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细胞     
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    The role of p38 MAPK in LPS-induced ICAM-1 expression of vascular endothelial cells
    p38MAPK在LPS诱导血管内皮细胞ICAM-1表达中的作用
短句来源
    Expression of Human Platelet Factor 4 in Cultured Cells and Larvae of Bombyx mori
    人血小板因子4在家蚕细胞和幼虫体内的表达
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    Fused expression of hantavirus glycoprotein G1 and partial NP in insect cells and study on its immunological properties
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    Biopathological effects of β_2-microglobulin modified with advanced glycation end products on human synovial cells
    晚期糖基化终产物修饰的β_2微球蛋白对人关节滑膜细胞病理生物学作用的研究
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  t cells
    Suppression of CD8+ T Cell Mediated Rejection by CD4+CD25+ T Cells
    CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞抑制CD8+T细胞介导的排斥反应
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    Differential Proteomic Study of Human CD4~+ CD25~+T Cells and CD4~+ CD25~+ T Cells
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  cell s
    The role of p38 MAPK in LPS-induced ICAM-1 expression of vascular endothelial cells
    p38MAPK在LPS诱导血管内皮细胞ICAM-1表达中的作用
短句来源
    Expression of Human Platelet Factor 4 in Cultured Cells and Larvae of Bombyx mori
    人血小板因子4在家蚕细胞和幼虫体内的表达
短句来源
    p16~(INK4a)EXON 1a KNOCKOUT IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS
    小鼠p16~(INK4a)基因外显子1α胚胎干细胞打靶研究
短句来源
    Fused expression of hantavirus glycoprotein G1 and partial NP in insect cells and study on its immunological properties
    汉坦病毒囊膜糖蛋白G1与核蛋白部分片段在昆虫细胞中的融合表达及免疫学特性研究
短句来源
    Biopathological effects of β_2-microglobulin modified with advanced glycation end products on human synovial cells
    晚期糖基化终产物修饰的β_2微球蛋白对人关节滑膜细胞病理生物学作用的研究
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    Fifty-one male rats (body weights:200—350gm) were raised with laboratory diet, 39 of them were injected once a week with CCl_4 (0.015cc/100gm body weight) in li- quid paraffin through the mesenteric veins and 12 rats without treatment as controls. Rats with 1,2,3,and 4 injections were killed 7 days afterwards.Pieces of liver tissue were taken from the left anterior lobe of the rats from both experimental and control groups.Paraffin sections were prepared from materials fixed in:(1)Susa or Stieve's for Heidenhain's...

    Fifty-one male rats (body weights:200—350gm) were raised with laboratory diet, 39 of them were injected once a week with CCl_4 (0.015cc/100gm body weight) in li- quid paraffin through the mesenteric veins and 12 rats without treatment as controls. Rats with 1,2,3,and 4 injections were killed 7 days afterwards.Pieces of liver tissue were taken from the left anterior lobe of the rats from both experimental and control groups.Paraffin sections were prepared from materials fixed in:(1)Susa or Stieve's for Heidenhain's Azan staining;(2)Regaud's for Bensley's acid fuchsin-methyl green staining of mitochondria;(3)cold Carnoy's for methyl green-pyronin staining of ribo- nucleic acid (RNA),with control sections extracted with 20% perchloric acid or 0.17 M NaCl at 56℃ for 2 hrs.;(4)Carnoy's for Yakovlev's ((?)) and Barrnett- Seligman's methods for protein-bound SH-group,with control sections blocked with 0.1M monoiodoacetic acid;(5)Formol-alcohol for Hotchkiss's periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) reaction of glycogen,with control sections treated with salivary digestion;(6)cold ace- tone for alkaline phosphatase (ALP);and (7) 10% neutral formalin for frozen sections and Sudan Ⅲ testing for fats. After CCl_4-intoxication,during the development of cirrhosis,most of the parenchymal cells degenerated and finally became necrotic.Free fat droplets and hyperplastic fibrous tissues accumulated in the necrotic regions.The liver lobules thus were destroyed and blood sinuses were engorged with blood cells.Surviving cells showed compensative hyperplasia and were isolated into nodules by the developing fibrous tissues.Cirrhosis developed in all the rats treated with CCl_4. The parenchymal cells showed a progressive changes during the development of cirrhosis.There was an increase of fat droplets and a decrease of the number of mito- chondria in the cytoplasm.The mitochondria fragmented into granules or fused in a mass.There was a progressive decline in the content of RNA and glycogen,but an increase of the ALP activity.Those cells showing compensative hyperplasia enlarged in size,and their number of mitochondria,RNA and glycogen content progressively in- creased. Small-sized cells appeared in the necrotic regions among the fat droplets,necrotic cells and fibrous tissues.They decreased in number as the fibrous tissue developed. These cells contained mitochondria and showed positive reactions of PAS,RNA and ALP.Their origin was discussed and their relation to the formation of collagen fibers needs further investigation.

