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  natural environment
This paper briefly presents the research progress of the State Major Basic Research Project 2001CB309400, "Theory and Application for Retrieval and Fusion of Spatial and Temporal Quantitative Information from Complex Natural Environment".
      
Trivalent iron almost always prevailed in the acid-extractable fraction in the natural environment.
      
The calculations showed that in the natural environment, the additional light-induced heating of zooxanthellae is not above 0.01°C and that it cannot cause disruption of the animal and zooxanthellae symbiosis.
      
Observations on the development of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium falcatum in the natural environment (Sea of Japan) and algal cultures were made.
      
The problem is extremely urgent since at least one welded joint failure leads to enormous costs of repair, may cause an environmental disaster and in ict irreparable damage on natural environment.
      
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The present paper mainly disses the impacts of East and Middle-Route water diversion from the Changjiang River to the Huang-Huai-Hai Plains upon natal environment.1.Studies of the changes of water circulation and water resources as well as their relationships with biocycle, atmospheric circulation and geologic process are key problems concerning the impact of inter-basin water transfer on natural environment. The process With respect to the impact of water transfer on the environment can be Summed...

The present paper mainly disses the impacts of East and Middle-Route water diversion from the Changjiang River to the Huang-Huai-Hai Plains upon natal environment.1.Studies of the changes of water circulation and water resources as well as their relationships with biocycle, atmospheric circulation and geologic process are key problems concerning the impact of inter-basin water transfer on natural environment. The process With respect to the impact of water transfer on the environment can be Summed up roughly by the following model.Water transfer→changes of the original hydrological regime→changes of thenatural environment→changes of social economy.2.The impacts of any water transfer project on the environment., according to geographic regions, may be divided into three different regions with regard to issues, namely, the water-exported region, the region through ,which water is transferred and the water-imported region.The water-exported region, With the completion of the .water transfer, influence will chiefly occur at the initial point where water starts to be exported and at the lower reaches of the river below the initial point during low-flow period.The main influence of water transfer on natural environments are as follows. Possible intensification of sea water intrusion, the acceleration of the deposition of fine particles and the expansion of bars in the Chang-jiang estuary due to the decrease of runoff of Changjiang river in low-flow periods.3.The region through which water is transferred.It mainly refers to areas on both sids of the conveyance canals as well as to the surroundings of the .water bodies of regulation and storage that are involved .Water transfer of the East route will certainly exert some influence on the water quality and aquatic ecosystems of the lakes. 4.The water-imported region: Large quantities of water diverted from Changjiang River into the Huang-Huai-Hai Plains through the middle and East Roites will inevitably cause great changes on ecosystems of the Plains. The major problems to be ackled concerning impacts of water transfer on natural environment in the water imported region are as follows. The prevention of secondary salinization and alka-lization in irrigated areas and the influence of water transfer on climate in irrigated areas and their surrounding environments.

本文主要讨论了从长江向黄淮海平原调水对自然环境的影响。 研究水分循环和水资源的变化及与之有关的物质循环的关系,是研究跨流域调水对自然环境影响的核心问题。调水对环境影响的过程,大体可归结为如下的模式:调水→改变原有的水文情势→自然环境的变化→社会经济的变化。 任何调水工程对环境的影响,均可按地理分区方法分为水量输出区、输水通过区和水量输入区。南水北调对水量输出区的影响主要在枯水期发生在输水点附近及其下游。输水通过区主要使输水渠两侧和蓄水体周围环境受到影响。大量长江水调入黄准海平原,在一定程度上将引起黄淮海平原生态系统的变化。

The exploitation and utilization of water resources affects environmental development and quality. In the early 1970's water resource in Hai He and Luan He drainage basins was exploited and utilized very greatly, once the natural environment was changed enormously. In the past 35 years, the total storage of new reservoirs was 25.9 billion cubic meters, and areas of new agricultural irrigation was 100 million mu, at the same time questions of flood control and water supply in cities, industrial and mining...

The exploitation and utilization of water resources affects environmental development and quality. In the early 1970's water resource in Hai He and Luan He drainage basins was exploited and utilized very greatly, once the natural environment was changed enormously. In the past 35 years, the total storage of new reservoirs was 25.9 billion cubic meters, and areas of new agricultural irrigation was 100 million mu, at the same time questions of flood control and water supply in cities, industrial and mining areas were partly solved, About 10.17 million mu of saline-alkali soil were improved and 23 million mu of low-lying and frequently flooded land were treated in a comprehensive way The drainage conditions in the plain of China were improved and soil has been changed into drab soil. The distribution of water resources in time and space varied greatly. The average annual discharge to the sea has been decreased half as much as the amount of 21 billion cubic meters in 1965 Utilizing ratio of water resources increased from 23% in the 1950' s to 59% in the 1970's. Annual extraction of groundwater amounted to 17.8 billion cubic meters, Groundwater levels went down and infiltration of precipitation increased. The utilizable and effective water resources that changed from evaporation of groundwater by some rational ways amounted annually to about 2 bilion cubic meters per year. The changes in the elements of water balance gave rise to harmful changes in environment, the main aspects being as follows.( 1 ) Natural water area of river and lakes greatly decreased, and aquatic products and their quality were also decreased due to water pollution and construction of sluice gates.2 ) As drainge of waste water increased, the quality of surface water and ground water deteriorated. The most serious conditions were in the Long Yang He. Generally, the water quality of the first flood each year is very poor.( 3 ) The variation of runoff of rivers often gave rise to siltation of resar-voirs, river courses and estuaries.( 4 ) Exploitation of groundwater in depth made groundwater levels decrease greatly over large area and cause surface subsidence. For instance, the area of land subsidence in Tianjing was 2,308 square km and the highest subsidence was 2.04m. In some areas, deep groundwater contains heavy fluoride and alkali materals, having effects on human health, on soil and plant.( 5 ) Due to decrease of discharge in some rivers, shipping was reduced, indirectly affecting environmental quality.The main reason for harmful impacts on environment is the shortage of water resources. The water transfer from south to north is a strategic measure to solve questions of environmental water conservancy When we consider water supply to cities, industry and agriculture, we must simultaneously consider water supply for fishery, shipping, treatment of siltaion, protection of water quality and tourism We must prevent water pollution and do well for management of environmental water conservancy and assessment of environmental impacts.

水利工程设施对防治旱涝及人民生活起了重要作用,但也出现了对环境不良影响的环境水利问题并指出了解决这些问题的措施和意见。

On the basis of analysis of man-earth relationship, the five subjects that geography recently faced are primitively studied:(1) the research of natural resourses; (2)environment conservation; (3)urban planning; (4)the evaluation of natural environment; (5)the calculation of the change trend of nataral environment.

本文根据人地关系的分析,初步探讨了地理学近今发展的动向,主要有:(1)自然资源;(2)环境保护;(3)城市规划;(4)自然环境评价;(5)预测自然环境变化趋势等方面的研究。

 
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