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gene
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  基因
    CONSTRUCTION OF SMUT RESISTANT OR SUSCEPTIBLE POOLS AND MOLECULAR MARKER FOR RESISTANCE GENE IN SUGARCANE
    甘蔗抗感黑穗病池的构建和抗病基因分子标记
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    The Expression and Inheritance Stability of Bt Insecticidal Gene in Transgenic Insect-resistant Cotton Plants
    Bt杀虫基因在转基因抗虫棉中的表达与遗传稳定性的研究
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    Cloning of germin gene, synthesizing of human lysozyme gene and their expression in tobacco and oilseed rape
    Germin基因的克隆和人溶菌酶基因的合成及其在烟草和油菜中的表达
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    Study on Transfer of Chitinase Gene into Wheat
    几丁质酶(Chitinase)基因转化小麦的研究
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    Transgenic Wheat Resistant to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus GPV Using Replicase Gene
    大麦黄矮病毒GPV株系复制酶基因介导的抗病毒转基因小麦的研究
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  “gene”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Studies on Gene Transfer of Soybean for Insect Resistance and Optimization of the Transformation Systems
    大豆抗虫基因转移及其转化系统优化研究
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    Inheritance of resistance to SMV3 and identification of molecular markers linked to resistance gene in soybean
    大豆对SMV3号株系的抗性遗传及分子标记研究
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    Study on the Wheat Transformation with Leaf Senescence-Inhibition Gene P_(SAG12)-IPT
    叶片衰老抑制基因P_(SAG12)-ITP转化小麦的研究
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    Genetic Mapping and Position Effect of Rice T-DNA Integration Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a Rice Multi-pistil Mutant
    水稻T-DNA整合的遗传定位与位置效应一个水稻多子房突变体的遗传分析与基因定位
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    Studies of Gene Engineering for High Oleate Rapeseed (Brassica Napus)
    甘蓝型油菜高油酸基因工程研究
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  gene
NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR DRUG DISCOVERY BASED UPON INSERTION OF LIGANDS INTO GENE SEQUENCES BY NUCLEAR RECEPTOR PROTEINS
      
A gene regulatory mechanism has been proposed in which steroid hormones and certain other drugs bind to nuclear receptor proteins followed by transfer to DNA where they are inserted between base pairs.
      
Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a 439-bp fragment of a 65,000-kDa (Mr) heat shock protein gene (hsp65) of Mycobacterium.
      
Cloning of an APETALA3 homologous gene (PtAP3) from Populus tomentosa and genetic transformation of its sense and anti-sense con
      
A pair of primers were designed according to published literature on Populus trichocarpa gene (PTD), and PtAP3, an AP3 homologous gene from Populus tomentosa was isolated by PCR using genomic DNA of the male clone of P.
      
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Four different types of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize were tested for their identityby use of the restoration technique.Male-sterile lines incorporated with cytoplasm of theTexas source were found to be completely affected in crosses by a group of restorers includ-ing W153,W28 and G32,and partially restored by W24,M14 and A34.This made a figure of6 restorers out of about 60 inbreds thus tested in the Texas cytoplasm.Inbreds W153 wasselected as a differential restorer for T-type steriles since it gave no...

