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  post larvae
     The post larvae growth and survival rates of Penaeus peni-cillatus reached the best-level when the concentration of Mg2 + was 877. 8mg/1, the concentration of Ca2 + was 278.7 - 292. 6mg/1 and the ratio between Mg2+ and Ca2 + was 3.00 - 3.15/1.
     当水体中Mg~(2+)质量浓度为877.8mg/l,Ca~(2+)含量为278.7-292.6mg/l,并且Mg~(2+)/Ca~(2+)=3.00-3.15/1时长毛对虾仔虾生长发育最佳。
短句来源
     The optimal nutried requirements of Penaeus penicillatus post larvae for C16:n、C18:n、C18:2n、C18:3n、C20:1-5n、C22:24 are 0.24%、1.40%、1.85%、0.43% 、0. 76%、 2. 25%respectively.
     在本实验条件下,长毛对虾仔虾期对C16:n、C18:n、C18:2u、C18:3n、C20:1-5n和C22-24的最适宜含量分别占饲料的0.24%、1.40%、1.85%.0.43%、0.76%和2.25%。
短句来源
     the 24 h,48 h,72 h,96 h half lethal concentrations of the nitrite nitrogen to Procambarus Clarkii post larvae was 28.69 mg/L,22.69 mg/L,18.92 mg/L,15.19 mg/L respectively; the safe concentration was 1.52 mg/L.
     亚硝酸盐氮对克氏原螯虾仔虾24 h4、8 h、72 h、96 h半致死浓度分别为28.69 mg/L、22.69 mg/L1、8.92 mg/L、15.19 mg/L,安全浓度为1.52 mg/L。
短句来源
     Influences of Ca + and Mg2+ on the ratio of growth and survival in post larvae of Penaeus penicillatus Alcock were studied. The results showed that the concentration of Ca2+ , Mg2+ and the ratio between Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the salting water were the important factors to interfere in the rates of growth and survival in post larvae of Penaeus penicillatus.
     研究了Ca~(2+)和Mg~(2+)对长毛对虾仔虾生长和成活率的影响,实验结果表明:盐场水库水体中Ca~(2+)和Mg~(2+)质量浓度及它们之间的比例是影响长毛对虾(Penaeus penicillatus Alcock)仔虾生长和成活率的重要因素;
短句来源
     Results show that the relationship between dry weight and length of Penaeus japonicus post larvae assumes index function, DW =0.006e 0.515 L ( r 2=0.999, n =16);
     结果表明 ,日本对虾仔虾体长与干体重呈指数函数关系 ,DW =0 .0 0 6e0 .5 15L(r2 =0 .999,n =1 6 ) ;
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  juvenile prawn
     The substitute amount is 75% in Zoaea period and 50% in juvenile prawn.
     建议蚤状幼体和糠虾幼体使用75%的替代量,仔虾期使用50%的替代量。
短句来源
     The feeding ration could be calculated as following:Wg×10~(-2)(P) = 0.2482e~(0.2064t)t: days of culture of juvenile prawn3. By keeping the Platymonas spp.
     投饵量可按W(克/百尾)=0.2482e~(?2?84t)式计算。 式中t为仔虾日龄。
短句来源
     4. By keeping terramycin a concentration at 0. 5--1. 0 ppm in culture seawatercould not only prevent diseases, but also accelerate the growth of juvenile prawn.
     有明显降低水中氨氮含量的作用。 (4)培养水中保持0.5-1.0ppm 土霉素,不仅可预防疾病,且有促进仔虾生长的作用。
短句来源
     The acute toxic effect of chromium on juvenile prawn of Penaeus chinensis and the interaction between chromium and copper or zinc or mangenese are investigated.
     在室温适宜、食物充分和氧气充足的条件下,采用目前国内外通用的鱼类毒性试验方法,进行重铬酸钾(K_2Cr_2O_7)对中国对虾仔虾的急性致毒实验以及铬与铜锌锰之间关系的研究。
短句来源
     The 24hLC_(50), and 48hLC_(50) and the safety concentration of chromium on juvenile prawn were determined (24hLC_(50)=65.31mg/L, 48hLC_(50)=30.20mg/L and the safety concentration=3.02mg/L).
     测定了铬(Cr)对中国对虾仔虾的半致死浓度(LC_(50)),并确定了铬与铜、锌、锰之间的拮抗关系。
短句来源
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     The results show that the order of toxicity of Hg2+, Cd2+ , Zn2+, Mn2+for postlarvae is Hg2+>Cd2+ >Zn2+>Mn2+.
     结果表明,Hg~(2+)、Cd~(2+)、Zn~(2+)、Mn~(2+)对日本对虾仔虾的毒性顺序为Hg~(2+)>Cd~(2+)>Zn~(2+)>Mn~(2+).
短句来源
     The "safe level" of Hg2+, Cd2+ , Zn2+ , Mn2+ to the larvae is 0. 0012, 0. 0342, 0. 0449, 0. 0950 mg/dm3 on the basis of the 96h LC50 value calculated for postlarvae.
     根据重金属对日本对虾仔虾的96hLC_(50)值计算的Hg~(2+)、Cd~(2+)、Zn~(2+)、Mn~(2+)的安全浓度分别为0.0012、0.0342、0.0449、0.0950mg/dm~3.
短句来源
     The 72h and 96h LC50 values for postlarva are 22. 94 and 13. 81mg/dm3 NO-2 -N,respectively.
     仔虾72h和96h的LC50值分别为22.94和13.81mg/dm3NO-2-N。
短句来源
     Cu 2+ and Zn 2+, Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ are antagonism; Cu 2+ and Cd 2+, Cu 2+ and Cr(Ⅵ), Zn 2+ and Cr(Ⅵ) are synergism.
     Cu2 + 和Zn2 + 、Zn2 + 和Cd2 + 对罗氏沼虾仔虾的联合作用表现为拮抗 ,Cu2 + 和Cd2 + 、Cu2 + 和Cr6+ 、Zn2 + 和Cr(Ⅵ )则为协同作用。
短句来源
     The 48h LC50; values for zoea,mysis and postlarva are 11. 19, 11. 41 and 37. 34 mg/dm3 NO-2-N.
     状、糠虾、仔虾48h的LC50值分别为11.19、11.41和37.34mg/dm3NO-2-N;
短句来源
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  post larvae
For mixture of both metals, LC were 400 μg/L for nauplii, 1000 μg/L for Zoea I, 2000 μg/L for Zoea II and 3000 μg/L for Mysis I, II, III and post larvae.
      
