In the broad water area such as the coast, estuary, lake and large reservoir, the horizontal scale is far larger than the vertical scale, the variation of the hydraulic parameters (for instance, velocity) is smaller in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, and the flow field can be expressed as the average flowing value along the water depth, so the two-dimension plane numerical simulation technique of the water flow and water quality may be used in these areas.

As for the reservoir of which the width to depth ratio is smaller, and the vertical variation of the parameters related such as the velocity, temperature and concentration is greater than their variation in the horizontal direction, the vertical two- dimension water flow model were set up, in which the water depth may change with the time and space, and when the coordinate transformation was made along the vertical direction, the variable area could be changedinto the regular one.

Thirdly, a new σ-z coordinate are designed to keep the virtues of a and z coordinates and minish their shortcomings. It adopts σ coordinate for current, z coordinate for temperature and salinity in the vertical direction, and Euler-Lagrange method is used to join the calculation of current, temperature and salinity.

Turbulence structure in river flow through non-emergent vegetation

含淹没植物的河流垂向紊动结构

Research on equivalent design method of deepwater mooring system truncated vertically and horizontally

基于垂向截断和水平截断的深水系泊系统等效设计研究

2, Application of the modified k-e model by Munk-Anderson equation to gravity flow in reservoir shows that the modified model overestimates the turbulent intensity in reservoir.

The horizontal trust region subproblem in the algorithm is only a general trust region subproblem while the vertical trust region subproblem is defined by a parameter size of the vertical direction subject only to an ellipsoidal constraint.

This method is different from classical algorithms in which the gray differential values of the mutual vertical direction are combined into one gradient value.

The stretching of a liquid sample, squeezed out in the vertical direction from an aperture of an arbitrary form, is investigated.

A study is made of the parametric excitation of internal waves in a continuously stratified liquid in a vessel executing oscillations in the vertical direction.

In [2, 3] the effect of high-frequency harmonic vibration in the vertical direction on the stability of this flow was investigated.

This paper discusses the methodology used in sediment measurement in the Yellow River. Distribution of sediment in a vertical is analysed. Probable errors in adopting simplified methods such as sampling at 0.6 relative depth, 0.2-0.8 relative depth and 0.2-0.6-0.8 relative depth are deducted by means of Einstein method and verified by observed data.Typical transverse distribution of sediment concentration is also illustrated. It is shown that the grain size is a fundamental factor affecting the uniformity of...

This paper discusses the methodology used in sediment measurement in the Yellow River. Distribution of sediment in a vertical is analysed. Probable errors in adopting simplified methods such as sampling at 0.6 relative depth, 0.2-0.8 relative depth and 0.2-0.6-0.8 relative depth are deducted by means of Einstein method and verified by observed data.Typical transverse distribution of sediment concentration is also illustrated. It is shown that the grain size is a fundamental factor affecting the uniformity of sediment concentration both transversely and vertically. Since the sediment concentration varies appreciably during floods, large number of sampling and proper timing are indispensable to obtain reliable results. Comparisons of the amount of sediment deposition for a river reach between range method and the difference of inflow and outflow sediment loads are made by using long term records. Same trend of deviation for coarse grained sediment is found as the analysis made for the measurement of sediment discharge in a cross section.

In the dam body with flow, the sustained capillary water transfers hydrostatic pressure not only in the vertical direction but also in the transverse direction. It forms a united flow field with the saturated water zone to perform transverse flow. Therefore, when we study the distribution of the stress in the dam body, we will consider both the action of pore water pressure and the action of flow drive force. If the hydrostatic pressure on both sides of the dam body is taken as the flow drive force (body force),the...

In the dam body with flow, the sustained capillary water transfers hydrostatic pressure not only in the vertical direction but also in the transverse direction. It forms a united flow field with the saturated water zone to perform transverse flow. Therefore, when we study the distribution of the stress in the dam body, we will consider both the action of pore water pressure and the action of flow drive force. If the hydrostatic pressure on both sides of the dam body is taken as the flow drive force (body force),the distribution of the latter will cover not only the saturation water zone under the soak curved surface but also the sustained capillary water zone above the soak curved surface; the action of the force at any point is directed to the same direction as the flow is.While the velocity of the transverse flow varies vertically and there are always high velocity zones,so is the flow drive force eveuly distributed.

The differential LDA system has been used to investigate the statistical characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer flow over a transitional rough flat plate. The characteristical quantities, such as turbulent intensity, third order moment, fourth order moment, probability distribution, auto-correlation and power spectrum, have been obtained. The experimental results expressed that the turbulent boundary layer can be divided into subregions in the vertical direction according to the sign of higher order...

The differential LDA system has been used to investigate the statistical characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer flow over a transitional rough flat plate. The characteristical quantities, such as turbulent intensity, third order moment, fourth order moment, probability distribution, auto-correlation and power spectrum, have been obtained. The experimental results expressed that the turbulent boundary layer can be divided into subregions in the vertical direction according to the sign of higher order momentum, and the limits of divisions have been given. Meanwhile, it was found that the turbulent boundary layer flow tends to be homogeneous and isotropic owing to the roughness of the flat plate, i.e., the distribution of probability density is close to Gussian distribution.