Four different types of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize were tested for their identityby use of the restoration technique.Male-sterile lines incorporated with cytoplasm of theTexas source were found to be completely affected in crosses by a group of restorers includ-ing W153,W28 and G32,and partially restored by W24,M14 and A34.This made a figure of6 restorers out of about 60 inbreds thus tested in the Texas cytoplasm.Inbreds W153 wasselected as a differential restorer for T-type steriles since it gave no reactions to the othertypes.For the Moldavia type of male sterility,formerly offered by Prof.Hadjinov,we founda partially restoring inbred W9 to be better suited for the similar purpose.The third andfourth type of male sterility,designated as B- and G-type,came through our own selectionsfrom two Bulgarian varieties.Separation between them seemed difficult.Since A374 gavepartial pollen fertility to the B-type steriles exclusively,it could be used as a differentiat orfor this type of cytoplasm.Pollen restoration in crosses involving W153 and W28 followed the expectation based ona dominant Mendelian gene.However,data obtained from segregating progenies of doublecrosses in which G32 was the restorer suggested strongly that two dominant complementarygenes were more workable.The difference in genotype of inbreds concerned in variousinvestigations seemed to be responsible for such inconsistent results.Segregating patterns in the Texas sterile crosses of the partial restorer,W24 or M14,varied with plants used as the pollen parent and with the date of planting.It appeared verylikely that W24 and M14 were heterozygous for major restorer genes since one sterile versionof W24 and four fully restoring lines of M14 had been established by conversion and test-cross-ing respectively.Dominant modifiers might also be present in either of the inbred popula-tions.In the presence of Moldavian cytoplasm the recessive allele of the restorer gene seemedto exert an abortive action to its pollen carriers produced by the heterozygote.When plantsheterozygous for the restorer gone were outcrossed to male steriles carrying the right cyto-plasm,all plants from the progenies proved to be pollen shedders.It was suggested that theM-type cytoplasm might be similar to that of S-type.Tentative genotypes related to pollen restoration of Texas male sterility had been workedout for a number of inbreds on the basis of two dominant complementary genes.Workingschemes for the production of double-cross seeds of maize without detasseling had been sum-marized and discussed by the authers.

三种细胞质遗传的玉米雄花不孕类型各有其专效的恢复系和部分恢复系。在 T 型细胞质基础上,测定出两对显性互补基因决定着花粉孕育性的恢复,同时还有显性修饰基因存在,影响其表现的程度。春播和夏播的不同环境条件只对部分恢复性的表现发生明显影响,对全恢复性和不孕性则很少能够改变。M 型恢复性的等位隐性基因在杂合株内对花粉粒具有某种致死或败育作用,故测交后代表现不分离现象。本文初步鉴定了若干常用自交系的 T 型恢复基因型,并以此作为根据,提出了配制全不去雄的玉米双交种的各种可能方案。

The phenomenon of dominant and segregation of hybrids is of essential importance ingenetics.What is the rule which governs this phenomenon? According to Morganists thisphenomenon is controlled by the behavior of genes,while the Michurinists took it as the resultof mutual assimination of the germ cells of two parents.More than sixty years ago,genetists could not determine exactly how many genes are in-volved in a quantitative character,nor chould they demonstrate how the genes react.Al-though...

The phenomenon of dominant and segregation of hybrids is of essential importance ingenetics.What is the rule which governs this phenomenon? According to Morganists thisphenomenon is controlled by the behavior of genes,while the Michurinists took it as the resultof mutual assimination of the germ cells of two parents.More than sixty years ago,genetists could not determine exactly how many genes are in-volved in a quantitative character,nor chould they demonstrate how the genes react.Al-though there are many theories to explain this genetical phenomenon,yet it seems that noneof them is able to give a general explanation for dominance and segregation of hybrids.The aim of this paper is to analyze,mathematically the phenomenon of dominance andsegregation of hybrids in a new theory,that the average measurements of one character of thehybrids are determined by the relative intensity of heritability of the two parents withoutconsidering how many pairs of genes,or how the genes effect the character.Under certain conditions,the phenotypic expression is determined by two factors:one isthe relative intensity of heritability of two parents,and the other is the average measurementsof their characters.Besides,the nature of transmission of genetical materials to their pro-genies is also significant to the phenotypic expression of the hybrids.According to a numberof genetical data,the action of inheritance between parents and hybrids may be either arith-metical or geometrical.If we take a_1 and a_2 as the relative heritability of two parents and.P_1 and P_2 as theiraverage measuremenst of a given character,then the measurement of the character of theirhybrids will be:(i)in arithmetical relationF_1=P_1a_1+P_2a_2 (1)(ii)in geometrical relationF_1=P_1a_1.P_2a_2or lnF_1=a_1lnP_1+a_2lna_2 (2)in which a_1+a_2=1.By formulae(1)and(2),we may explain many types of genetical data in one formin which should be explained separately in the theory of genes,such as,genes of independentassortment,several types of factors interaction,and others.Other rules may also be derived from formulae(1)anh(2)as follows:Ⅰ.When the relative heritability of two parents is equal,then we have(i) in arithmetical relationF_1=1/2(P_1+P_2) (3)(ii)in geometrical relationF_1=(P_1P_2)~(1/2) or lnF_1=1/2(lnP_1+lnP_2) (4)Ⅱ.When the measurements of a character of parents and hybrids are known,we maycalculate the relative heritability of two parents by formulae(1)and(2),i.e.(i)in arithmetical relationa_1=(F_1-P_2)/(P_1-P_2) (5)and a_2=(P_1-F_1)/(P_1-P_2) (6)in which the value of a_2 is coincident with the“degree of dominance”derived by Zeleny(1920)in another way,and is equivalent to the“hybrid index”of Hubbs(see Riley,1948).(ii) in geometrical relationa_1=(lnF_1/P_2)/(lnP_1/P_2) (7)and a_2=(lnP_1/F_1)/(lnP_1/P_2) (8)Ⅲ.When the relative heritability of two parents is equal,and when the hybrids areselfed or backcrossed with their parent,then the measurement of a given character of pro-genies in second generation will be:(i) in arithmetical relation(?)(9)(ii)in geometrical relation(?)(10)These formulae are more fitting than those derived by Wright(see Power,1942)Ⅳ.When the hybrids are selfed or backcrossed for n-l generaations,the average measure-ments of a given character of progenies(no selection)will be:(i) in arithmetical relation(?)(11)Where Pr is the average measurement of the recurrent parent.The measurement of F_nis coincident with the result of Burdick(1956).(ii) in geometrical relationF_n=F_1B_n=P_r(2~(n-1))/(2n).P1/(2~n) (12)All the above mentioned equations have been proofed in theory and in practice.