Post larvae resume growth as soon as a small quantity of fine sand is added to the rearing jar.
      
The exhalant siphon is developed first, when the post larvae reach a length of 600 μm; the inhalant siphon is formed later, at a length of approximately 900 μm.
      
Viscosity might, therefore, be a limiting factor for flatfish post larvae, which colonise the intertidal mudflats, depending upon their size and species.
      
There is an increasing interest in the relationship between adult coral reef fishes and their parasites; however, there is almost no information concerning post larvae (i.e.
      
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  larval shrimp
Delivery of dietary components to larval shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) by means of complex microcapsules
      
Conventional artificial food particles for larval shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) have poor water stability and poor nutrient retention or both.
      
Bioavailability of CXM-encapsulated molecules was demonstrated by release of encapsulated dye marker into the gut lumen of larval shrimp, and by uptake of 14C from encapsulated 14C-glucose.
      
Minimum ingestion rates, calculated from 14C-uptake for larval shrimp (Mysis-1 through Postlarva-2) fed CXMs, ranged from 48 to 99 μg dry wt larva-1 d-1, and were similar to literature values reported for ingestion of live rotifers by penaeid larvae.
      
UV damage and photoreactivation potentials of larval shrimp, Pandalus platyceros, and adult euphausiids, Thysanoessa raschii
      
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  juvenile prawn
Contribution of mangrove detritus to juvenile prawn nutrition: a dual stable isotope study in a Malaysian mangrove forest
      
Seasonal occurrence of juvenile prawn and environmental factors in a Rhizophora mangal, southeast coast of India
      
Effects of dietary phospholipids on growth and body composition of the juvenile prawn.
      
Effects of dietary phospholipids on lipid transpo rt in the juvenile prawn.
      
Effects of dietaruy phospholipids on lipid transport in the juvenile prawn.
      


1. In the spawning season of penaeid shrimp the bottom water temperature in the Bo-Hai Bay was found to range from 13 to 23℃ and in full swing of spawning season from 13 to 18℃. The lowest water temperature in the spawning ground for penaeid shrimp to spawn was 13℃.The salinities in the spawning ground varied widely in the range and from year to year and the range of fluctuation was 23.0 to 30.3‰. 2. The time of the beginning of the spawning period in each year varied with water temperature. In the spawning...