    大白鼠肝在CCl_4中毒所引起肝硬化过程中,肝小叶结构被破坏。肝细胞中毒,坏死,脂肪游离增多。血窦因血流受阻而涨大。大部分肝细胞退变或坏死;部分残存而代偿性增生。结缔组织在坏变部分增生并包围肝小结而形成肝硬化。在肝硬化过程中,退变的肝细胞内脂滴增多。线粒体减少,成粒状或溶成一团。核糖核酸,糖元含量也随病变进展而减少。碱性磷酸酶反应增强。代偿性增生的肝细胞体积增大;肝细胞内线粒体增多,核糖核酸,糖元含量逐渐增多。在病变过程中出现冼多小型细胞。小型细胞出现在坏变的肝细胞区域,脂肪空泡附近及结缔组织内并随纤维的增加而减少。小型细胞含线粒体,核糖核酸,PAS反应及碱性磷酸酶反应均为阳性。文中讨论了肝细胞细胞学和组织化学变化的意义;小型细胞的来源,与纤维形成的关系及纤维增生机制等问题。

    The paper presents in detail the technique of leucocytes culture from human peripheral blood for the study of human chromosomes. The techniques involve both the standard method and the semi-micro method with some modifications which have been developed in this laboratory to suit our purposes. With the aid of these techniques, cytogenetic analyses for 7 different cases belonging to 4 different types of congenital defects were made, and the main results are briefly described as follows:1. Down's syndrome (4 cases)....

    The paper presents in detail the technique of leucocytes culture from human peripheral blood for the study of human chromosomes. The techniques involve both the standard method and the semi-micro method with some modifications which have been developed in this laboratory to suit our purposes. With the aid of these techniques, cytogenetic analyses for 7 different cases belonging to 4 different types of congenital defects were made, and the main results are briefly described as follows:1. Down's syndrome (4 cases). Most of the cells analyzed in each case showed 47 chromosomes, and the extra chromosome was found to be one of the smallest chromosome in the karyotype. This finding is apparently in agreement with trisomic G-type as previously reported in the literatures. It is highly probable that the origin of this aberration may arise from non-disjunction of one pair of the smallest chromosomes occured in o?genesis, since there is an indication in the rise of the frequencies of Down's syndrome with the age of the mother.2. Testicular feminization syndrome (1 case). The case reported here involves the finding of the same syndrome in 3 successive generations in one family. Chromosomal analysis was available from only one patient and the result demonstrated that most cells showed a chromosome number of 46 with the normal male XY complement, which was found to be in conformity with the discovery that the chromatin was negative on nuclear sexing. This finding is in obvious disagreement with XXY constitution as suggested by some authors to account for the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. Together with the reports of some other workers, analysis of the familial history of the case gives further evidence in support of the suggestion by Grumbach and Barr that this syndrome may be inherited as due to either a sex-linked recessive or a sex-limited dominant factor, though the existing genetic evidence does not suffice to distinguish between the two possibilities.3. Anorchism (1 case). Chromosome analysis of the patient in question revealed the diploid chromosome number to be 46, including an X and a Y chromosome. The nuclear chromatin pattern was also demonstrated to be of male type. Since this case was a sporadic one, it could be assumed to have been originated by mutation. 4. Female pseudohermaphroditism (1 case). A preliminary analysis of the patient revealed the possibility of being an XO(45)/XY(46) mosaic. But this can not be ascertained without further verification from the observations on the skin and bone marrow cultures.

    本文详细地介绍了以外周血液培养来研究人类染色体的技术,这些都是我们实验室几年来根据国外文献作了一些修改,以适合于我们的具体条件而拟订的.同时应用这些方法对若干病例作了细胞遗传学的研究,主要结果如下:1.四例先天愚型:在这些病例中,绝大多数中期细胞的染色体数均为47.核型分析表明为G-三体型.一般认为这是由于母亲在卵细胞形成时发生了染色体不分离的结果.2.睾丸女性化:这里报导了一个很大的家系,这一综合症的患者在该家系中已络续出现了三代.其中的一个病人用于白细胞的染色体研究.结果是正常人的双倍体数(2n=46), 具有正常男性的核型,即XY.口腔粘膜及多形核嗜中性球的性染色质扦查为阴性.这种结果显然不符合于这样的假设,即认为该种综合症的性染色体组成是XXY.结合以往一些作者的研究,我们认为该综合症是以伴性隐性或限性的常染色体显性而遗传的.但从现有证据尚不足以区分这两种的可能性.3.无睾畸形:白细胞的双倍体数为2n=46,显示正常的男性核(XY).性染色质为阴性.鉴于该病例为散发性的,我们认为它有可能起因于基因突变.4.女性假两性畸形:由白细胞...

