effect of span-change in trusses should not be neglected in their analysis.Finally, for analyzing co

所謂“桁架剛構”即以桁架為横梁与柱相剛接之剛構。現下採用分析剛構之任一方法,以分析此項剛構时,均須採用種種特殊之假定而得近似之結果。據著者所知,中外書刊中似尚无此項剛構之正確分析法。於本文中,著者發表关於桁架剛構正確分析之兩項原理,即柱頂力矩作用与桁架跨变影響之兩项原理。前項原理使柱頂段之角夔与桁架端豎桿相同,以符合柱与桁架剛接处之連续性。後項原理指出桁架与曲梁(即拱)及折梁(即山墙式梁)相同係一種“跨变横梁”,故桁架刚構亦与拱式及山墙式剛構相同,係一種“跨变剛構”。若根據此兩项原理,分别计算柱与桁架兩端的撓曲常数,再用分析跨变刚構之任一分析法以分析此項刚構,則所得之枯果,与不作任何特殊假定用最少功法或变位法所得者完全相同。本文先說明此兩项原理及根據此兩項原理计算柱与桁架撓曲常數之方法。次取一最簡單之桁架刚構为例,證明此丙項原理之正確性。桁架刚構既与拱式及山墙式刚構同属於跨变刚構一類型,分析後者之任何方法均可用以分析前者,本文无須贅述。但取一兩跨之桁架刚構為例,列举所得之正確結果,与用近似法所得者相比较,藉以顯出近似法有相當巨大之差誤。關於階形之複式桁架刚構之分析,本文用“代替桁架”之辦法,但只說明其原則,不...

所謂“桁架剛構”即以桁架為横梁与柱相剛接之剛構。現下採用分析剛構之任一方法,以分析此項剛構时,均須採用種種特殊之假定而得近似之結果。據著者所知,中外書刊中似尚无此項剛構之正確分析法。於本文中,著者發表关於桁架剛構正確分析之兩項原理,即柱頂力矩作用与桁架跨变影響之兩项原理。前項原理使柱頂段之角夔与桁架端豎桿相同,以符合柱与桁架剛接处之連续性。後項原理指出桁架与曲梁(即拱)及折梁(即山墙式梁)相同係一種“跨变横梁”,故桁架刚構亦与拱式及山墙式剛構相同,係一種“跨变剛構”。若根據此兩项原理,分别计算柱与桁架兩端的撓曲常数,再用分析跨变刚構之任一分析法以分析此項刚構,則所得之枯果,与不作任何特殊假定用最少功法或变位法所得者完全相同。本文先說明此兩项原理及根據此兩項原理计算柱与桁架撓曲常數之方法。次取一最簡單之桁架刚構为例,證明此丙項原理之正確性。桁架刚構既与拱式及山墙式刚構同属於跨变刚構一類型,分析後者之任何方法均可用以分析前者,本文无須贅述。但取一兩跨之桁架刚構為例,列举所得之正確結果,与用近似法所得者相比较,藉以顯出近似法有相當巨大之差誤。關於階形之複式桁架刚構之分析,本文用“代替桁架”之辦法,但只說明其原則,不列出公式及算例。

As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until...

As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until December 1950, no further developments were made. The main instruments we had in 1950 were: a 80mm Prin transit with impersonal micrometer, two Leroy pendulums as standard clocks, three astronomical clocks and their slaves, equipments for receiving and recording time signals, etc. Since 1952, we began to make some improvements, especially on rhythmic signals. First, we converted a common clock into a "transmitting clock" to obtain 61 impulses in every minute and second by making use of photoelectric arrangement (Fig. 1), we succeeded to raise the accuracy of our signals. To improve signal accuracy further, we have to deal with various sources of errors which are conditioned by our equipments. The most important among these are: 1. error in prediction of corrections of the standard clocks, 2. error in the adjustment of the transmitting clock and 3. time lag in transmission. In consequence of last three-year's research, these errors are reasonably reduced. The first two are now±0~s.007 and ±0~s.005 respectively and the last is small. Accordingly, the deviation of time signals XSG has been supposed to be±0~s.01. However, this is not enough for the requirement. The more efforts are being made to bring further improvements. But as the requirements for signal accuracy is far above what the present installation can offer, some new equipments are ordered and they will joint in force with the old ones in the nearest future. Since February 1954, Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory has cooperated with the time service departments in Soviet Union. This has been helpful to our works in every way.

