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性别平等
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  gender equality
Moreover the Huntington thesis fails to identify the most basic cultural fault line between the West and Islam, which concerns the issues of gender equality and sexual liberalization.
      
Although democratic institutions existed long before gender equality, at this point in history, growing emphasis on gender equality is a central component of the process of democratization.
      
Support for gender equality is not just a consequence of democratization.
      
Gender equality and reproductive rights were used as intervening factors.
      
Empirical findings indicate the importance of economic development, gender equality, and personal marriage and divorce rights in predicting reproductive health.
      
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  sex equality
In the way of women; men's resistance to sex equality in organizations
      
Although the new Directive generally reflects the spirit of the case law of the E.C.J., it does so without any originality or pro-activism meaning that the European legislature has once again left the initiative of pursuing sex equality in the E.U.
      
Sex equality in the labour market and the community legal order: An attempt at an appraisal
      
Degree of sex equality in rural areas of the U.S.S.R.
      
on women's participation in production as the key to sex equality ignores other dimensions of sex stratification which are not changed using this tactic.
      
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The sex classes results from the continuous interpretation and construction by the male supremacy culture in the course of human evolution, and gender is the best tool to probe the cause of it. The sex division of labor in the primitive society of men tilling the land and women weaving formed the demarcation line between the family relations and public relations. In the public relations, men demanded more and more equality out of their selfish nature, for which finally legislated. In the family relations, equality...

The sex classes results from the continuous interpretation and construction by the male supremacy culture in the course of human evolution, and gender is the best tool to probe the cause of it. The sex division of labor in the primitive society of men tilling the land and women weaving formed the demarcation line between the family relations and public relations. In the public relations, men demanded more and more equality out of their selfish nature, for which finally legislated. In the family relations, equality and justice seems unnecessary because of intimacy, but since the females haven't participated in the legislation for public relations, sex equality has been reflected neither in public realm nor in family relation. In the end the delimitation between the public and private realm was accepted in laws, on the base of which build up the social model of sex classes, and the law theory representing the male supremacy culture has continuously been trying its best to conceal and strengthen the essence of socialized gender, especially the contract social theory. It puts the law under the veil of justice on the pretext of that the laws are favored by all citizens, and becomes the accomplice of concealing the gender, disregarding the fact that females are excluded from the contracts. Even Rawls' s theory of the veil of ignorance ignored the sex equality and just as they are taken for granted. Although the positive law put forward much contradictory idea against the natural law, they allied in concealing social gender. The relation and cooperation of law and its theory make the social gender and the class model constantly deduced, constructed and strengthened under the banner of neutrality.

性别等级是在人类社会进化的过程中,主要由男权文化不断解释与不断塑造的结果,社会性别这一概念是探求这一原因最好的分析工具。原初社会"男耕女织"的性别分工成为家庭关系与公共关系的分野。在公共关系中,男人在自利心的驱使下渐生平等的要求,并在平等诉求下形成法律;而在家庭关系中因为亲情而使平等与公正成为多余。由于女性并未参与公共关系中的法律建设,致使性别平等既不能在公共领域中得以表达,也不能在家庭关系中得以体现。最终,法律认同了公共领域与私人领域的划分,并在这一基础上建构起了性别等级的社会模式。而代表男权文化的法律理论也极尽"科学"之能,不断地掩盖和强化性别社会化的实质,尤以社会契约论为最。社会契约论以法律为公民同意之结果而使法律披上了公正的面纱,却因为无视女性没有成为契约主体的事实而沦为掩盖社会性别的帮凶。即便是罗尔斯的"无知之幕"理论也因为无法排除性别的先天知晓而成为法律平等与公正的神话。虽然,实证主义法学与自然法学在许多理论问题上存在着针锋相对的观点,但在制造并掩盖社会性别上也成了同盟军。法律与法律理论的紧密联系与有机配合终于迫使社会性别及其等级模式在法律中立的旗帜下不断地得以演绎、建构和强化。

Being a legal method of analysis, gender is the product of international feminist movement, particularly, the feminist legal movement. To examine women's human rights with a gender perspective, one needs to move from a “women centered" approach to a “gender centered" approach. Only thus, can we break away from campaigning women's human rights among women themselves and cover both men's and women's roles, demands and status at a more extensive and comprehensive level. The mainstreaming of gender into the...

Being a legal method of analysis, gender is the product of international feminist movement, particularly, the feminist legal movement. To examine women's human rights with a gender perspective, one needs to move from a “women centered" approach to a “gender centered" approach. Only thus, can we break away from campaigning women's human rights among women themselves and cover both men's and women's roles, demands and status at a more extensive and comprehensive level. The mainstreaming of gender into the development process will not only benefit the advancement of women's human rights, but also provide a practical avenue for the progress of human rights as a whole. In addressing women's human rights with a gender perspective, we can draw on the experiences of feminist legal theory. However, China should follow her own road of development of women's rights, relying on both internationalization and indigenalization.

社会性别作为一种法律分析方法是国际女权运动尤其是女权主义法学运动的产物。用社会性别对妇女人权的考察需首先完成从“以妇女为本”到“以社会性别为本”的转变,这样才能打破在妇女内部谈妇女人权的限制,从一个更广阔的层面涵盖男女两性的角色,需求,地位及相互间关系。扭转妇女人权的边缘化并将性别平等纳入发展主流,这不仅有利于妇女人权发展,也为整个人权的发展开辟出一条可行的路径。用社会性别对妇女人权的考量方法是一个值得探讨的问题,女权主义法学对妇女人权的分析方法可以借鉴,但中国必须走自己的妇女人权发展之路,国际化和本土化是中国妇女人权发展不能偏废的两个重要途径。

Natural person's sex by no means individual privacy,the sex differentiates natural person's basic basis,is inconsistent in natural person's sexual charater with the chromosome time,should determine its sex by the chromosome,has the completely civil capacity the natural person may choose own under the certain condition sex.But the parents do not have the option to embryo's sex.The natural person's sex has the extremely important legal function: The sex is influential to natural person's behavior.Sex equality(equality...

Natural person's sex by no means individual privacy,the sex differentiates natural person's basic basis,is inconsistent in natural person's sexual charater with the chromosome time,should determine its sex by the chromosome,has the completely civil capacity the natural person may choose own under the certain condition sex.But the parents do not have the option to embryo's sex.The natural person's sex has the extremely important legal function: The sex is influential to natural person's behavior.Sex equality(equality of the sexes) is civilized society's attribute,is human society development inevitable result.

自然人的性别并非个人隐私,性别是区分自然人的基本依据,在自然人的性征与染色体不一致时,应以染色体确定其性别。具有完全民事行为能力的自然人在一定的条件下可以选择自己的性别,但父母对胎儿的性别没有选择权。自然人的性别具有十分重要的法律功用:性别对自然人的行为有影响。性别平等(男女平等)是文明社会的表征,是人类社会发展的必然结果。

 
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