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natural environment
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This paper briefly presents the research progress of the State Major Basic Research Project 2001CB309400, "Theory and Application for Retrieval and Fusion of Spatial and Temporal Quantitative Information from Complex Natural Environment".
      
Trivalent iron almost always prevailed in the acid-extractable fraction in the natural environment.
      
The calculations showed that in the natural environment, the additional light-induced heating of zooxanthellae is not above 0.01°C and that it cannot cause disruption of the animal and zooxanthellae symbiosis.
      
Observations on the development of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium falcatum in the natural environment (Sea of Japan) and algal cultures were made.
      
The problem is extremely urgent since at least one welded joint failure leads to enormous costs of repair, may cause an environmental disaster and in ict irreparable damage on natural environment.
      
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The Sixth International Seminar of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture on "The Changing Rural Habitat" was held Oct. 19-21 in Beijing, and was attended by about 70 delegates from more than 20 countries. His Highness the Aga Khan personally presided over the meeting. On behalf of ASC, President Yang Tingbao first expressed hearty congratulations and warm welcome to His Highness the Aga Khan and all the celebrated delegates. He pointed out that it was a valuable academic activity. Speaking of the rural development...

The Sixth International Seminar of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture on "The Changing Rural Habitat" was held Oct. 19-21 in Beijing, and was attended by about 70 delegates from more than 20 countries. His Highness the Aga Khan personally presided over the meeting. On behalf of ASC, President Yang Tingbao first expressed hearty congratulations and warm welcome to His Highness the Aga Khan and all the celebrated delegates. He pointed out that it was a valuable academic activity. Speaking of the rural development in China, he reviewed the past experiences and the present-day need for rural reconstruction and housing, and the problems concerned. He believed that discussion with fellow architects and specialists of various countries would be very beneficial and significant and would give great help in subsequent work. Mr. Han Guang, Director of State Capital Construction Commission of PRC, spoke of the importance of rural habitat as a topic of great concern in the world today. He reviewed the rural development in New China, the encouraging perspective of rural economy, the increased pace of rural reconstruction, and the policy of "self-built with public aid" adopted in China. He looked at the seminar as a good opportunity to learn from experiences of other nations.Speaking of the seminar, his Highness the Aga Khan said: "This as an historic occasion. The people gathered here represent a unique concentration of intelligence and expertise in the topic that is to be delt with and on the questions that will be raised and must be answered. The place-the People's Republic of China-will provide the stimulus to encourage the innovation so desperately needed to solve the problems of rural peoples all over the world, but especially of the poor among them-and it will also supply the kind of perspective that only a country with millennia of history behind it can inspire. Finally, the ocassion coincides with-and is indeed a response to-the increasingly urgent demands on the part of rural peoples in the developing world not only for a longer, happier, and healthier life, but for achieving it without violating the regional differences, obliterating the traditional cultures, and destroying the natural environment that make life worth living." He explained that the word "habitat" refers not only to places where people live, but also the places where people ought to live.He further pointed out that the problem of the rural habitat is an almost overwhelming one for the developing countries of Asia and Africa. "The great cities of Asia and Africa are already almost at the point of collapse beneath the unrelenting pressures of immigration from the rural hinterlands. Somehow ways have to be found to make the countryside itself a more desirable place to live in, which in turn demands an ability to earn more and to save enough as individuals or families or communes to begin the process of self-generated economic growth and thus social wellbeing. The Aga Khan Award for Architecture seeks to identify and premiate all successful efforts in the resolution of man's built environment, and cearly the fate and future of the rural habitat must be of prime concern tous.......... Our central purpose here, then, is to increase understanding of the ruralhabitat and, from that understanding, to devise appropriate strategies for change, both for our colleagues in planning, architecture and other related fields, and for a wider audience of decision makers and concerned people everywhere."The following papers were read and discussed in the seminar:1. CHOLISTAN......................................................Kamil Khan Mumtaz2. THE PESANTREN: RURAL HOUSING AND DEVELOPMENT IN JAVA, INDONESIA.......................Hasan Uddin Khan, Farokh Afshar3. DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL HOUSING IN CHINA.........Zhao Bainian4. A SYSTEM OF SELF-HELP CONSTRUCTION ADOPTED IN RURAL SENEGALPart 1. .........................................................Brian Brace TaylorPart 2. ................................................................Kamal El Jack5. RATIONALIZED BUILDING SYSTEMS

以“变化中的乡村居住建设”为主题的阿卡·汗建筑奖第六次国际学术讨论会,共发表了十三篇论文,其中有中国提供的三篇论文。此外,还散发了《乡村发展政策:居民点和住房的比较评价》等五篇参考材料,其中有中国提供的《有关中国农村住宅建设的一些情况》等两篇参考材料。 除《河南荥阳田禄窑居》一篇论文的详细内容已在本刊1981年第10期《向黄土地层争取合理的新空间》一文中发表以外,现将其余十一篇论文的摘要刊登,供读者参考。

This article mainly studies the urban forms, it points out that the different urban forms created by the different historical periods, differnt productive froce, the urban form is always restricted by its natural environment and its social, political and economical factors. Through the study of the urban form, the planner can conscientiously grasp and follow the rules of changing urban form and propose a rational planning project. Many factors affect the urban form such as geography, policy of city planning,...