    本文详细地介绍了以外周血液培养来研究人类染色体的技术,这些都是我们实验室几年来根据国外文献作了一些修改,以适合于我们的具体条件而拟订的.同时应用这些方法对若干病例作了细胞遗传学的研究,主要结果如下:1.四例先天愚型:在这些病例中,绝大多数中期细胞的染色体数均为47.核型分析表明为G-三体型.一般认为这是由于母亲在卵细胞形成时发生了染色体不分离的结果.2.睾丸女性化:这里报导了一个很大的家系,这一综合症的患者在该家系中已络续出现了三代.其中的一个病人用于白细胞的染色体研究.结果是正常人的双倍体数(2n=46), 具有正常男性的核型,即XY.口腔粘膜及多形核嗜中性球的性染色质扦查为阴性.这种结果显然不符合于这样的假设,即认为该种综合症的性染色体组成是XXY.结合以往一些作者的研究,我们认为该综合症是以伴性隐性或限性的常染色体显性而遗传的.但从现有证据尚不足以区分这两种的可能性.3.无睾畸形:白细胞的双倍体数为2n=46,显示正常的男性核(XY).性染色质为阴性.鉴于该病例为散发性的,我们认为它有可能起因于基因突变.4.女性假两性畸形:由白细胞的初步分析,认为可能是XO(45)/XY(46)嵌合体.但为了肯定其确切的核型,还有待于对病者的皮肤和骨髓作进一步的研究.

    The cells of the apical ectodermal thickening, neighboring ectoderm and underlyingmesenchyme of the limb buds of mouse embryos, 11--13 days vaginal plug age, wereused for this study. Most of the specimens were fixed in 1% osmic acid in veronalacetate buffer, pH 7.6, 4℃, 1 hour and embedded in methylchrylate. Parts of the speci-mens were either fixed in potassium permagnate or stained in lead hydroxide after osmicacid fixation. Observations and photographs were made under SEM Ⅲ electron micros-cope. The Golgi...

    The cells of the apical ectodermal thickening, neighboring ectoderm and underlyingmesenchyme of the limb buds of mouse embryos, 11--13 days vaginal plug age, wereused for this study. Most of the specimens were fixed in 1% osmic acid in veronalacetate buffer, pH 7.6, 4℃, 1 hour and embedded in methylchrylate. Parts of the speci-mens were either fixed in potassium permagnate or stained in lead hydroxide after osmicacid fixation. Observations and photographs were made under SEM Ⅲ electron micros-cope. The Golgi apparatus appeared to be horse-shoe shaped in the apical ectodermalthickening and S-shaped in the neighboring ectoderm. It consisted of small vesicles andtubules without any large vesicle. The mitochondria in the neighboring ectoderm were usually round or oval in shape,with fewer and irregular cristae and lighter matrix. The mitochondria of the mesenchy-mal cells were even more embryonic in structure with only 2--3 oblique cristae and alarge inner chamber. The mitochondria in the supperficial layers of the apical ectoder-mal thickening were more or less similar to those in the neighboring ectoderm. Rod-shaped and filamentous mitochondria increased in number in the deeper layers of theapical thickening. Such filamentous mitochondria had vertical cristae, denser matrix andoval and light inner chambers. Transitional stages between the very small vesicles withvague cristae and the large mitochondria with distinct cristae were found in our leadstained preparations. Except in the Golgi region, ribosomes grouped into ring or tubular forms weredistributed all over the cytoplasm in the three kinds of the embryonic cells studied.Transitional stages between such ribosome clusters and the granulated vesicles and tubulescould be clearly demonstrated in the lead stained specimens. In the apical ectodermal thickening, granulated endoplasmic reticulum in the formof scattered small vesicles and tubules seemed to be more abundant than in the neighbor-ing ectoderm and underlying mesenchymal cells. But the most striking difference foundin the apical thickening was the expansion of the granulated endoplasmic reticula intolarge saccules, the cisternae of which containing a grayish dense substance. Another interesting phenomenon found in the apical ectodermal thickening was thepresence of dense bodies in the cytoplasm. They were in various sizes and densitieswith dense granules, masses or cords and various forms of vesicles. They might be round,oval or irregular with a complete, partial or entire absence of limiting membrane. Thosewithout membrane were usually irregular in form and could hardly be demarkated from their surrounding cytoplasm whence assembly of ribosome clusters, mitochondria andendoplasmic reticulum from the surrounding cytoplasm to form the dense bodies could befound. Preliminary histochemical studies found them to be positive in alkaline and acid-phosphatases and RNA staining. They were therefore considered to be lysosomes orcytosomes. The significance of the differences in mitochondrial form and structure, abundantand expanded cisternae of the granulated endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of thedense bodies in the apical ectodermal thickening in relation to embryonic differentiationof the limb was discussed.

