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  official titles
    This article expounds the source of general terms in Modern Chinese from the following aspects:1? official titles.
    文章从四个方面阐述了现代汉语通称产生的途径 :(1)称呼语的官化
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  official titles
    This article expounds the source of general terms in Modern Chinese from the following aspects:1? official titles.
    文章从四个方面阐述了现代汉语通称产生的途径 :(1)称呼语的官化
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  “官化”译为未确定词的双语例句
    With the adjustment of the defending structure carried by emperor Xuan_zong and the changing of the frontier situation,the status of the captains became worthless and unsignificant in the period of Kaiyuan.
    随着唐玄宗对宿卫结构的调整以及唐代前期边防形势的变化,开元时期,卫统帅形成了虚官化、寄禄官化的局面。 本文采用考证和归纳相结合的方法对上述内容展开论述。
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  official titles
Although his official titles fluctuated from year to year, his power and influence continually increased.
      
The academic titles used in this document are the official titles for the 2003-2004 academic year.
      


When the source of authorization of local authority was shifted from the grassroot to the senior level,it signified a change in terms of supervision and patronage.Local au-thority began to act in favour of the senior authority and became a channel through which the government exercised control over the populace. In the course of time,this practice has been institutionalized.

本文从政治社会学角度对近代史的地方权威授权来源变化作了深刻的剖析,认为地方权威身份的官化过程,改变了基层权威原本向下的权力基础转而向上级,改变了基层权威的利益依赖和服务对象,并逐渐构成了一种新管辖体制的社会基础:利用官方名分合法化其独有规则,而不是把它们分开,这成为基层治理的普遍特征;原先以集聚财富为本的自治之道合理地进入官制之道,官事和私事互利与互用被制度化。

The roving brave in Sima Qian's definition was an ideal personage. Once the brave was brought to the social arena, he had to attache to a certain political clique losing his independent character. From the Wei and Jin on the braves appeared to play the bully. A brave in the Tang Dynasty was a chivalry and a despot as well, presenting the various characters he was imbued. The braves in the Song Dynasty went secularized, when a chivalry the superb, when a rebel accepting amnesty an instrument of the ruler,...

The roving brave in Sima Qian's definition was an ideal personage. Once the brave was brought to the social arena, he had to attache to a certain political clique losing his independent character. From the Wei and Jin on the braves appeared to play the bully. A brave in the Tang Dynasty was a chivalry and a despot as well, presenting the various characters he was imbued. The braves in the Song Dynasty went secularized, when a chivalry the superb, when a rebel accepting amnesty an instrument of the ruler, the way unfold for him to go to his tragic end. In the Qing Dynasty, the brave sought to be a Mandarin losing all the manner, style, and qualities which marked a brave in the Qin and the Han Dynasties.

司马迁界定的游侠特征 ,只是理想的人格追求 ,然自侠登上社会舞台始 ,就走上依附于某种政治集团的道路 ,逐渐丧失了独立的人格 ,魏晋以降侠向豪强化转变 ;唐代侠亦豪亦侠 ,形态各异 ,提供了侠的诸性格 ;宋明时期的侠已世俗化 ,身处独行侠时 ,尚具有游侠精神 ,接受招安则沦为统治集团工具 ,开辟了侠的悲剧道路 ;清代侠已彻底官化 ,秦汉特立独行的侠风荡失。

This article expounds the source of general terms in Modern Chinese from the following aspects:1?official titles. 2?forms of address of relatives. 3?other fields. 4?forms of address which were discarded. Then the article points out the fact that Chinese has no true general terms.

文章从四个方面阐述了现代汉语通称产生的途径 :(1)称呼语的官化。 (2 )亲属称谓的泛化。 (3)其他领域称谓的借用。 (4)废弃称谓的重新启用。并且文章指出“汉语缺乏真正的通称”这一事实。

 
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