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微生物生态学
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  “微生物生态学”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Traditional culture-based methods are limited in their capacity for microbial ecological research on soils because only a small fraction of microbial inhabitants(0.1%~1%) in soils can be cultivated.
    传统的微生物生态学研究方法只限于环境样品中极少部分(0.1% ̄1%)可培养的微生物类群,极大程度地限制了对土壤微生物群落结构的研究。
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This paper summarized the research works on soil microbial ecology of steppe in

1980~1998年,在内蒙古锡林河流域等草原地区开展了土壤微生物生态学方面的系列研究。“干重换算法”为草原土壤微生物不同类群的生物量测定提供了一个较实用的方法;内蒙古不同草原和荒漠区土壤微生物活性具有不同的地理分布特征;锡林河流域六种植物群落下土壤微生物的区系组成及生物量分布亦有所不同;羊草等牧草具有明显的根际效应;不同放牧率及退化草场围栏恢复、落地油污染、施用稀土元素等人为因素会对土壤微生物数量及活性产生不同的生态效应;微生物多样化变化亦符合“中度干扰理论”;土壤微生物在草原生态系统物质转化和能量流动中起着非常重要的作用;植物残体分解过程中微生物类群存在明显的优势更替现象。

Few traditional methods are applicable in study of the microbial community in the field of microbial ecology in recent years, since most of them rely on the microscope and cultivation of bacteria on laboratory media, and it had been proved that only about 1% of total number of actively respiring bacterial cells can be cultured on laboratory media. In addition, less than 1% bacterial species have been isolated and characterized from soil samples. As a new DNA fingerprinting technique, denaturing gradient gel...

Few traditional methods are applicable in study of the microbial community in the field of microbial ecology in recent years, since most of them rely on the microscope and cultivation of bacteria on laboratory media, and it had been proved that only about 1% of total number of actively respiring bacterial cells can be cultured on laboratory media. In addition, less than 1% bacterial species have been isolated and characterized from soil samples. As a new DNA fingerprinting technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) can be used to analyze the microbial diversity in different environmental samples. Application of DGGE in this study had provided new ideas for study of the microbial community in soil. Seven soils in different farmland were sampled and their genomic DNA of microbial community were extracted directly in chemical method, which is based on lysis with a high-salt extraction buffer (1^5mol/L NaCl) and extend heating (2 to 3 h) of the soil suspension in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), CTAB and proteinase K. For seven soils with different texture in this study, different DNA yields were obtained. After purification of the genomic DNA by DNA gel Recovery kit, the 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) were amplified by using the specific primers (F 357GC and R 518). The result of agarose gel (1.7%) electrophoresis showed that the PCR products were about 230 bp. These amplified DNA fragments were then separated by paralleled DGGE with the denaturant (urea and formamide) from 30% to 50%. The profile of DGGE showed that different soils had the different bands' patterns. DGGE could clearly separate the amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) of different microbial community in soils, which make it possible to identify and define these 16S rDNA fragments by sequencing. For all DGGE profiles, there exist some common bands in all soil samples, which indicated that some kinds of microorganisms exist in each soil. On the other hand, the specific bands in some soils showed that different soils had the their own specific microorganisms. Compared to the traditional methods, DGGE could give more comprehensive information about the microbial community in soils. Our results showed that DGGE is a new and effective technique in analyzing microbial diversity.

变性梯度凝胶电泳技术 ( DGGE)在微生物生态学领域有着广泛的应用。研究采用化学裂解法直接提取出不同农田土壤微生物基因组 DNA,并以此基因组 DNA为模板 ,选择特异性引物 F357GC和 R518对 1 6Sr RNA基因的 V3区进行扩增 ,长约 2 30 bp的 PCR产物经变性梯度凝胶电泳 ( DGGE)进行分离后 ,得到不同数目且分离效果较好的电泳条带。结果说明 ,DGGE能够对土壤样品中的不同微生物的 1 6Sr RNA基因的 V3区的 DNA扩增片断进行分离 ,为这些 DNA片断的定性和鉴定提供了条件。与传统的平板培养方法相比 ,变性梯度凝胶电泳 ( DGGE)技术能够更精确的反映出土壤微生物多样性 ,它是一种有效的微生物多样性研究技术。

Since most species of microorganisms in soils are not cultivable in the laboratory, the investigation of their communities is a time-consuming and hard work by traditional culture procedure. Moreover, some wrong conclusions may be drawn. In the past decades, three kinds of culture-independent methods have been developed so that great progress has been made in this field. The biochemical method is to determinate the microbial communities by analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) of cell membrane. The metabolism-based...

Since most species of microorganisms in soils are not cultivable in the laboratory, the investigation of their communities is a time-consuming and hard work by traditional culture procedure. Moreover, some wrong conclusions may be drawn. In the past decades, three kinds of culture-independent methods have been developed so that great progress has been made in this field. The biochemical method is to determinate the microbial communities by analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) of cell membrane. The metabolism-based approach, through observations of the utilization patterns of 95 single-carbon sources performed on the BIOLOG microplates, can provide a lot of information about the microbial functional groups in the soils. The third method, molecular techniques, is most prevalently used to explore the microbial communities. Briefly, the molecular approach was started with the extraction and purification of total DNA from sample soils, followed by PCR-amplification of 16SrRNA gene with universal or special primers. As the analysis procedure of PCR products is different, a variety of approaches, for example, DGGE, RFLP and T-RFLP, have been established since 1990s. Among them, T-RFLP was developed based on the RFLP in 1997. This method combined ribosomal database project (RDP) into the analysis of microbial communities, and the number and constituents of species within a community were inferred just according to the number and intensity of the terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA gene. Performing T-RFLP is simple, with high resolution, and can be carried out automatically. Therefove it will play more and more important role in future research in microbial ecology of soils.

由于有相当数量的土壤微生物是目前不可培养的 ,因此利用传统培养技术来研究土壤微生物 ,不仅费时费力 ,所得到的结果可能和真实的情况相差甚远。近年来发展了三类不需培养的方法来研究土壤微生物的种类和数量 ,这些方法大体上分为生物化学、生理学和分子生物学三类。生物化学方法主要根据细胞膜磷脂酸 (PLFA)的种类和数量来判定微生物的多样性 ;BIOLOG微量板分析系统是生理学方法的代表 ,它主要是根据土样细胞悬液对 95种单一碳源的利用模式来说明群落结构的变化 ;分子生物学方法是发展应用最广的方法 ,基本步骤是提取土壤的总DNA ,然后用通用引物或选择性高的引物来扩增 16SrRNA基因。由于对扩增产物分析方法的不同 ,该方法又可分为PCR DGGE ,PCR RFLP等。最近在PCR RFLP基础上发展起来的T RFLP分析方法 ,将微生物的多样性分析工作同RDP(ribosomaldatabaseproject)数据库结合 ,充分利用了Internet的数据资源共享的优势 ,具有分辨率高 ,可实现自动化等优点 ,是未来土壤微生物生态学研究的有力工具。

 
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