This article mainly studies the urban forms, it points out that the different urban forms created by the different historical periods, differnt productive froce, the urban form is always restricted by its natural environment and its social, political and economical factors. Through the study of the urban form, the planner can conscientiously grasp and follow the rules of changing urban form and propose a rational planning project. Many factors affect the urban form such as geography, policy of city planning, economy, history, natural environment, transportation and so on All these factors are interactive. Natural forces and human forces, nature and planning are interactive to the urbar form, they create characteristics of the urban form. such as linear, magnetic, extension and so on. The city planner must also pay attention to balance of the factors mentioned above in the planning. Finally, the author proposes a new reaserch method for urban forms.

本文着重研究城市的形态。不同的历史时期、不同的生产方式和不同的生产力水平会产生不同的城市形态。城市形态总是受到自然的、社会的、政治的,经济的影响和的制约。研究城市形态可以使规划者自觉地掌握城市形态变化的规律,提出合理的规划方案,并利用其规律进行引导和控制。影响城市形态的因素是多种多样的,如经济地理、城市建设方针、经济投资、城市的现状、自然环境、城市交通等。这些因素是综合地起作用的。自然力和人为的力,自然和规划,交错地对城市形态起作用。它们常表现为线形的,由内向外,磁性相吸,以及内部调节的特点。规划工作者要注意城市各要素之间平暂与不平衡的关系。最后作者提出了研究城市形态的方法。

This paper introduces ten superiorities of mei floewer to other ones and the mei tree wild forms recorded and collected by the Chinese and foreign scholars who have covered the large aeas of mountainous regions from Xizang to Taiwan since 1887.ln this paper is annexed a map showIng their distribution in at least ten provinces and autonomous regions, and the author detailly describes the four wild forms of mei flower investigated by himself. In addition, several wild varieties of p. mume published over many years...

This paper introduces ten superiorities of mei floewer to other ones and the mei tree wild forms recorded and collected by the Chinese and foreign scholars who have covered the large aeas of mountainous regions from Xizang to Taiwan since 1887.ln this paper is annexed a map showIng their distribution in at least ten provinces and autonomous regions, and the author detailly describes the four wild forms of mei flower investigated by himself. In addition, several wild varieties of p. mume published over many years have been introduced and dseiussed. Mei flower(Prunue mume Sieb.et Zuce., vars.et cvs.)is one of the most famous traditional flowers of China. It has been cultivated in its motherland from ancient times for at least 2,000 years and has ten superiorities to other flowers and ornamental plants. Therefore mei flower onght to be reconfirmed as the national flower of whole China. Cultivars of mei flower have arisen from introducing and acclimatizing the wild forms directly or indirectly from selecting and improving the existing cnltivars for fruit production or for flower decoration and as ornamentals. Hence the importance of studies on the wild forms of p.mnme in China. p. mume is indigenous to China over large areas of mountainous regions including at least 10 provinces or autonmous regions——Xizang(Tibet), Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui Zhejiang, Fujian and Taiwan, and a map showing the distribution of mei tree wild forms based on investigations by Chinese and foreign scholars and collectors since 1887 is annexed. 4 wild forms of mei flower covering specimens from four provinces collected by the author main characteristics as well as the natural environments of their habitats in the paper. Several wild varieties of p. mume alreaby published over many years are introduced and discnssed, p. mume var. cernua Franch. and p. mume var. goethartiana Koehne are considered valid and good, while the existence of p. mume var. pallescers Franch. and p. mume var. formosana Masamune doubtful.

本文首先介绍梅花之十大优越性,再阐述了百年来中外学者与采集家在我国由西藏至台湾所记载、采集的野梅类型和在至少10个省、区有其分布的事实(附分布图)。文中并对著者亲自参加调查的4个野梅类型,作了具体介绍。文末还对早经定名的中国野梅几个变种进行了论证。梅花(Prunus mume Sieb.es Zucc.)系由原产我国的野生梅树类型或由栽培果树发展、演化而来,自古被人们所欣赏、喜爱,其应用与栽培已有悠久的历史。概而言之,梅花的应用与栽培起始,至少可追溯至2,000年前之汉初。

 
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