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地理     
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  geography
    A Preliminary Study on The Urban Geography of Nanking
    南京都市地理初步研究
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    SEVERAL PROBLEMS ABOUT HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY IN THE SOUTHERN ROAD OF ANCIENT "SHI-YU
    古代西域南道上的若干历史地理问题
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    A BRIEF REVIEW OF CHINESE INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY IN 1940-1949
    中国地理研究所(1940—1949年)纪略
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    A Bibliography of Political Geography in English
    英文政治地理书目
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    RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA
    中国历史地理研究的新进展
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  geographical
    Historical Geographical Study of Buddhist Culture in Northwest China
    西北佛教历史文化地理研究
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    THIRTY YEARS' GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA
    我国地理教育三十年
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    A HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY ON THE VIOLET BAMBOO SHOOT TEA OF GUZHU, CHANGXIN COUNTY, ZHEJIANG PROVINCE
    紫笋茶的历史地理研究
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    ON A FEW MATTERS OF LOCAL GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY AND ITS EDUCATION
    关于乡土地理研究与教育的几个问题
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    THE STUDY CATEGORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT TREND OF THE MODERN GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCE
    现代地理科学的研究范围和发展趋势
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  geographic
    To Renew Geographic Science with the Sciences Converge Theory and the Synthetic Integrated Method
    用科学汇合理论和综合集成方法更新地理科学
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    The Development of Geography and the Conceiving of the System of the Geographic Science
    地理学的发展与地理科学体系的构想
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    Transition of Regional Geographic Education in American Universities: Case Study of Asian Geography Courses
    美国大学区域地理教育的发展与变迁——以亚洲地理教育为例
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    Remote Sensing Information Model and Geographic Mathematics
    遥感信息模型与地理数学
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    Geographic Course Focusing on Sustainable Development
    地理课程对可持续发展教育的关怀
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  in geography
    Aprobe into environmental education in geography teaching
    地理教学中的环境教育方法探讨
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    Study on Reform of Practice Teaching in Geography Department of Normal College in the 21st Century
    21世纪高师地理专业实践教学改革探索
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    Discuss Modern National Citizen's Quality in Geography Science and Geography Education
    论现代国民的地理科学素质与地理学科教育
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    Cultivation of Innovative Ability in Geography Teaching
    地理教学中创新能力的培养
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    Direction and content of China's innovation in geography education in the 21st century
    21世纪我国地理教育改革的方向和内容
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  geography
The digital elevation model (DEM), an important source of information, is usually used to express a topographic surface in three dimensions and to imitate essential natural geography.
      
DEM has been applied to physical geography, hydrology, ecology, and biology.
      
First, ecological water requirements in a basin scale indicate not only the coupling of hydrological and ecological systems, but also the exchange of matter and energy between each ecological type through all kinds of physical geography processes.
      
The Geography of the Stationary Gene Migration Rate in the Human Population of Northern Eurasia
      
This paper summarizes a series of studies on chromosomal geography of the common shrew Sorex araneusL.
      
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  geographical
We develop a method to estimate the power spectrum of a stochastic process on the sphere from data of limited geographical coverage.
      
On the basis of classification of geographical properties a rolling development goal programming model is formulated in correspondence with the ecopattern group in Four-Lake Area.
      
Results showed that topographic characteristics and disturbance pattern have much more impacts on the distribution of landscape elements than do horizontal geographical position in the study area.
      
Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was applied on the research data of five geographical-climatic factors and 18 phenotypic characters of 729 trees of 24 populations of Melia azedarach distributed in China.
      
The isogram of the PCGA was drawn out with 0.2 contours, which showed a geographical model with a northeast-southwest variation trend of the phenotypic characters of M.
      
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  geographic
With geographic information system (GIS), the ecological water requirement for forests in the Jinghe watershed, western China was estimated.
      
Such tendency suggests that the allele frequency in these three loci may be correlated with the species' geographic distributions.
      
Variation in sexual reproduction may strongly affect plant's adaptation to local environments and the evolution of the geographic range.
      
