The heightof mass transfer unit HOG decreased with increasing inclination angle β and decreasingunit height of the packing H ,and influence of opening ratio Φ on the height of masstransfer unit HOG had a suitable value, witch was about 6%-8%.

The result shows that the method of increasing evenly the thickness of flat covers for the reinforcement with an opening ratio below 0.5 could not solve the stress concentration problem induced at the edges of openings and realize the reinforcement result;

The quality of scrubbed gas accords with requirements after the develop- ment of the design of water scrubber for use in the syntheis of oxalic acid now in our coun- try,the methods are; increasing the water quantity to 50m~3/h,enlarging the opening ratio of tower plate to 19.55%(usually6%～12%),decreasing the weir gauge to 25mm,increasing the distance to 95mm between drop-pipe and downward plate.

The research showed that light yellow cellular glass with over 40% open area, apparent density 220~310kg/m3 and 2.5~3.4MPa compression strength can be manufactured under the following condition: the addition of blowing agent 2.0~4.0%, finishing-burn temperature 1150°C, and the fineness of calcareous slag 180 mesh.

By analyzing the simulation result, we proved that velocity of flow has less effect on the nonuniformity of gas distribution, and it mainly determined by axial position of section above the distributor and open area.

The experiments on φ500mm plain concrete archs and φ1000mm ceramic archs with >50% open area were carried out in Kaifeng Fertilizer Plant in 1980. The "thin shell" theory was applied to analyze the stress and the equations for calculating circumferential and radial stress on archs were derived.

Based on the experimental results, the structural parameters of the NF composite membrane (the pore radius and the ratio of the membrane porosity to the membrane thickness) were discussed on the basis of the fixed-charge model and the pore model.

The free area rates of the distributor were 0.266, 0.672 and 2.549 respectively. The heights of the separator were 115mm, 275mm and 420mm respectively.

The mechanism of internal pressure fluctuation is obtained by using the proposed method in the frequency domain and a new equivalent opening ratio is defined to evaluate internal pressure fluctuation.

Helmholtz resonance is likely to occur when the equivalent opening ratio is adequately high, and controlling individual opening dimension is an effective strategy for avoiding Helmholtz resonance in engineering.

The technique is illustrated in the case of a plane turbulent impinging twin-jet with an opening ratio of 10.

It is also demonstrated that large chirp and mismatch of the phase inversion reduces the eye opening ratio (EOR) which can seriously affect the performance of the wavelength converter to be used as a sub-system component in all-optical networks.

The effects of the feed rate, the gas flowrate and the opening ratio and hole diameter of the perforated plates on the operating stability of the fluidized bed were examined.

This is because energy losses by friction and water surface oscillations increase as the approach velocity from the gate increases as the gate opening rate is larger than 0.4.

The opening rate-constant appears to be voltage independent.

The probability of channel opening at high concentration was found to be >amp;gt;0.9 for each, thus showing (a) that their efficacy is high and (b) that the opening rate for the fully-liganded channel is higher than previously thought.

External Ba2+ decreased the Na channel opening rate and increased the closing rate.

At voltages close to the midpoint of the gating curve, the opening rate decreased by a factor of 1/2.8 while the closing rate increased by 2.0-fold.

A population of the Japanese scallop, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, found in the open area of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan), which was not protected against southeastern summer monsoons, has been studied.

The aggregation was the lowest in the open area of a neutral lake.

The flows almost completely covered the smoothed flat open area of the volcano and even invaded the larch forest surrounding the volcano, where they bent, overturned, broke, and occasionally uprooted and dragged over some distance some large trees.

Nesting preferences discovered for the nest tree and its surroundings, included height and diameter of trees, age of the forest stand, distance to the nearest open area or forest road and occurrence of open areas in the vicinity of the nest.

In all three groups, mean density of faeces decreased in the following order: shelter, edges of arena, area around shelter, remainder of open area.

The hydrodynamics of perform trays were studied using air-water system in a column with a 1200 x 400mm rectangular cross section to determine the effect of tray geometrical parameters and operating conditions on the pressure drop, entrainment and weeping. Geometrical variables and operating range were mainly as follows: slot widths, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 4.7mm; tray free areas, 9.9, 12.3, 14.9 and 15.4%; deflector widths, 150, 200, 250 and 300mm; tray spa-cings, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800mm; liquid flow rates per...

The hydrodynamics of perform trays were studied using air-water system in a column with a 1200 x 400mm rectangular cross section to determine the effect of tray geometrical parameters and operating conditions on the pressure drop, entrainment and weeping. Geometrical variables and operating range were mainly as follows: slot widths, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 4.7mm; tray free areas, 9.9, 12.3, 14.9 and 15.4%; deflector widths, 150, 200, 250 and 300mm; tray spa-cings, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800mm; liquid flow rates per unit weir length, 20, 30, 45 and 60m3/m.h; and superficial gas velocities, 0.60 to 2.8m/s. Experimental data were correlated and correlations were presented for calculating the pressure drop, entrainment and liquid weeping. Furthermore, based on the experimental results for the entrainment and weeping from the tray,the expressions were given also to predict the upper limiting hole velocity at which the entrainment from the tray is 10%, the lower limiting hole velocity at which the liquid weeping from the tray is 5%. In addition, the effect of inlet weir on the weeping were tested and a simiempirical model was derived for the inlet weir design.

The flooding point and hold-up of the dispersed phase in an extraction column with reciprocating-sieve plates of 32 mm inside diameter and 1960 mm effective column height have been investigated under the following conditions: Percent perforation of the plates 40%, 53.5% and 63.7%, diameters of perforated holes 7.8, 9.0 and 9.8 mm, and distances between plates 20 and 40mm respectively. Experiments were carried out with three different liquid-liquid systems covering a rather wide range of physical properties.

The two-phase contact regime on F-1 valve tray at five different fractional areas of valve holes has been studied.At specified experimental conditions, the two-phase contact regime on F-l valve tray is the same as that on Hy-Contact valve tray. At a fixed fractional area of valve holes and a constant gas velocity, with increasing liquid rate there were present in turn three contact regimes: spray,mixed-froth and froth.From the zones of contact regimes it is shown that the fractional area of valve holes has no...

The two-phase contact regime on F-1 valve tray at five different fractional areas of valve holes has been studied.At specified experimental conditions, the two-phase contact regime on F-l valve tray is the same as that on Hy-Contact valve tray. At a fixed fractional area of valve holes and a constant gas velocity, with increasing liquid rate there were present in turn three contact regimes: spray,mixed-froth and froth.From the zones of contact regimes it is shown that the fractional area of valve holes has no effect on the range of mixed-froth regime zone,but with decreasing fractional area this zone will shift towards the side of smaller inlet clear liquid height.Including the factor of fractional area, criteria correlations of inversion points of regimes are proposed.