The optimal culture conditions to get cellulose were as follows: cellulose powder 3%,KNO3 3%,PEG 0.1%,initial pH6.5,25 mL medium in 250 mL flask,inoculating 1 day of seeds 10%,32 ℃ culture it for 5 days.
The activities of cellulose compositions reached the maximal values. In the optimal culture condition,the activities of CMcase,FPA and theβ-glucosidase were 24.52 u/mL,6.89 u/mL and 20.63 u/mL respectively.
The optimum ratio of raw material to liquid, the size of corn germ, cellulose dosage, protease dosage, reaction time for cellulose-catalyzed hydrolysis and for protease-catalyzed hydrolysis were 1:0.5, 120 mesh, 5000 U/g, 500U/g, 6h and 3h, respectively.
When cultured on cottonseed husk and bran(3∶2) adding 1%(NH4)2SO4 and 120% water,under 30℃,Aspergillus niger An54.2.2 could produce feed compound enzymes and the enzyme activities of cellulose,xylase,pectinase and proteinase were 698.864,1 268.592,24.242 IU/g and 485.950 U/g,respectively.
During enzymatic process, adding 2.0% proteinase and 1.5% cellulose at the same time, adjusting temperature 40℃ for 2h to 50℃ for 8h, the seperated oil was more than 90% of the total oil in the corn germ.
The results showed that the soybean sprout juice was used to culture mycelium and the mycelium age of 60h was used as operated material were easy to form protoplast. Under the action of 1.5% mixed enzyme (Snail enzyme: Cellulose enzyme =7:3) with 0.6M MgSo4 sucrose used as osmotic stabilizer, the protoplasts reached 1.61 ×10~7/ml, and the regeneration rate was 8.49%.
The biological characteristics of four strains fungi, named Trichoderma koningii (Y96301), Asperigillus oryzae (L96201), Geotrichum candidum link (Y96101) and Candidum utilis (P96401), were studied. Y96301 had high level cellulose enzyme (including CMCase, FPase and βGase)activty, its enzyme activities of CMC and FP reached 4511 IU and 1049 IU respectively.
Screening and Characterization of the High-Cellulase-Producing Strain Aspergillus glaucus XC9
A mildew strain with high cellulase activity was isolated from mildewy maize cob and classified as Aspergillus glaucus XC9 by morphological and 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses.
We studied the effects of nitrogen source, initial pH, temperature, incubation time, medium composition, and surfactants on cellulase production.
glaucus XC9 is a preferred candidate for cellulase production.
In order to reduce the total enzyme consumption in high-solids static hydrolysis of nonwashed steam-exploded willowSalix caprea by mixed cellulase ofTrichoderma reesei + Aspergillus foetidus, two different approaches were proposed.
The water-soluble glucan was obtained from Pleurotus florida fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE cellulose dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration.
Graft copolymers of hydroxylethyl cellulose (HEC) and PAA were prepared by free radical polymerization.
Thermo-sensitive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) hydrogel with fast response rate was prepared by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) in an aqueous hydroxyl-propyl-methyl cellulose solution.
Cellulose is a kind of renewable resource that is abundant in nature.
The corresponding conversion rate of cellulose to reducing sugars went as high as 81.9%.
The resulting delignified SEDW had good hydrolyzability, and cellulose-to-glucose conversion yields of over 90 and 100% could be achieved within 48 h with 20 and 40 filter paper units/g of cellulose enzyme loadings, respectively.
Corn fiber was subjected to ammonia-explosion (AFEX) treatment to increase degradability and then enzymatically digested with a combined mixture of commercial amylase, xylanase, and cellulase enzyme preparations.
Pretreatment studies of cellulose wastes for optimization of cellulase enzyme activity
Economical production of cellulase enzyme is key for feasible bioethanol production from ligh ocellulosics using an enzyme-based process.
If the pretreatment step is not severe enough, the resultant residue is not as easily hydrolyzed by the cellulase enzyme.
Using the simultaneoussaccharification and fermentation (SSF) technique, pulp mill solid waste cellulose was converted into glucose using cellulase enzyme and glucose into lacticacid using NRRL B445.