    用小白鼠胚胎阴栓日龄11—13天的前肢芽和后肢芽,锇酸固定,甲基丙烯酸甲酯及甲基丙烯酸丁酯包埋,在SEM Ⅲ型电子显微镜观察了肢芽尖端增厚外胚层、邻近普通外胚层及间充质细胞。部分材料用过锰酸钾固定或锇酸固定后氢氧化铅染色。各种细胞相互比较的结果如下: 1.两种外胚层的高尔基体极相似,均由小泡及小管组成,无大泡,横切时成为成群的小泡。普通外胚层细胞的高尔基体呈S形,增厚外胚层的马蹄形。 2.线粒体在普通外胚层卵圆形或圆形,嵴不整齐。增厚外胚层的线粒体在浅层细胞少,结构与普通外胚层相似,但愈至深层则细长的线粒体愈多。细长线粒体的嵴较密,亦较整齐,与表面垂直,基貭亦较致密。在尖端增厚外层细胞见到由胞质新形成的小泡过渡到小圆的线粒体。 3.无论在普通外胚层下或在尖端增厚外胚层下的间充质细胞,其线粒体的形状和结构相同,都是圆或卵圆,嵴少而靠近表面作半月状,内室大,基貭密度低,属比较原始的胚胎型。 4.嗜碱质在两种外胚层及间充貭细胞均以弥散的核朊粒为主,由5—10余粒组成小群落。这些群落在尖端增厚外胚层较大、较密,粒亦较多。普通外胚层##...

    用小白鼠胚胎阴栓日龄11—13天的前肢芽和后肢芽,锇酸固定,甲基丙烯酸甲酯及甲基丙烯酸丁酯包埋,在SEM Ⅲ型电子显微镜观察了肢芽尖端增厚外胚层、邻近普通外胚层及间充质细胞。部分材料用过锰酸钾固定或锇酸固定后氢氧化铅染色。各种细胞相互比较的结果如下: 1.两种外胚层的高尔基体极相似,均由小泡及小管组成,无大泡,横切时成为成群的小泡。普通外胚层细胞的高尔基体呈S形,增厚外胚层的马蹄形。 2.线粒体在普通外胚层卵圆形或圆形,嵴不整齐。增厚外胚层的线粒体在浅层细胞少,结构与普通外胚层相似,但愈至深层则细长的线粒体愈多。细长线粒体的嵴较密,亦较整齐,与表面垂直,基貭亦较致密。在尖端增厚外层细胞见到由胞质新形成的小泡过渡到小圆的线粒体。 3.无论在普通外胚层下或在尖端增厚外胚层下的间充质细胞,其线粒体的形状和结构相同,都是圆或卵圆,嵴少而靠近表面作半月状,内室大,基貭密度低,属比较原始的胚胎型。 4.嗜碱质在两种外胚层及间充貭细胞均以弥散的核朊粒为主,由5—10余粒组成小群落。这些群落在尖端增厚外胚层较大、较密,粒亦较多。普通外胚层细胞的有粒内貭网或动貭较间充貭为多,二者均系胚胎型,是分散的小泡或小管。尖端增厚外胚层的动貭有独特形态,即池的一端扩张成大泡,内含网状致密物,显然含有较多的,要不是特异的蛋白貭。这种扩张动貭对于胚胎分化及诱导的关系曾加讨论。 5.动质的形成有证据表明是先从核朊粒群落出现膜成为动貭小泡或小管,再并合成较大的小泡和较长的小管。 6.增厚外胚层细胞的另一特点是比较普逼的存在着形状、大小及密度不同的致密体。有的完全致密,有的泡状,有的是二者的混合体,有的界限清楚,有的处于分散状态。在形态上类似溶酶体和卵子的多泡体。内含类似核朊粒的致密粒、退化线粒体及动质膜。这些致密体和细胞膜、核膜及高尔基体未显有何关系。基膜及细胞膜完好。未见增厚外胚层细胞有排出、吞食或饮液现象,亦未见致密体排至中胚层,故认为这些致密体起于胞貭。对于分化诱导关系曾提出讨论。 7.细胞核及核膜在三种细胞未见有显著不同。核膜有孔,其外膜可与动貭膜相连,核仁小,紧靠核膜,未见有排出现象。氢氧化铅染色的标本有时显示染色貭有微丝,这在胞貭核朊粒群落亦可出现。 8.细胞膜完整,比较直,膜的内侧有一层致密物貭,无桥粒。

     
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