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成穗     
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  ear bearing
     Percentage of Ear Bearing Tiller of Winter Wheat and Its Relationship to Climate Factors in Tibet
     西藏冬小麦成穗率与气候条件的关系
短句来源
     Based on the investigation of high-yielding cultivation quality for 2 yield ,some population quality indexes yield of 8250 kg·hm -2 are shown as follows:the highest coefficient of leaf area about 7~8,the available leaf area rate over 94%, the high-available leaf area rate about 70%,the ear bearing tiller per 667m2 about 440 thousands, the earbearing tiller ratein period over 50%。
     通过对春小麦高产田的 2a系统调查和研究 ,提出单产 82 50kg·hm- 2 的几个群体质量指标 :最高叶面积指数为 7~ 8,有效叶面积率 94 %以上 ,高效叶面积率 70 %左右 ; 每公顷成穗660× 10 4 左右 ,分蘖成穗率 50 %以上。
短句来源
     EFFECTS OF FIELD DRAINING COMBINED WITH GA_3 SPRAY ON EAR BEARING RATE OF RICE
     搁田和喷施赤霉素(GA_3)联因对水稻成穗率的影响
短句来源
     1 while slightly decrease spikelets per panicle, although the ear-bearing panicles are slightly lessened. Some tested prescriptions of regulator compounded with chemical NO. 1~7 such as C105, C145 , C025,C175, C135 and C125 etc, which do not decrease or increase the members of spikelets per panical, have stronger intensity of tiller control, and maintain higher percentage of ear bearing tillers, and somewhat enhance the resistance to rice culm and sheath blight.
     而以 1~ 7号药剂复配的部分调节剂 ,以 C10 5 ,C145 ,C0 2 5 ,C175 ,C12 5和 C135的控蘖强度大 (较大 ) ,水稻成穗率高 ,每穗粒数增加 ,结实性状好 ,有效穗数差异不明显 ,对纹枯病的田间抗性有一定的提高 .
短句来源
     Tillering and Ear bearing of Hybrid Wheat and the Effects of Agronomic Factors
     杂种小麦分蘖发生、成穗及农艺因子效应
短句来源
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  mature spike
     Relationship between mature spike number of highland barley and climatic factors
     高原春青稞株成穗数与气象条件关系
短句来源
     The results indicated that B type homoetic gene TaMADS#51 dose not expressed under long-day condition but under short-day condition. The blot signal with TaMADS#51 as probe appeared only in young spike while did not in mature spike and leaf under short condition.
     研究表明:长日下小麦中与拟南芥控制花发育的B类基因AP3具有同源性的TaMADS#51在该不育系中(长日条件下)未见表达,而在短日下有表达,但只在幼穗中表达,叶片和成穗中均未见表达。
短句来源
     The results from tests show that,from three-leaf to tillering stages, more raining are favor of improving mature spike number.
     试验结果表明,青稞三叶~分蘖期降水偏多有利于株成穗数的增加;
短句来源
     From tillering to jointing,the disadvantageous factors for mature spike number are high temperature and partly raining.