1. In the spawning season of penaeid shrimp the bottom water temperature in the Bo-Hai Bay was found to range from 13 to 23℃ and in full swing of spawning season from 13 to 18℃. The lowest water temperature in the spawning ground for penaeid shrimp to spawn was 13℃.The salinities in the spawning ground varied widely in the range and from year to year and the range of fluctuation was 23.0 to 30.3‰. 2. The time of the beginning of the spawning period in each year varied with water temperature. In the spawning ground in the Bo-Hai Bay, the earliest spawning date recorded was on 2 May in the years 1967, 1973 and 1978 and the latest date was on 18 May, 1969. The whole spawning season prolonged a rather long time, nearly one month. 3. Eggs and larvae of penaeid shrimp were not uniform in their distribution in sea water. Eggs tended to sink but they were suspended in the moving sea water. There were apparently more eggs in the bottom than in the surface layer, more nauplii and zoea in the surface layer than in the bottom, and more mysis, especially post larvae, in the bottom than in the surface layer. 4. Spawning of penaeid shrimp took place in the vicinity of estuaries, but only when the salinity of the sea water became higher could the eggs hatch and metamorphosis. The lowest salinity at which zoea and mysis have been found was 17.9‰. Post larvae displayed an anadromous behaviour and might migrate up rivers and reach the areas more than 50 km away from estuaries. The lowest salinity at which the post larvae have been found was 0.86‰. 5. The studies on the habits of post larvae and juvenile shrimp will provide a biological basis which is of considerable importance in establishing the fishery management regulations, including closed area and closed season for various fishing gears, in order to conserve penaeid shrimp resources.

1.对虾产卵期间底层水温为13—23℃,产卵盛期水温为13—18℃,13℃是渤海湾产卵场对虾产卵的最低水温;产卵场盐度的变动范围和年度之间的差异较大,波动范围为23—30.30‰。 2.对虾各年开始产卵的时间因水温不同而异,渤海湾产卵场开始产卵的时间最早为5月2日(1967、1973、1978年),最迟为5月18日(1969年)。整个产卵期持续时间较长约一个月左右。 3.对虾卵子幼体在水中并不是均匀地分布的。卵子为沉性,但却悬浮在运动的海水中,底层显著的多于表层;无节、溞状幼体的数量表层多于底层;糠虾幼体特别是仔虾的数量底层多于表层。 4.对虾选择河口附近海区产卵,但卵子一定要在盐度较高的海水中孵化变态,所见淹状、糠虾幼体分布的最低盐度为17.90‰;仔虾有溯河习性,可以上溯到离河口60余公里的地方,所见仔虾的最低盐度为0.86‰。 5.对仔虾和幼虾生活习性的研究,为制定保护对虾资源的各类网具的禁渔区和禁渔期提供了生物学依据。

At present, earthen ponds for penaeid shrimp culture previal in China, in which the main devices for changing water depend on tide cycle with sluice gate. When the pond is in intensive stocking and a large-quantities of food in feeding, there will be a deposit of large amount of organic materials on the bed of the pond, and toxic hydrogen sulfide often produces as a result of anaerobic decomposition from those matters, and it usually causes hazardous mortality to the shrimp during the changing season from summer...