相对遗传力理论是作者根据数学原理,在遗传、育种试验基础上,提出的有关遗传传递力规律的见解。它企图在不假设任何基因的情况下,用同一的测量尺度,统一质量性状与数量性状的解说方式;直接从亲本性状的平均测定与相对遗传力,通过数学公式的运算,对杂种后代的性状数值与遗传动态(完全显性、部分显性、无显性或超亲遗传等),作一定的估算和预测。

The Breeding work of Octoploid Triticale since 1957 is summarized as follows:1. The use of crossable gene. The genetic analysis of the crossability between common wheat and rye has shown that s, ss, SA, SN and SQ belong to a multiple allelic series of a single locus. The degree of crossability of these genes can be arranged in such an order, namely, s > ss > SA > SN > SQ. According to the degree of dominance, the order should be reversed as: SQ > SN > ss > SA > s. These findings were properly used...

The Breeding work of Octoploid Triticale since 1957 is summarized as follows:1. The use of crossable gene. The genetic analysis of the crossability between common wheat and rye has shown that s, ss, SA, SN and SQ belong to a multiple allelic series of a single locus. The degree of crossability of these genes can be arranged in such an order, namely, s > ss > SA > SN > SQ. According to the degree of dominance, the order should be reversed as: SQ > SN > ss > SA > s. These findings were properly used in the routine work of crosses between wheat and rye.2. Chromosome doubling. Before treatment the wheat-rye hybrid seedlings should be slightly wounded on crown part by a sharp razor blade. Then the hybrid seedlings are exposed in 0.04-0.05% aqueous solution of colchicine for 4 days in room temperature not over 15℃. More than 90% of the treated seedlings could be recovered in greenhouse below 10℃. Among the recovered seedlings, about 40.8% of the sterile F1 hybrid plants would be turned to be partial fertile and various amount of seeds could be obtained from these successful plants. By this procedure, 4,700 primary Triticale strains have been created. In 1961, a new polyploidizing agent was discovered. The name of the agent is Fumiron, or Phenyl mercury-p-toluene sulfonanilide which is a fungicide and has comparable cfficiency in chromosome doubling as colchicine does.3. Fertility and seed plumpness. It was suggested that recombination of genes by hybridization and molding the segregation generations by heavy selection pressure could be the effective measures for the improvement of the fertility and seed plumpness of the octoploid Triticale strains. About two thousand of cross-combinations have been made with various parental stocks which were mostly selected from the primary Triticale strains, and in recent years, hybrid strains and elite plants in segregation generation were used in crosses more frequently than the primary types. The hybrid strains thus developed with normal fertility and acceptible seed plumpness were released to different localities with various natural conditions for yield tests.4. Regional tests. The data collected from regional tests have shown a tendency that the Triticale hybrid strains at present state might be successful in those regions where the yield of common wheat is usually very low and unstable due to severe natural conditions. For example, 10 Triticale strains were tested for yield performance with one rye and two common wheat varieties as checks in 1972-1973 growing season in Weining, a mountainous region of Kweiehow with altitude between 2-3 thousand meters. Eight out of ten Triticale strains have higher yields than both rye and wheat varieties. The best strain, Triticale No. 2 has a yield about 20% higher than that of rye, and 24% and 61% higher than the two varieties of common wheat Ahpo and No. 778 respectively. However, it, should not thus be concluded that the octoploid Tri-ticale is especially suitable for the marginal habitats of common wheat. It is only apparently seeming so at the present state of the Triticale strains which were developed from selection solely directed to the improvement of fertility and seed plumpness without much consideration for other characteristics of agricultural importance. Now, only the hardiness from rye and good seed quality from common wheat generally incoporated in the amphiploid have shown their favourable effect in the marginal regions of these two crops. This might be considered therefore that it is merely a preliminary stage of the Triticale program.