     分蘖~拔节期气温高、降水少,对增加株成穗数极为不利;
短句来源
     In recent 35 years, climatic warming and rainfall decreasing occurred in tillering to jointing stages, but that are disadvantageous conditions of increasing mature spike number.
     近35年分蘖~拔节期平均气温呈上升趋势,降水呈减少趋势,气候变暖、变干均不利于青稞株成穗数的增加。
短句来源
  ear bearing tiller
     Percentage of Ear Bearing Tiller of Winter Wheat and Its Relationship to Climate Factors in Tibet
     西藏冬小麦成穗率与气候条件的关系
短句来源
     Based on the investigation of high-yielding cultivation quality for 2 yield ,some population quality indexes yield of 8250 kg·hm -2 are shown as follows:the highest coefficient of leaf area about 7~8,the available leaf area rate over 94%, the high-available leaf area rate about 70%,the ear bearing tiller per 667m2 about 440 thousands, the earbearing tiller ratein period over 50%。
     通过对春小麦高产田的 2a系统调查和研究 ,提出单产 82 50kg·hm- 2 的几个群体质量指标 :最高叶面积指数为 7~ 8,有效叶面积率 94 %以上 ,高效叶面积率 70 %左右 ; 每公顷成穗660× 10 4 左右 ,分蘖成穗率 50 %以上。
短句来源
     The moderate population of Shanyou 559 is 180,000~195,000 holes per hm 2, which had higher percentage of ear bearing tiller, higher ratio between grain and leaf and higher production capacity for dry matter in mid-late growth stage, therefore resulted in higher yield.
     研究结果表明 ,密度与产量呈抛物线型的曲线变化关系 ,过大或过小都会因成穗数、穗粒数的变化而影响产量。 汕优 5 5 9适宜密度为 18.0~ 19.5万穴 /hm2 ,其分蘖成穗率高、粒叶比大、中后期干物质生产能力强 ,易获得较高产量
短句来源
     The technique of cultivation with broadcast sowing and the mechanism of increase production in winter wheat were studied systematically. The results showed that cultivation with broadcast sowing could be of advantage to rooting and tillering of seedling before winter, and increase the percentage of ear bearing tiller.
     通过对小麦撒播栽培技术及其增产机理进行系统研究 ,结果表明 ,撒播栽培利于冬前幼苗生根增蘖 ,提高成穗率 ;
短句来源
     Moreover, it mainly resulted in shortened internode under the rachis internode, with forming good plant shape, and increasing the number of ear bearing tiller, but decreasing the per ear grain number.
     而且主要是缩短穗下节间以下的节间 ,对穗下节间无明显影响 ,形成良好的株型 ,并可增加成穗数 ,但穗粒数有所减少。
短句来源
  ear forming rate
     P deficiency significantly decreased ear forming rate of JM2,and the number of grains per ear and thousand-grain weight of CA9325.
     缺磷显著降低JM2的单株成穗数及CA932 5的穗粒数和千粒重。
短句来源
     The Influences of Different Ratio of Basic Tiller Fertilizer to Ear Granule Fertilizer on Ear Forming Rate and Output in Rice Seedling Throwing
     不同基蘖肥与穗粒肥比例对水稻抛秧成穗率及其产量的影响
短句来源