Using the ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, a case study was carried out by selecting the population of Pinus massoniana from a needle-and broad-leaved mixed forest community in the Heishiding Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province.
      
In this study, remotely sensed data and the geographic information system were applied to analyze the changes in land cover along topographic gradients from 1978 to 2001 in Beijing, a rapidly urbanized mega city in China.
      
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  in geography
Through an extensive literature search in geography, anthropology, range management, and development field, the second part introduces cases that we categorize as positive adaptations.
      
Advances in applied studies of fractal theory in geography in China
      
The complex problems in geography have become the main positive study field of fractal theory.
      
A much neglected area of inquiry in geography is the analysis of spatial processes.
      
As well as conceptual justifications and descriptions of our work, we provide examples throughout to concretize the ideas presented, using learning objects developed for college-level education in geography and the geosciences.
      
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  其他


Infolge der Fernwirkungen der Oberflachenzirkulation des Indischen Ozeans berwiegt also im Suezkanal in den 9 Monaten Oktober/Juni ein Wassertransport nach Norden vom Golf von Suez zum Mittelmeer, wobei am Kanalboden mehr oder minder weitreichende rucklaufige Bewegungen auftreten, die von der Salzanreicherung des Grossen Bittersees ausgehen. Im Vierteljahr Juli/September setzt sich bei ausgeglichenen Niveauverhaltnissen der Einfluss der vorherrschenden Nordwind durch und bewirkt einen Sudstrom, der zwar im nordlichen...

Infolge der Fernwirkungen der Oberflachenzirkulation des Indischen Ozeans berwiegt also im Suezkanal in den 9 Monaten Oktober/Juni ein Wassertransport nach Norden vom Golf von Suez zum Mittelmeer, wobei am Kanalboden mehr oder minder weitreichende rucklaufige Bewegungen auftreten, die von der Salzanreicherung des Grossen Bittersees ausgehen. Im Vierteljahr Juli/September setzt sich bei ausgeglichenen Niveauverhaltnissen der Einfluss der vorherrschenden Nordwind durch und bewirkt einen Sudstrom, der zwar im nordlichen Teile des Kanals nicht die ganze Wassersaule erfasst und hier offenbar von einem salzreichen, nach Norden gerichteten Bodenstrom unter lagert wird. (John Lee)

海水盐分之浓度,在各大洋中,平均皆在35‰上下,惟红海以地理关系,盐分特高,几达40‰,在红海湾内,且达43‰,然此尚不算大,苏彝士运河内之盐分,竟高至56‰,大概为世界盐分最高之海道矣。苏彝士运河盐分所以如此之高,盖因其中部有大苦湖,湖底积有盐层之故。但自运河开凿后,因海水之流通,运河盐分已在逐年减低(水面盐分平均每年减低0.18‰,大苦湖底每年约减低0.30‰),而大苦湖底之盐层亦渐次溶消矣。

1.Regional Geography had an important position for a long period in the history of geography. But since the 1950s regional geography has seldom been studied. The writer considers that its causes are as follows; first, science has splitted up increasingly, systematic geography has developed fast, yet synthetic research work is relatively weak; secondly, there are weakness and difficulties in studying regional geography,2.Geography has two most prominent characteristics, regionalism and synthesis. The high synthesis...

