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natural environment
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This paper briefly presents the research progress of the State Major Basic Research Project 2001CB309400, "Theory and Application for Retrieval and Fusion of Spatial and Temporal Quantitative Information from Complex Natural Environment".
      
Trivalent iron almost always prevailed in the acid-extractable fraction in the natural environment.
      
The calculations showed that in the natural environment, the additional light-induced heating of zooxanthellae is not above 0.01°C and that it cannot cause disruption of the animal and zooxanthellae symbiosis.
      
Observations on the development of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium falcatum in the natural environment (Sea of Japan) and algal cultures were made.
      
The problem is extremely urgent since at least one welded joint failure leads to enormous costs of repair, may cause an environmental disaster and in ict irreparable damage on natural environment.
      
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Religion hase close relation with geography. Researches about religious geography have important significance for economical construction in China.Physical geographical environment is an important factor where religion is born.Because Human Knowledge in primitive society is in low level and difference of physical geographical environment, primitive gods religion is formed. Physical geographical environment influence on religious doctrine. Greed about heaven and hell, for example, is just like the winding mirror...

Religion hase close relation with geography. Researches about religious geography have important significance for economical construction in China.Physical geographical environment is an important factor where religion is born.Because Human Knowledge in primitive society is in low level and difference of physical geographical environment, primitive gods religion is formed. Physical geographical environment influence on religious doctrine. Greed about heaven and hell, for example, is just like the winding mirror reflecting natural environment around human. Natural environmeot influences on the spread, development and existence of religion, religion reacts physical geographical environment too.Religion hase close relation with human geography.( 1 ) religion influlnce on cultural landscape. In Christianity region, dominant landscape is Christian church; in region where prevails islam, mosque is important landscape, and in Buddhism region, temple and pagoda prevail. ( 2 ) Religion influence on regional distribution of human economical activities. It influences on regional distribution of corps and on composition of animal husbandry,promote development of tourism. ( 3 )Religion influences on form and function of cities. Aatican, for example, hase only religious function, ( 4 )Religion influences on changing of political map. Because of religion, India isdivided into India and Pakistan after world war II.Religion and development of geography, as believers go on a pilgrimage for Buddhist scriptures and religion be disseminated in vast extent by missionary and religious war,people knew geographical environment of other religion, religion stimulates development of geography.There are many religiones in our country. Economical significance of research of religious geography is as follow. ( 1 ) in some famous religious mountains and religious shrine,we develp religious tourism to promote development of regional service; ( 2 ) research of religious geography can provide a basis for adminstrative division and strategy of economical development in minority nationality regions; ( 3 ) study of religious difference can provide basis for making population policy in minority nationality regions. ( 4 ) study of religious difference in minority nationality regions fav our stability and unity to promote economical construction.

宗教地理学是人文地理学的一个分支,国外早已进行了这方面的研究,我国这方面的研究刚起步。作者试图从宗教与地理之间的关系进行初步探讨

The topic concerning the primeval vegetation has been a disputed problem up to the present since the German geographer F. V .Richthofen put the viewpoint that there are not forest on the Loess Plateau at the end of last century. To sum up, there are four viewpoints about this topic, steppe, forest-steppe, forest, and those three types of vegetation existed side by side. The existence of the divergence of this topic relates to the following two reasons. First, the natural environment has undergone destruction...