 

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      mature spike
    The mature spike rachis of wild emmer [Triticum turgidum L.
          
    GP1,2 is proteolytically processed into GP1 and GP2, which are disulfide linked and form the mature spike protein.
          
    The mature spike protein is inserted into the viral envelope, with most of the protein exposed on the surface of viral particles.
          


    In 1962 and 1963,the development of tillers,leaves and spikes of the winter wheat,varietyNung-ta 183,under the conditions of different planting dates were observed at Tai-ku,Shansi.Their relationships were recorded and summarized briefly as follows:1.The total number of nodes of each main culm is approximately the same as that ofthe leaves of the same culm.In a definite variety of wheat,the number of underground nodesof the main culm can be calculated through the following relations:Number of underground nodes...

    In 1962 and 1963,the development of tillers,leaves and spikes of the winter wheat,varietyNung-ta 183,under the conditions of different planting dates were observed at Tai-ku,Shansi.Their relationships were recorded and summarized briefly as follows:1.The total number of nodes of each main culm is approximately the same as that ofthe leaves of the same culm.In a definite variety of wheat,the number of underground nodesof the main culm can be calculated through the following relations:Number of underground nodes of the main culm=Number of leaves—5(nodes aboveground)—1(Bud sheath node).Not all the underground nodes form tillers.Empty-tiller nodes often appeared to be effect-ed by different temperatures.Although the number of underground nodes of Nung-ta 183 isusually six or seven,yet the tillers developed are from one to five or six only.Generally,thesixth or seventh node does not produce tillers.2.According to the order of development of the main culm and the first lateral tillers aswell as the ratio between them,three different types of tillering can be classified.It is noticedthat all the three types developed two larger tillers firstly from the main culm.This is ofimportance in controlling the rate of heading of tillers in wheat production.3.It is also found that when the planting date is at its optimum,the culms of the wheatpopulation are mostly composed of the tillers from the main culms and those of the first laterals.If the planting date is earlier than optimum,tillers from the secondary laterals appear in con-siderable amount.From all these,it seems that the importance of tillers to wheat yield isof no subordinate to the main culms.In case of late planting,when the seedlings do notemerge before winter,a considerable amount of effective tillers are also formed in the nextspring.It seems doubtful to consider that the tillers developed before winter are effectivewhile those which developed in the next spring are ineffective.4.The tillers from the first laterals,whether headed or not,are of great importance toprovide a maximum surface for photosynthesis.They serve as an agent in making the bestuse of the environment so as to help the development of the heads of the main culm and thefirst laterals.5.Within the population,the amount of the tillers developed from the main culm variesfrom 54% to 64%.The dry weight of the first two tillers of the main culm,as well as theeconomic characters of their spikes,are closely correlated with those of the main culm.Ashas been shown,therefore,field management should be carried out in such a way as to stimulatethe growth of the main culm,its first two tillers and tillers from the first laterals.Othertillers should be strictly prevented from existing.6.In plants of different planting dates,it is observed that the variations of the totalnumber of leaves per plant are due mainly to the variation of the number of underground nodeleaves.The amount of the underground node leaves is directly related to the duration of tillering as well as the number of tillers produced from each main culm.7.The dates of emergence of different leaves from a tiller correspond orderly withthat which emerged from the main culm.It is shown that,the number of total leaves per plantis highly correlated with that of the main culm(r>0.94).Emperical formula is devised incalculating the number of leaves of any tiller by the number of l(?)aves in its main culm.8.Before heading stage,new leaves develop continually,while old ones become wilt anddead by and by.As a result,the total number of the working leaves per stem maintains 3-5only at different stages.Observed data prevailed that headed tillers should have more thanseven leaves with their total working days up to 300 at least.Most of the unheaded deadtillers develop less than four leaves with 50-150 total working days.9.The date of the appearing of each tiller corresponds with that of a definite leaf fromthe main culm.The magnitude of correspondence varies with different laterals.So that thenumber of responsible tillers to each leaf increases according to the increas

    根据1962及1963两年,对于冬小麦农大183,在不同播期条件下,分蘖、叶片及穗部等性状的观察资料,分析了主茎、分蘖、叶片及穗部之间的关系;论述了分蘖或在组成小麦群体中的地位;各级分蘖成穗率及其经济性状的比较;叶片的功能期;叶龄与分蘖力的关系;主穗与分蘖穗在穗分化上的差异;穗群分化及叶龄指数和叶龄余数与穗分化的关系。文中还初步提出了根据主茎叶片数目,推算分蘖节数目、分蘖叶片数目及单株分蘖力的经验公式。

    The present report is the second part of a series work on the application of gibberellin on rice-plant.The effects of this growth substance applied at vegetative period were summarized as follows: The emergence and growth of tillers are important characters of rice-plants at vegetative period.In order to improve the features of tillers such as the earliness of tillering,the qualities of the tillers,the percentage of mature panicles among total tillers and the maturity and economic yields,the authors applied...