At present, earthen ponds for penaeid shrimp culture previal in China, in which the main devices for changing water depend on tide cycle with sluice gate. When the pond is in intensive stocking and a large-quantities of food in feeding, there will be a deposit of large amount of organic materials on the bed of the pond, and toxic hydrogen sulfide often produces as a result of anaerobic decomposition from those matters, and it usually causes hazardous mortality to the shrimp during the changing season from summer to autumn. From the view point of ecosystem-balance and the physiological characteristics of Order Decapoda, scientific researches on elimination and prevention of toxic hydrogen sulfide occurring in the pond of penaeid shrimp culture were carried out in field situations in 1972-1976 and under laboratory conditions in 1979-1981. The preliminary results of the research are as follows: 1. According to the mechanism of combination of cupric (Cu~(++)) and sulfide (S~=) ions to form stable precipated non-toxic cupric sulfide (CuS↑) and on account of the physiological characteristics of containing hemocyanins in Decapoda, researches on the use of cupric sulfate crystal (Cu SO_4·5 H_2O) as a restrainer and elimination agent of toxic hydrogen sulfide in penaeid shrimp culture pond have been made. 2. The experiments have affirmed that when toxic hydrogen sulfide occurs in case of emergency, contents of sulfide in the pond are determined at first, and then use an amount of cupric sulfate, 2.5-4.0times the total amount of sulfide in the water and making it to contain 0.5% solution for sprinkling on the pond, It is preferable to scatter some fine soil over the pond at the same time. The toxicity of hydrogen sulfide can then be eliminated or minimized immediately. Results of the tests of varied concentrations of sulfide for young Palaemon sp. (body length 2-3 cm) and post-larvae of Penaeus orientalis (body length 0.7 cm) show that (Tables 5-6), groups of both species which have been applied with proper quantity of cupric sulfate have shown a higher survival rate, from 80-100%, while the controls of Penaeus orientals post-larvae even have shown a 100% mortality in a short time from 2 to 26 minutes. 3. The results of varied species of organisms in tests by appling cupric sulfate have shown that, cupric sulfate has no effect on non-hemocyanins zoo-plankton such as Calanus pacificus Brodsky and Sagitta crassa Tokioka.

根据1972—1976年用以铜为主的化学元素、发酵配合饵料在土池进行对虾养殖的生产实践和1979—1981年在室内用硫酸铜消除硫化氢危害有关生物的实验结果,初步明确了用硫酸铜能抑制和消除硫化氢危害对虾养殖的机理和确定了应用上量问(CuSO_4·5H_2O/s~=)关系的依据,结论如下: 1.根据正二价铜离子(Ca~(++))和负二价硫离子(S~=)反应化合,生成可沉淀无毒硫化铜(CuS↓)的机理以及甲壳类十足目含血蓝蛋白的生理特点,创立用硫酸铜作为对虾养殖池发生硫化氢的抑制剂和消除剂。 2.经实验确定,当养殖池出现硫化氢的紧急危害时,可用硫化物测定法,检测现场池子的硫化物含量或浓度,并根据水体大小,用2.5—4倍于硫化物含量的硫酸铜,配成0.5%的溶液,均匀喷洒于池中,并根据土壤有吸附硫化氢的作用,同时撒扬些细土,顷刻即能减弱或消除养殖池硫化氢的毒害作用。如幼长臂虾(体长2—3厘米)和对虾仔虾(体长0.7厘米左右)经不同含量硫化物的水样多次实验,其结果如表5—6所示。用适宜量硫酸铜组,均能获得80—100%较高的成活率,而不用硫酸铜的仔对虾对照组,甚至均无例外地在2—26分钟短时间内全部死亡。 3...

根据1972—1976年用以铜为主的化学元素、发酵配合饵料在土池进行对虾养殖的生产实践和1979—1981年在室内用硫酸铜消除硫化氢危害有关生物的实验结果,初步明确了用硫酸铜能抑制和消除硫化氢危害对虾养殖的机理和确定了应用上量问(CuSO_4·5H_2O/s~=)关系的依据,结论如下: 1.根据正二价铜离子(Ca~(++))和负二价硫离子(S~=)反应化合,生成可沉淀无毒硫化铜(CuS↓)的机理以及甲壳类十足目含血蓝蛋白的生理特点,创立用硫酸铜作为对虾养殖池发生硫化氢的抑制剂和消除剂。 2.经实验确定,当养殖池出现硫化氢的紧急危害时,可用硫化物测定法,检测现场池子的硫化物含量或浓度,并根据水体大小,用2.5—4倍于硫化物含量的硫酸铜,配成0.5%的溶液,均匀喷洒于池中,并根据土壤有吸附硫化氢的作用,同时撒扬些细土,顷刻即能减弱或消除养殖池硫化氢的毒害作用。如幼长臂虾(体长2—3厘米)和对虾仔虾(体长0.7厘米左右)经不同含量硫化物的水样多次实验,其结果如表5—6所示。用适宜量硫酸铜组,均能获得80—100%较高的成活率,而不用硫酸铜的仔对虾对照组,甚至均无例外地在2—26分钟短时间内全部死亡。 3.通过不同种类生物的对比实验结果表明,用硫酸铜消除硫化氢的危害,对诸如太平洋哲镖溞(Calanus pacificus Brodsky)和强壮箭虫(Sagitta crassa Tokioka)等非含血蓝蛋白的浮游动物,无效果。

The effects of food, salinity and other factoro on the survival rate and growth ofjuvenile prawns under high density cultivation in lab. were observed. Through ortho-gonal design of multi--factors, the additinal single--factors experiments and productiveexperiment, several key technical measures were explored.The results of the experiments as follows: 1. The fow limit of suitable and optimum salinities for juvenile prawns are 16‰and 22‰ respectively. The optimum cultivation value is 25%.2. Nauplius of Artemia...