1.Regional Geography had an important position for a long period in the history of geography. But since the 1950s regional geography has seldom been studied. The writer considers that its causes are as follows; first, science has splitted up increasingly, systematic geography has developed fast, yet synthetic research work is relatively weak; secondly, there are weakness and difficulties in studying regional geography,2.Geography has two most prominent characteristics, regionalism and synthesis. The high synthesis of the interaction between man and land on the basis of regions is unique to geography,In this sense, the main characteristic of geography is shown mostly in regional geography.Regional geography synthetically deals with the interrelated geographical elements which give certain commonness and uniqueness to the region. There are a lot of synthetic problems concerning regional geography in practice.Re-gional geography should play the role it should do. In order to develop geo-. graphy completely, it is necessary to rejuvenate regional geography.3.The old regional geography can't meet the needs of today's situation, we should reform regional geography on the basis of modern science.(1) Persistng in the Regional and Synthetic View.The important facts and characteristics of geography within a region should be comprehensively explored with an synthetic eye.Every element and part of a region should be understood thoroughly .On this basis the synthesis on a higher level can be made.(2) Taking Man and Land Relationship as the Research CoreThe theory of man and land relationship of today has been further devel-oped than before. How to coordinate the relationship between man and nature has become the important aim of geography. Geography studies the areal systems of man and land relationship.According to certain indexes,the areal systems on the earth surface can be divided into regions with different sizes, and the man and land relationship within these regions is the research core of regional geography.( 3 ) Taking Topical Study as the Main FormOn the basis of a comprehensive study of a region,some prominent aspects within a region which belong to man and land relationship and reflect the characteristic of the region would be selected and studied thoroughly. The geographical background and the associated elements that caused some problems would be focused and stated. How to impel and turn these problems to benefit human society -would be discussed.(4) Applying Quantitative Method, Constructing Various Models and Making System AnalysisWe should make full use of the modern techniques and means and scientific methods in regional geography, thus promoting the modernization of the research work of regional geography.

区域地理学在地理学史上长期居重要地位,但是五十年代以后一度衰落。区域性和综合性是地理学的两个特点。区域地理学综合研究赋予区域某种同一性和独特性的相互联系的地理要素。实践中有大量综合性课题涉及区域地理问题,区域地理学应该重新得到重视。 旧的区域地理学已不适应当前形势的要求,应当在现代科学的基础上改造区域地理学。必须(1)坚持区域观点和综合观点;(2)以人地关系作为研究核心;(3)以论题研究为主要形式;(4)应用计量方法,建立多种模式,进行系统分析。充分利用先进的技术手段和科学的方法,以促进区域地理研究工作的现代化。

The region discussed in this article is within the realm of the southern fringe of the Taklamakan Desert. It is situated along the ancient Silk Road between Khotan and Ruo-chiang. This article was written on the basis of field investigations and analysis of historical materials.The theme includes three problems.(1) Whether or not a river existed along the southern fringe of the Taklamakan Desert in the historical period? It was recorded in "Shui-jing-ju" (A Commentary on ancient river system) that there was...

The region discussed in this article is within the realm of the southern fringe of the Taklamakan Desert. It is situated along the ancient Silk Road between Khotan and Ruo-chiang. This article was written on the basis of field investigations and analysis of historical materials.The theme includes three problems.(1) Whether or not a river existed along the southern fringe of the Taklamakan Desert in the historical period? It was recorded in "Shui-jing-ju" (A Commentary on ancient river system) that there was a river called"Nan ho" (south river) flowing from Khotan eastward along the southern fringe of the Taklamakan Desert and pouring into the "Lou-Lan Sea" (now Lop-Nor) .This concerns an important problem about historical geography, that is, Whether or not the river system of this region had experienced a fundamental change.After analysing many historical materials and modern geographical works, we find that no Nan-ho existed there throughout historical poriod.(2) Did the number of Oasis between Khotan and Ruo-Chiang gradually increase or reduce throughout historical period? Since it reflects whether the struggle of man against desertification succeeded or failed it is an important problem too.After comparing several records in historical books from Han to ching dynasty, we find that the mumber of Oasis has increased gradually period by period.(3) East of Khotan several settlements and towns had been abolished, and the main road had been shifted too. What were the causes behind these phenomena? For solving the problems, the ruins of Andere, Niya and old Cherchen were selected and discussed in this article

本文探讨塔克拉玛干沙漠南沿、和田以东至若羌间的几个历史地理问题。1,历史时期,塔里木盆地南沿上是否有过一条与北方塔里木河相对应的“南河”?笔者认为是没有的。2,自古以来,和田以东的绿洲数目是在逐期增多或是逐期减少?笔者认为是逐期增多。3,历史时期,和田以东出现过几处绿洲城镇废弃和交通路线改线的现象,笔者就其中的安迪尔、且末、尼雅三地的历史演变作了初步探讨。

 
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