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gene
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  基因
    The effects of anti-HPV 16E6-ribozyme on phenotype and gene expression of cervical cancer cell line
    抗人乳头瘤病毒16型E6基因核酶对宫颈癌细胞株表型和基因调控的影响
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    Studies on the expression and mechanisms of p16~(INK4a)gene in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma
    P16~(INK4a)基因在人胰腺癌中的表达及其作用机制的研究
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    Studies on the change,the effect and the mechanism of FHIT gene in the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma
    三联脆组基因在胰腺癌发生发展中的变化及对其增殖的影响和作用机制的初步探讨
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    EFFECT OF HOMOHARRINGTONINE ON INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS IN T-CELL LEUKEMIA WITH INVOLVEMENT OF GENE REGULATION AND ITS SIGNALING PATHWAY
    高三尖杉酯碱通过影响信号传导途径和基因调控作用诱导T-淋巴细胞白血病细胞凋亡
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    bcl-1/IgH gene rearrangement in mantle cell lymphoma and its potential molecular mechanism
    外套细胞淋巴瘤bcl-1/IgH基因重排及其分子机理的研究
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  基因突变
    Study on Mutations of the PTEN Gene in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma
    弥漫性大细胞性B细胞型非霍奇金淋巴瘤PTEN基因突变的研究
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    Study on p53 Gene Mutation and Its Relationship with Environmental Risk Factors in Cases of Esophageal Cancer in Xi'an and Linzhou
    西安和林州市食管癌P53基因突变及其与环境致癌因素之间关系的研究
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    Study on the Effects of Overexpression of PTEN Gene on the Behavior of Bladder Transitional Carcinoma Cell Line and Mutation Analysis of PTEN Gene in Human Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinomas
    PTEN基因过表达对移行上皮癌细胞系生物学行为的影响及膀胱癌组织PTEN基因突变的研究
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    A Study on the Mutation Analysis of Rb1 Gene and the Screening of Differential Proteins in Retinoblastoma
    视网膜母细胞瘤Rb1基因突变的检测及血清中差异性标志蛋白的筛选
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    The Study of Tumor Markers and Gene Mutations in the Bile for Differential Diagnosis of Cholangiocarcinoma and Benign Bile Duct Stricture
    胆汁肿瘤标志物和基因突变对胆管癌和胆管良性狭窄鉴别诊断价值的研究
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    The Study of PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 Tumol Suppressor Gene in Human Malignant Melanoma and its Significance
    PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1肿瘤抑制基因在人恶性黑色素瘤中的研究及其意义
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    Experimental Study of Combination Gene Transfer FasL and P21~(WAF1/CIP1)Therapy for Human Gliomas
    联合基因转移FasL、P21~(WAF1/CIP1)治疗人脑胶质瘤的实验研究
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    Flt3 Ligand gene therapy of murine liver cancer mediated by recombinant adenovirus vector
    腺病毒介导的Flt3配体小鼠肝癌治疗研究
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    Study on Killing Effect of DAAO Gene Transfer on Highly Tumorigenic Leukemic Cell Line K562e
    DAAO基因转移对高成瘤性白血病细胞系K562e的杀伤作用研究
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    Functional Study of RbAp46, A Novel Tumor Suppressor Gene
    RbAp46——一种新的肿瘤抑制基因
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  gene
NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR DRUG DISCOVERY BASED UPON INSERTION OF LIGANDS INTO GENE SEQUENCES BY NUCLEAR RECEPTOR PROTEINS
      
A gene regulatory mechanism has been proposed in which steroid hormones and certain other drugs bind to nuclear receptor proteins followed by transfer to DNA where they are inserted between base pairs.
      
Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a 439-bp fragment of a 65,000-kDa (Mr) heat shock protein gene (hsp65) of Mycobacterium.
      
Cloning of an APETALA3 homologous gene (PtAP3) from Populus tomentosa and genetic transformation of its sense and anti-sense con
      
A pair of primers were designed according to published literature on Populus trichocarpa gene (PTD), and PtAP3, an AP3 homologous gene from Populus tomentosa was isolated by PCR using genomic DNA of the male clone of P.
      
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The changes of tyrosine transaminase activity (TAT) and nucleotide 5'-phosphodiesterase activity (5'-NPDase) during foetal development and carcinogenesis in rats and in human beings were observed. Results so far obtained indicate that (1) a higher positive rate of the fastest moving isoenzyme band for 5'-NPDase has been noted in AFP (-) patients with liver cancer, and (2) TAT, 5'-NPDase and AFP may be taken together as good markers for the study of gene expression during liver caroinogenesis and foetal...

The changes of tyrosine transaminase activity (TAT) and nucleotide 5'-phosphodiesterase activity (5'-NPDase) during foetal development and carcinogenesis in rats and in human beings were observed. Results so far obtained indicate that (1) a higher positive rate of the fastest moving isoenzyme band for 5'-NPDase has been noted in AFP (-) patients with liver cancer, and (2) TAT, 5'-NPDase and AFP may be taken together as good markers for the study of gene expression during liver caroinogenesis and foetal development.