从1957年以来的八倍体小黑麦育种工作的主要结果总结如下: 1.可杂交基因的应用 小麦和黑麦之间的可杂交遗传分析表明s,s~S,s~A,s~N和s~Q是属于一个基因座的复等位基因。根据可杂交的程度,这些基因可以排成如下的次序,即s>s~S>s~A>s~N>s~Q。根据显性的程度,则其次序就要倒过来成为:s~Q>S~N>s~S>s~A>s。这个发现已被适当地应用于小麦与黑麦的日常杂交工作中。 2.染色体数加倍 小麦-黑麦杂种分蘖苗于处理前在基部用刀片切一浅伤口,而后浸在0.04—0.05%的秋水仙精溶液中4天,室温保持在15℃以下。在10℃以下的温室中,90%以上的处理苗能恢复生长。恢复苗中约有40.8%的F_1不育杂种植株能转变成部分可育的,并以这些成功株上将获得数目不等的种子。用这个方法,曾经制造了4,700个小黑麦原始品系。在1961年,发现了一个新的多倍体诱变剂。药品的名字是富民隆,或称对甲苯磺硫苯胺基苯汞,它是一个杀菌剂,加倍染色体数的效果和秋水仙精一样。 3.结实率和种子饱满度 通过杂交的基因重组和加重分离世代的选择压力是改进八倍体小黑麦的结实率和种子饱满度的有效方法。从小黑麦原始品系中选用各种亲本...

从1957年以来的八倍体小黑麦育种工作的主要结果总结如下: 1.可杂交基因的应用 小麦和黑麦之间的可杂交遗传分析表明s,s~S,s~A,s~N和s~Q是属于一个基因座的复等位基因。根据可杂交的程度,这些基因可以排成如下的次序,即s>s~S>s~A>s~N>s~Q。根据显性的程度,则其次序就要倒过来成为:s~Q>S~N>s~S>s~A>s。这个发现已被适当地应用于小麦与黑麦的日常杂交工作中。 2.染色体数加倍 小麦-黑麦杂种分蘖苗于处理前在基部用刀片切一浅伤口,而后浸在0.04—0.05%的秋水仙精溶液中4天,室温保持在15℃以下。在10℃以下的温室中,90%以上的处理苗能恢复生长。恢复苗中约有40.8%的F_1不育杂种植株能转变成部分可育的,并以这些成功株上将获得数目不等的种子。用这个方法,曾经制造了4,700个小黑麦原始品系。在1961年,发现了一个新的多倍体诱变剂。药品的名字是富民隆,或称对甲苯磺硫苯胺基苯汞,它是一个杀菌剂,加倍染色体数的效果和秋水仙精一样。 3.结实率和种子饱满度 通过杂交的基因重组和加重分离世代的选择压力是改进八倍体小黑麦的结实率和种子饱满度的有效方法。从小黑麦原始品系中选用各种亲本大约已经做了两千个杂交组合,近年来更多的是用杂种选系和分离世代中好的植株来进行杂交。由此而选育出来的,结实率正常,

 
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