The topic concerning the primeval vegetation has been a disputed problem up to the present since the German geographer F. V .Richthofen put the viewpoint that there are not forest on the Loess Plateau at the end of last century. To sum up, there are four viewpoints about this topic, steppe, forest-steppe, forest, and those three types of vegetation existed side by side. The existence of the divergence of this topic relates to the following two reasons. First, the natural environment has undergone destruction by human activities for a long time. Second, the scholar had limited disciplines and methods of research. According to the synthetical principle, this apper considers different factors and the results obtained by different disciplines. The times focused by the paper is from West Zhou to the West Warring States (c.11-3 cent. B, C. ) because the tools of production was very primitive during those times and the impact of human activities upon nature was very weak, so nature was under primeval conditions. At the same time there were more historical materials and ancient writings. The area focused by this paper is the eastern part of Loess Plateau, The synthetical analysis is considered in the following respects, the human character of ancient Loess Plateau, historical records concerning ancient vegetation, the results obtained by pollen analysis and archeaological research. From West Zhou Dynasty to the Warring States, the human character of Loess Plateau was that the greater part of the Plateau was resided by nomadic tribes, and the farming nation distributed on the Wei River Plain and Fen River Valley, But animal husbandry and hunting were important to the farming nation. This human character reflects that grassland occupied greater part of the Plateau, According to the historical records in "SHIJI" ("Historical Records"), "CHUN CHIU ZHUO ZHUAN" (" a book about the historical records at CHUN CHIU Times)", "SHI JING" ("The Book of Songs") ,"SHAN HAI JING"("the book about mountains and sea"), the grassland distributed widely, and there were a great number of wild deer on the grassland. And the bush also distributed widely. And there were scattered trees, but the trees didn't grow very well, a great part of them were small trees. And on the mountains there were a lot of trees and some hydrophyte. According to the pollen analysis the herb pollen occupied a great part of the total amount of pollen. The herb included mainly Arte Arte m Artemisia, Polygon-aceae and Chenopodiaceae, and there were a small amount of tree pollen. Synthesizing aforementioned facts, the paper reaches the following conclusion, the primeval vegetation on the eastern part of Loess Plateau were scattered trees, wide spreaded grassland and bushes. But on the mountains and valleys, the condition was different

充分发掘历史文献中的有关信息予以辨析考证,并吸收其它研究方法所取得的成果综合分析,笔者对黄土高原古代植被提出新见解:距今3000—2300年前的西周早期至战国时期,在六盘山以东、吕梁山以西、长城以南、渭河以北的黄土高原显域生境上,植被为疏林(稀树)灌丛草原,离石、延安、庆阳一线又将其分为南北有差异的两部分。

From the point of view of cultural-ecology, this paper discusses the influence of Huizhou geographical conditions upon Huizhou trade and the traditional folk house in Huizhou and puts forward some views as follows: 1. Commercial activities of Huizhou people originated from the structural maladjustment of products in this region. Narrow and small arable and dense population made folks in Huizhou concentrate on Commerce. 2. Under the control of geographical environment, the trade clique of Huizhou had to transact...

From the point of view of cultural-ecology, this paper discusses the influence of Huizhou geographical conditions upon Huizhou trade and the traditional folk house in Huizhou and puts forward some views as follows: 1. Commercial activities of Huizhou people originated from the structural maladjustment of products in this region. Narrow and small arable and dense population made folks in Huizhou concentrate on Commerce. 2. Under the control of geographical environment, the trade clique of Huizhou had to transact business on the basis of the surplus and deficiency of products in Huizhou. 3. With mountains closed up, Waterways, such as the Xinanjiang River etc, are main passageways of internal and external trade. 4. Owing to causes of products and market. Huizhou merchants invested beyond this district. 5. The location, land use, material, structure, modelling and decorating of the traditional house in Huizhou are in harmony with natural environment in Huizhou.

文章从文化生态学角度,论述了徽州地理环境对徽商和徽派民居建筑的影响,认为:1、徽州人商业活动起源于徽州物产“结构性失调”,徽州“地狭人稠”促使“徽民寄命于商”;2、徽商经营行业受徽州地理环境影响,以徽州物产余缺为基础;3、徽州群山环抱,陆路交通闭塞,新安江等水路从而成为徽商境内外贸易的主要通道;4、徽商投资产业多在徽州以外地域,明显受徽州物产和市场因素影响;5、徽州民居建筑在选址、用地、材料、结构、造型等方面,与徽州地理环境和谐、协调。

 
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