授時包括测時、守時和播時三个主要方面。在時號的发播中包含了预報主钟改正量的差,工作钟的調節誤差和電路遲滯变化等三种誤差。如果使用石英钟及有關设备,这就可基本解决。各台站在其天文观测基础上订定的時號改正數也包含有偶然差和系统差,比較全面解決的只有蘇聯和国際時間局这两个标准系统。徐家匯觀象台授時工作歷史很久,作了一些工作,但抗戰以來,郎停滯不前,直到人民政府接办,才逐步在原有基礎上開展了改進。幾年来主要是改裝了一具工作钟,裝置光電设备以发播科学式時號,對時号精确度解决了秒距誤差和五分间誤差。工作钟的调节誤差被其本身品質所限,仍未解决,只是在加強值班工作之后,有了一定限度的提高,目前約為±0~s.005,在预报主钟改正量時,也有很大程度的不稳定,約為±0~s.007。所以時号的精确度在±0~s.01左右。要进一步提高质量,满足要求,有待於新設備的增添使用。在時号改正數方面,所存在的相當大的系统差,可採用蘇聯或国際時間局系統的改正數來避免。

The method of complementary I_0/I diagram for simplifying the computations of non-uniform beam constants is presented in this paper. The so-called "complementary I_0/I diagram" is the remaining I_0/I diagram of the haunched or de-haunched (or tapered) parts at the two ends of a beam after the I_0/I diagram of a non-uniform beam has been subtracted from the I_0/I = 1 diagram of a uniform beam.In the method of I_0/I diagram presented previously by the second author, the various momental areas have to be computed...

The method of complementary I_0/I diagram for simplifying the computations of non-uniform beam constants is presented in this paper. The so-called "complementary I_0/I diagram" is the remaining I_0/I diagram of the haunched or de-haunched (or tapered) parts at the two ends of a beam after the I_0/I diagram of a non-uniform beam has been subtracted from the I_0/I = 1 diagram of a uniform beam.In the method of I_0/I diagram presented previously by the second author, the various momental areas have to be computed for the entire length of a beam; in the method of complementary I_0/I diagram, the various momental areas need be computed for the lengths of the non-uniform sections at the two ends of the beam only. Hence the latter method is somewhat simpler than the former and may be considered as its improvement.The angle-change constants are the fundamental constants of a nonuniform beam, and only the coefficients of the angle-change constants need be computed. As any non-uniform beam may be considered as a uniform beam haunched or de-haunched or tapered at its one or both ends, the various anglechange coefficients φ may be computed separately in three distinct parts, viz., of a uniform beam, and φ~a and φ~b of the haunches at its two ends a and b, and then summed up as shown by the following general equation:φ=φ~a-φ~b (A) The values φ~a and φ~b are positive for haunched beams and negative for dehaunched or tapered beams, and either of them is zero for the end which is neither haunched nor de-haunched. To simplify the computations of the values of φ~a and φ~b, the complementary I_0/I diagram at each end of a beam is substituted by a cubic parabola passing through its two ends and the two intermediate points of the abscissas equal to 0.3 and 0.7 of its length. Then the value of φ~a or φ~b is computed with an error of usually less than 1% by the following formula:φ~a or φ~b = K_(0y0)+K_(3y3)+K_(7y7), (B) wherein y0, y3 and y7 are respectively the ordinates at the abscissa equal to 0, 0.3, and 0.7 of the length of the diagram, and the three corresponding values K_0, K_3 and K_7 are to be found from the previously computed tables.A set of the tables of K-values for calculating the values of φ~a and φ~b of the shape angle-changes and the load angle-changes under various loading conditions may be easily computed, which evidently has the following advantages: (1) As indicated by formulas (A) and (B), the computations of φ~a, φ~b and φ with K-values known are very simple; (2) the approximation of the results obtained is very close; (3) A single set of such K-value of the tables is applicable to non-uniform beams of any shape, any make-up, and any crosssection; and (4) as the K-values are by far easier to compute than any other constants, a comprehensive set of the tables of K-values with close intervals and including many loading conditions may be easily computed.Besides, by means of formulas (A), existing tables of constants such as A. Strassner's for beams haunched at one end only may be utilized to compute the shape and load constants for asymmetrical beams with entirely different haunches at both ends.Finally, five simple but typical examples are worked out first by the approximate method and then checked by some precise method in order to show that the approximation is usually extremely close.

