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科学
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  the science
     According to the documentation issued by the Ministry of Education of China in the July of 2001, the Science (7-9 grade) Course Standards of Compulsory Education, four versions of Science Experimental Textbooks were published by Zhejiang Press, Shanghai Educational Press, East China Normal University Press and Wuhan Press respectively, and these textbooks have undertook field trials in related region since then.
     2001年7月,国家教育部制定了《义务教育科学(7~9年级)课程标准(实验稿)》,接着分别由浙江出版社、上海教育出版社、华东师范大学出版社和武汉出版社分别出版了四套《科学》实验教材,并开始在实验区试用。
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     In the second period curriculum reform of Shanghai, the Science course emphasizes science investigation and attaches importance to students' problem consciousness to find and resolve problem.
     上海市二期课改新推出的《科学》课程强调科学探究,注重学生问题意识和问题解决能力的培养。
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     Under the instruction of PEI theory, the teaching practice is performed in the science course of the junior middle school.
     本研究在问题化教学设计理论的指导下,在初中《科学》课程教学中开展了问题化教学的实践探索。
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     He is the active propellant of the activities of the Science Society of China and the main prolocutor of the society in the international academic meetings.
     作为《科学》早期主要的撰稿人之一,他在《科学》上的作品涉及科学、音乐、语言学、哲学等领域,为以自然科学为主的《科学》月刊增添了许多人文色彩。
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     On the basis of the development and reform of the theory of science education, the article did preliminary research on the reform and practice of the science curricula under the background of the development of progressive science education. The article resumptively introduced the process and experiences of the reform of science curricula in and abroad, discussed some basic concepts and notions of science education and integrated science curriculum, and focused on Science curriculum, a curriculum for grade 6-7 students in Shanghai.
     本论文以当前科学教育理论发展与改革时代背景为依据,对现代科学教育发展背景下的科学课程改革与实践进行了初步研究,文中概括介绍了国内、外科学课程改革的历程和经验,论述了一些有关科学教育和综合科学课程的基本概念和基本认识,并着重对上海市6、7年级《科学》课程和教材进行了深入的分析。
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  magazine of science
     The Great Effort of the Enlightenment of "Science":An Investigation Mainly-Based on the Magazine of Science Published Around the May 4th Movement
     求诸“科学”的启蒙努力——以五四前后《科学》杂志为中心的考察
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     Before and after the May 4th Movement,both "science" and "democracy" became banners in the drive for new culture in which the magazine of Science sponsored by the Science Society of China played an important role,for it not only perfected the concept of science concept and made the spirit and method of science which had promoted quite a number of scholars to learn and reserch,but also made the universality of scientific knowledge part of the enlightenment.
     五四前后掀起的“科学思潮”成为新文化运动高举的“科学”与“民主”两面大旗之一,中国科学社主办的《科学》杂志在此间扮演了重要的角色,它的作用不仅在于对科学概念的完善,使它提倡的科学的精神和方法影响了当下许多学人的治学,而且对科学知识的普及也成为启蒙运动的一部分而不容忽视。
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  “《科学》”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Study on Desktop-VR-Based Web Courseware Design for Junior Science Curriculum
     基于桌面VR技术的初中《科学》Web课件设计研究
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     Inquiry Teaching in Science
     《科学》课程中的探究教学
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     Chapter One discusses the aim and policy of the journal and presents the importance of science localization to China's development of science.
     文章内容分为三章:第一章主要论述《科学》杂志的创刊宗旨及方针,提出科学本土化问题对中国科学发展的重要性。
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     The Analysis on the Educational Equipment and Experimental Teaching in the Middle School
     中学教学仪器装备与实验教学现状的分析与对策——微型实验在初中《科学》教学中的应用
短句来源
     The author attempts to study the approaches to integrate local and global resources into a fresh and qualified curricula of "Science" and "History and Society",in line with learners' world of life and science,to escalate scientific and humanitarian spirit and meet the requirement of presupposition and generation in teaching.
     为了满足新课程改革的要求,达到《科学》和《历史与社会》的课程标准,促使学生更好地发展,综合课程的课程资源开发必须结合本土资源与全球资源,联系学生的生活世界和科学世界,提升科学精神和人文精神,满足课堂教学的预设性和生成性。
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  science monthly
In 1872 Youmans founded the Popular Science Monthly which sold eleven thousand copies per month.
      
  the science
It is not only the foundation and means of imagination, conception, the science, and the technology of material change, but also the expression of national economy, national defense, and the support industries.
      
The science of epigenetics is the study of all those mechanisms that control the unfolding of the genetic program for development and determine the phenotypes of differentiated cells.
      
How we are cited: Russian analytical chemistry in the mirror of the science citation index (1991-2004)
      
Russian journals publishing articles in analytical chemistry are almost wholly covered by the Science Citation Index.
      
A review of achievements in the science of catalysis that have seen use in industry is presented.
      
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Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax...

Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax insect in the wax-producing districtusually appears short annually, due to a peculiarity in the growth of this creature;and therefore naturally exist two correlative districts, that is a district of adultproduction and one of wax production. As these two.districts are located morethan 500 kilometres apart,every year the female adults ready to be transplantedon he feeding trees in the district of wax production have to be supplied bythe district of adult production, and they must be carried over a long distance.The carriage of the female adults of the wax insect from one place to theother has been practiced for about five hundred years by the people engaged inwax production. This article reports on a test of transportation of the female adults of the wax insect from Paikuowan (白菓湾) in Hweili County (会理县), formerly of SikangProvince to Huhtaokou (核桃沟) in Omei County (峨眉县), Szechwan Province.Investigations in this connection were made from the April 30 to May 13, 1941. It has long been the aim of the growers to produce the female adults of theinsect and the wax in the same locality. With this realized, the area of wax pro-duction would be enlarged, and the quantity of wax increased. However, as the female adults of the insect in the distr .ct of wax produc-tion are subject to such natural adversities as geographical features, temperatureand humidity, parasitic enemies etc., up to the present they cannot be raised andsapplied insufficient quantity in this district. For this reason, to in prove themethod of transporting the adults female insects to the wax-producing district, toShorten the time on the way,and to increase the vitality of the male larvae-all these have become the crucial questions in the promotion of wax production. The principal explanation, knowh for centuries, with regard to the impossi-bility to raise the female adults of the insects in the district of wax productionhas been the peculiar fact that the female larvae could not be carried in quickorder to a place over 500 kilometres apart. The present test has proved that al-though the female larvae were, in the greater part, hatched out on the way, therewere still a part of them reaching the destination in safety. Valuable informat-ion was also obtained on the hatching rate of the male and female larvae on theway, the influence of environmental factors on the sex ratio, the different speciesof parasitic enemies, etc.. It is hoped thet the facts thus ascertained will be ofservice to improving the methods of wax production.

白蜡虫是我国的特产,古代农民远在元朝已有饲养。在过去全国的白蜡年产量约在五万至十万担间,据1918年重庆海关报告有一万一千余担,值银七十七万余海 关两。解放前一、二十年来,由于国民党反动派的不重视和摧残,已逐渐衰落。白蜡是化学工业上的重要原料,用途很广,饲养蜡虫又是西南各省农民的主要副业,而且农民群众已积累了非常丰富的传统经验。因此,为了总结群众经验,发扬科学遗产,改进饲养技术,振兴蜡业,我们希望能引起有关方面的注意和进一步研究,除研究改进白蜡虫的经管技术外,又须注意白蜡在工业上的用途。 白蜡虫的种蜡异地繁荣,在目前已成为自然的形势,而蜡区种虫不能自给,是白蜡业发展上的基本障碍。我们通过本次测验之后,认为我国适于蜡虫(雄虫)繁育的地方很多,如四川、湖南、浙江、安徽、福建、江西、江苏等丘陵地带都可扑虫产蜡,关键问题在于改善运种方法。在目前我国交通运输业已有普遍发展的基础上,只要用航空运种即可在短时间内将种虫运送至全国蜡区。扩大蜡区,增加农民副业收入,发扬我国科学遗产,为国家创造财富,利用益虫为生产服务,在目前已完全有实现的可能。

~~

著者在本文裹提出了確定结構物安全度的新方法——半或然率法。这个方法以統計学和或然率理論为基礎。它採用了一系列考慮結構具体受力条件的係數,与允許应力法不同。它可以藉助其他在統計学力面研究較好的事故或然率与建築事故或然率相比較的方法,从而使我们有可能將它应用於因缺乏某些統訓資料而不能应用極限狀态法的國家。用这个方法不須要確定一个最低的屈服極限,所以有可能在相应的情况下提高允許应力。因此,作为一个结構物安全度科学方面的新方向,这个方法是值得土木工程師的注意的。

As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until...

As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until December 1950, no further developments were made. The main instruments we had in 1950 were: a 80mm Prin transit with impersonal micrometer, two Leroy pendulums as standard clocks, three astronomical clocks and their slaves, equipments for receiving and recording time signals, etc. Since 1952, we began to make some improvements, especially on rhythmic signals. First, we converted a common clock into a "transmitting clock" to obtain 61 impulses in every minute and second by making use of photoelectric arrangement (Fig. 1), we succeeded to raise the accuracy of our signals. To improve signal accuracy further, we have to deal with various sources of errors which are conditioned by our equipments. The most important among these are: 1. error in prediction of corrections of the standard clocks, 2. error in the adjustment of the transmitting clock and 3. time lag in transmission. In consequence of last three-year's research, these errors are reasonably reduced. The first two are now±0~s.007 and ±0~s.005 respectively and the last is small. Accordingly, the deviation of time signals XSG has been supposed to be±0~s.01. However, this is not enough for the requirement. The more efforts are being made to bring further improvements. But as the requirements for signal accuracy is far above what the present installation can offer, some new equipments are ordered and they will joint in force with the old ones in the nearest future. Since February 1954, Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory has cooperated with the time service departments in Soviet Union. This has been helpful to our works in every way.

授時包括测時、守時和播時三个主要方面。在時號的发播中包含了预報主钟改正量的差误,工作钟的調節誤差和電路遲滯变化等三种誤差。如果使用石英钟及有關设备,这就可基本解决。各台站在其天文观测基础上订定的時號改正數也包含有偶然差和系统差,比較全面解決的只有蘇聯和国際時間局这两个标准系统。徐家匯觀象台授時工作歷史很久,作了一些工作,但抗戰以來,郎停滯不前,直到人民政府接办,才逐步在原有基礎上開展了改進。幾年来主要是改裝了一具工作钟,裝置光電设备以发播科学式時號,對時号精确度解决了秒距誤差和五分间誤差。工作钟的调节誤差被其本身品質所限,仍未解决,只是在加強值班工作之后,有了一定限度的提高,目前約為±0~s.005,在预报主钟改正量時,也有很大程度的不稳定,約為±0~s.007。所以時号的精确度在±0~s.01左右。要进一步提高质量,满足要求,有待於新設備的增添使用。在時号改正數方面,所存在的相當大的系统差,可採用蘇聯或国際時間局系統的改正數來避免。

 
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