The results show that the limit of the bearing capacity of the final stage water price is 0.14～0.165 yuan/m3. At this time, the water rate has a percentage of 18.05%～21.27% of the net income, a percentage of 7.83%～9.23% of the total cost and a percentage of 5.46%～6.44% of the total production value.
This main existing problem is that water resource utilization efficiency of irrigation district is low, the management main body is not clear, the fund of water conservancy construction and management is lack, irrigation facilities are old, the degree of water users participatory in irrigation management is low, the water rate is impropriated in the midway and so on.
Through characteristics analysis and utilization evaluation of water resources in Zhangye city, explained the problems existed in sustainable utilization and development of water resources including scarcity of water resources, deterioration of ecological environments and so on, put forward the countermeasures such as saving water, reforming water rate and improving ecological environment etc.
Combined with technology of water fee charged by household in residential water system,it analyzes faults of old residential water system in operation and puts forward technical measures of water fee charged by household from aspects of one meter each house、water meter out doors、cassette water and meter reading far away.
The average yearly water charge in nine IDs from 2000 to 2005 was 854.9yuan/ha that accounted for 18.56% of the whole agricultural investment,also the yearly mean water charge has shown an increasing trend year after year from 2000 to 2005;
the water prices are thought reasonable and acceptable by regular farmers,and the farmers are willing to pay if the water charge is about 4%~6% of the farmers income(i.e.,6%~8% of the expenses),which means that the water charge does not surpass the economic and psychological bearing capacity of farmer.
In prompting reform of agricultural water pricing,it is suggested to establish compensation system that introduce scientific investment system,improve end-canal construction system and management,regulate agricultural water charges collection,usage and management.
Water Resources fees and agricultural water charges become the hot point of rural areas at present due to the abortion of agricultural tax and gradually abortion of fee collection by townships and villages.
To ensure the sustainability of the Irrigation Management Companies in long term, they may have to increase the water fee by 3.75 times the current rate set by the provincial government (US$ 20 per ha).
At the time of the fieldwork, users paid 0.008 US$/m3 to the PES scheme, which was about 6% of the normal water fee for households.
Berkeley residents already pay a storm water fee of about $17 for the average homeowner with a 1,900 square-foot home.
They are composed of the water fee and the sewer fee, and it is constant for the whole service area.
Water fee collection is not a problem in these areas where such approach was used in general.
The cost of irrigation water to the farmers in Mendoza Province consists of three components; canal cleaning by the farmer, a water charge to their Users Association (UA) and a water charge to the provincial Irrigation Department (DGI).
Neverthelesschoosing a relevant water charge does notensure by itself the sustainability of anirrigation scheme.
There was a major improvement of simulated lake water charge balance acid neutralising capacity (ANC) from 1990 to 2010 in all lakes.
If there is no organization to collect the water charge, establishing a tax system may be an alternative method.
Reference is made in the document that water charge collection through revenue office is efficient and effective to collect higher charges.
Water use efficiencies are shown to be less than 50% but are markedly higher in irrigation districts with volumetric compared to those with fixed water charges.
Resource scarcity is partly reflected where it increases the water supply costs; the indirect use and non-use values and external impacts are not incorporated in the water charges.
It discusses, for instance, the relation of field data with the generally endorsed presumption that water charges only influence irrigation efficiency if they are levied by volume.
In the Senegal River Delta newlyestablished water users associations (WUAs)have chosen low water charges, which areaffordable for the majority of farmers butwhich underestimate long-term maintenancecosts.
By linking water charges collected to the revenue of the irrigation agency, the effectiveness and performance of the agency can also be enhanced.