本文叙述一种I_0/I余圖法,以簡化变梁常数的計算。所謂I_0/I余圖,即自等截面梁的I_0/I=1圖減去变梁的I_0/I圖后所剩余的兩端梁腋的I_0/I圖。 於本文第二著者前此所建議的I_0/I圖法中,必須計算变梁全長的I_0/I圖的各次矩图面积,於I_0/I余圖法中,則只須計算变梁兩端梁腋的I_0/I余圖的各項积分值。故后法显此前法为簡單,亦可视作系前法的进一步的改善。 角变常数为变梁的基本常数,而所須計算者只是各項角变常数的系数φ,簡称为“角变系数”。任一形式的变梁均可视作一端或兩端的加腋梁或減腋梁。採用I_0/I余圖法,則变梁的各項角变系数φ的計算可分开为等截面梁的φ及其a与b兩端梁腋的φ~a与φ~b三部分而后綜合之,以公式表之,即於加腋梁φ~a与φ~b为正号;於減腋梁φ~a与φ~b为負号,於无梁腋之端則其φ~a或φ~b之值为霉。 計算梁腋的φa或φ~b值时,可用一根三次拋物線以代替I_0/I余圖而計算其各項积分的近似值。由是可得其中y_0,y_3及y_7为a或b端I_0/I余圖的三个豎距。如按变梁的形角变系数及其在各种荷載下的载角变系数將各項K值列成表格,則此項表格显有下列优点:(一)应用步驟簡單,...

本文叙述一种I_0/I余圖法,以簡化变梁常数的計算。所謂I_0/I余圖,即自等截面梁的I_0/I=1圖減去变梁的I_0/I圖后所剩余的兩端梁腋的I_0/I圖。 於本文第二著者前此所建議的I_0/I圖法中,必須計算变梁全長的I_0/I圖的各次矩图面积,於I_0/I余圖法中,則只須計算变梁兩端梁腋的I_0/I余圖的各項积分值。故后法显此前法为簡單,亦可视作系前法的进一步的改善。 角变常数为变梁的基本常数,而所須計算者只是各項角变常数的系数φ,簡称为“角变系数”。任一形式的变梁均可视作一端或兩端的加腋梁或減腋梁。採用I_0/I余圖法,則变梁的各項角变系数φ的計算可分开为等截面梁的φ及其a与b兩端梁腋的φ~a与φ~b三部分而后綜合之,以公式表之,即於加腋梁φ~a与φ~b为正号;於減腋梁φ~a与φ~b为負号,於无梁腋之端則其φ~a或φ~b之值为霉。 計算梁腋的φa或φ~b值时,可用一根三次拋物線以代替I_0/I余圖而計算其各項积分的近似值。由是可得其中y_0,y_3及y_7为a或b端I_0/I余圖的三个豎距。如按变梁的形角变系数及其在各种荷載下的载角变系数將各項K值列成表格,則此項表格显有下列优点:(一)应用步驟簡單,只有几个簡單的乘法与加減法;(二)所得結果的近似程度頗高,差誤一般不超过1%;(三)应用范圍广泛,只一套K值表可用於任何截面及?

 
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