    The present report is the second part of a series work on the application of gibberellin on rice-plant.The effects of this growth substance applied at vegetative period were summarized as follows: The emergence and growth of tillers are important characters of rice-plants at vegetative period.In order to improve the features of tillers such as the earliness of tillering,the qualities of the tillers,the percentage of mature panicles among total tillers and the maturity and economic yields,the authors applied this growth subs- tance at vegetative period by foliar spray.The results show that gibberellin acts on the rice-plant in two-fold manner,it promotes the emergence of the main stems and the tillers to form bigger panicles soon after transplanting and inhibites the emer- gence and growth of the small latter tillers,then the number of tillers per area con- trolled and a higher yield may be obtained if this chemical is applied at the right time. The factors which influence the yields were:the control of the emergence of latter tillers,the decrease of ineffective tillers,the increase the output of the small tillers,concentrateion of the assimilates into the main stems and early formed tillers, and consequently bigger and more fertile panicles were formed.At the same time, such treatment may hasten the heading of young panicles and accelerates the processes in the filling of grains and early maturity. In order to obtain a higher yield and early ripe,as a rule,there are factors one must bear in mind:First,the time of application,it is suitable take to give the treatment at the end of effective-tiller stage,which is near the maximum tillering stage,about 20 to 25 days after transplanting.This above mentioned stage is earlier in spring varieties than autumn ones,and earlier in early duration varieties than late duration ones.Second,the concentration of gibberellin,10 ppm are quite proper for spring varieties and 20 ppm for autumn ones.The Japonica varieties may need a higher ppm than the Indica varieties.Finally,the number of fondamental seedlings per area must be more than the ordinary paddy fields in order to compensate the possible shortage of panicles by this treatment.

    水稻营养生长期喷施赤霉素可提早成熟,但增产效果不稳定。为获得早熟增产的效果,须喷施适时、浓度适宜、增加基本苗。水稻营养生长期喷施赤霉素有抑制分蘖出生,促进主茎和早出生分蘖生长的效应。正确运用这一效应,可以控制最高苗数和过剩分蘖,提高稻株的生理活性,增进优势蘖成穗,促进主茎和早出生分蘖的发育,获得穗大粒多、早熟增产的效果。

    Deep plowing and adding of organic fertilizers to improve soil fertility are the foundations of high and stable yield for wheat.In a highly fertilized soil,seeds may be sown at a reasonably early date.In so doing a good growth of individual plants, a uniform population with a good canopy,and a quite high rate of effective tillers can be expected. In our experiments we have adopted the following cultural routine: (a)A good choice of high yielding variety(our choice is A.U.139). (b)A reasonable early date of sowing....

    Deep plowing and adding of organic fertilizers to improve soil fertility are the foundations of high and stable yield for wheat.In a highly fertilized soil,seeds may be sown at a reasonably early date.In so doing a good growth of individual plants, a uniform population with a good canopy,and a quite high rate of effective tillers can be expected. In our experiments we have adopted the following cultural routine: (a)A good choice of high yielding variety(our choice is A.U.139). (b)A reasonable early date of sowing. (c)A sowing of 100,000 seedlings per mu(666.6 m~2). (d)A total of 700,000 tillers per mu before over-wintering(about 1.2 times the number of heads per mu)and more than 1,200,000 tillers per mu after winter- ing(about twice the number of heads per mu). (e)Finally,a total of 550,000—600,000 heads per mu when ripe.(There will be more than 26 grains per head,a 1,000 grains will weigh 36 g or higher,and the yield will be more than 500 kg per mu). In the district of Peking where winter wheat is usually sown in the autumn, the most important factor for high productivity is the rational control of spring tillering so as to achieve a good canopy.When Wheat land is highly fertilized and its moisture condition is good,the final watering(during the stage of grain filling) is applied about 20 days prior to maturity.A reasonable control of soil fertility (mainly available soil N)by proper management of irrigation is a profitable means to regulate the N-C metabolism to attain a higher weight of 1,000 grains.

    深耕、增施有机肥料培养地力,是夺取小麦高产稳产的基础。在肥沃地上适期精量播种,在保证个体良好发展的前提下,协调群体的发展,提高分蘖成穗率,是夺取高产的关键。适期播种的农大139品种,每亩10万苗左右,越冬前总茎数每亩70万左右,越冬后最高总茎数控制在每亩120万以内,每亩55—60万穗,每穗26粒以上,千粒重36克以上,即可获得每亩千斤左右的产量。在北京地区冬性品种,关键是控制好春季分蘖才能达到合理群体。肥足墒好的地块,灌浆水适当提早到成熟前20天左右,以水控肥(氮肥),有利于调整碳氮代谢,提高千粒重,夺取高产。

     
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