The effects of food, salinity and other factoro on the survival rate and growth ofjuvenile prawns under high density cultivation in lab. were observed. Through ortho-gonal design of multi--factors, the additinal single--factors experiments and productiveexperiment, several key technical measures were explored.The results of the experiments as follows: 1. The fow limit of suitable and optimum salinities for juvenile prawns are 16‰and 22‰ respectively. The optimum cultivation value is 25%.2. Nauplius of Artemia salina were used to fed the post larvae of prawn in thefirst four days. The feeding ration from the first-day larvae was 125 individuals perjuvenile prawn. Latter on. the appropraite daily increasing of food was 90 individualsper prawn. The Tubifex sp, the ground Venerupis philippinarum meat or the brineshrimps could be fed to the post larvae of prawn during the period from the 5th day tothe 20th day. The feeding ration could be calculated as following:Wg×10~(-2)(P) = 0.2482e~(0.2064t)t: days of culture of juvenile prawn3. By keeping the Platymonas spp. a density of 0.5--1.0×10~4 cell/ml couldremarkably decrease the amount of NH_3--N in culture seawater.4. By keeping terramycin a concentration at 0. 5--1. 0 ppm in culture seawatercould not only prevent diseases, but also accelerate the growth of juvenile prawn.5. In the productive experimental 1.41 million juvenile prawns with an averagelength of 0.95mm were harvested from 13 ponds of 23m~3 seawater. The yeild was 61thousand prawns per cubic meter of seawater. The survival rate was up to 83.3%.

本文通过多因子正交试验、单因子补充试验和生产性试验,观察了盐度、饵料等因子对中国对虾(Penaeus oricntalis)仔虾的生长及其成活率的影响,对室内高密度培养仔虾的几项关键性技术作了探讨。试验结果表明:(1)仔虾的适宜盐度下限为16‰左右,最适盐度下限为22‰左右,25‰培养效果最佳。(2)第 1至第4天仔虾可投喂卤虫(Artemia salina)幼体。第 1天仔虾投饵量为 125只/尾,此后日增90只/尾。第5至第20天仔虾可改投颤蚓(Tubifex sp.)、磨碎的蛤仔(Venerupis philippinarum)肉或成体卤虫。投饵量可按W(克/百尾)=0.2482e~(?2?84t)式计算。式中t为仔虾日龄。(3)培养水中保持 0.5-1.0万细胞/毫升密度的扁藻(Platymonasspp.)有明显降低水中氨氮含量的作用。(4)培养水中保持0.5-1.0ppm 土霉素,不仅可预防疾病,且有促进仔虾生长的作用。(5)13口池共23立方米水体,共育成平均体长为0.95厘米的仔虾141...

本文通过多因子正交试验、单因子补充试验和生产性试验,观察了盐度、饵料等因子对中国对虾(Penaeus oricntalis)仔虾的生长及其成活率的影响,对室内高密度培养仔虾的几项关键性技术作了探讨。试验结果表明:(1)仔虾的适宜盐度下限为16‰左右,最适盐度下限为22‰左右,25‰培养效果最佳。(2)第 1至第4天仔虾可投喂卤虫(Artemia salina)幼体。第 1天仔虾投饵量为 125只/尾,此后日增90只/尾。第5至第20天仔虾可改投颤蚓(Tubifex sp.)、磨碎的蛤仔(Venerupis philippinarum)肉或成体卤虫。投饵量可按W(克/百尾)=0.2482e~(?2?84t)式计算。式中t为仔虾日龄。(3)培养水中保持 0.5-1.0万细胞/毫升密度的扁藻(Platymonasspp.)有明显降低水中氨氮含量的作用。(4)培养水中保持0.5-1.0ppm 土霉素,不仅可预防疾病,且有促进仔虾生长的作用。(5)13口池共23立方米水体,共育成平均体长为0.95厘米的仔虾141万尾,每立方米水体出苗量达6.1万尾,总成活率达83.3%。

 
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