本文测定了大鼠及人体胚胎发育和癌变过程中TAT和5′-NPDase活力变化,所得结果表明: (一)5′-NPDase快速同工酶区带在甲胎蛋白(AFP)阴性肝癌患者血清中阳性率较高。(二)TAT,5′-NPDase和AFP也许可作为研究癌、胚以及肝癌癌变过程中基因表达的三个互补生化指标。

In connection with the study of the mechanism of carcinogenesis,we have underta-ken an investigation on the relative changes in activities of the proliferating enzymesuch as aspartate carbamyl transferase(ACT)and the tissue-specific enzymes such asornithine carbamyl transferase(OCT)and carbamyl phosphate synthetase(CPS_1)in amodel system of hepatocarcinogenesis of rats induced by diethylnitrosamine(DENA).Similar observations have also been made during development of rat liver.(1)Based on the pathological study...

In connection with the study of the mechanism of carcinogenesis,we have underta-ken an investigation on the relative changes in activities of the proliferating enzymesuch as aspartate carbamyl transferase(ACT)and the tissue-specific enzymes such asornithine carbamyl transferase(OCT)and carbamyl phosphate synthetase(CPS_1)in amodel system of hepatocarcinogenesis of rats induced by diethylnitrosamine(DENA).Similar observations have also been made during development of rat liver.(1)Based on the pathological study and enzymatic changes of liver in the presentexperiment,the process of carcinogenesis may be tentatively divided into three stages:(1)stage of simple hyperplasia—the early 6 weeks of DENA feeding.Changes in therelative ratio of ACT,OCT,and CPS_1 activities in this stage are reversible,similar tothose observed in the regenerating liver.(2)stage of malignant transformation—fromthe 6th to the 16th week of feeding the carcinogen.In this stage there appears anaplastichyperplasia of liver cells characterized by an irreversible change of the relative ratioof enzyme activities and (3)stage of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma—fromthe 16th to the 30th week of carcinogenesis.(2)During carcinogenesis of rat liver(after the 6th week of feeding DENA),activities of OCT and CPS_1 decreased while those of ACT increased gradually till theformation of cancer.In hepatocellular carcinoma the activities of OCT and CPS_1 areabout 10~20% of the normal liver,while those of ACT being about 2~3 times higher than the normal liver.The pattern of relative changes in activities of both groups ofenzyme during carcinogenesis was found to be the reverse of those observed in thedevelopment of rat liver.(3)The above enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma and normal liver are probablyidentical entities,as shown by the similarities of pH optima and distribution patternsof enzyme activity in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.Similar K_m values anddifferent V_m values of OCT and ACT in hepatocellular carcinoma and normal liverpreparations suggested that changes in enzyme activities during carcinogenesis maypossibly be the result of an alteration in the amount of enzyme proteins.Furthermore,the specific activities of OCT and CPS_1 in the mitochondria of hepatocellular carcinomahave been found to be much lower than those of normal liver,although the proteincontent in the mitochondria of hepatocellular carcinoma decreased to an extent of about40% of that of normal liver.(4)The possible correlation between cell proliferation and differentiation to themechanism of carcinogenesis is discussed.As seen from Fig.3,the process of carcinogenesisseems to be a reversal of that of normal differentiation(development).Changes in enzymeactivities during carcinogenesis may be explained as a result of repression andderepression of the tissue-specific operons and mitotic operons,which are closelylinked and mutually repressed.It appears likely that cell proliferation may provide afundamental condition for the malignant transformation of the hepatocytes,while lossor decrease in the activities of tissue-specific function may be of primary importance tothe initiation of carcinogenesis.It is thus concluded that carcinogenesis would be dueto a random impairment of the control mechanism for gene activities of certain tissue-specific operons,leading to irreversible changes in nucleic acid biosynthesis and intissue-specific metabolism and their key enzyme activities which in turn give rise to anirreversible disturbance of the normal balance between cell proliferation and tissue-specific function,resulting in an abnormal growth and finally the formation of cancer.

本实验以二乙基亚硝胺诱发大鼠肝癌为动物模型,结合病理形态学研究了细胞增殖与组织特异代谢关键性酶ACT 及OCT,CPS_1活性的相互改变及其与癌变的关系,同时作了鼠肝发育过程中酶活性变化的比较研究。(1)根据DENA 引癌过程中酶活性CPS_Ⅰ/ACT,OCT/ACT 及ACT/CPS_Ⅰ,ACT/OCT 相对比值的变化,以及病理形态观察结果,DENA 引癌过程大致可分为三个阶段:喂DENA6周以内为单纯性增生期。此时期酶活性相对比值的改变是可逆的,与再生肝相似。第6周以后至16周为癌变期。此时期出现肝细胞异型性增生及癌变病灶。酶活性相对比值的改变是不可逆的。16周到30周为癌变细胞发展成为肝细胞癌期。(2)癌变过程中(喂DENA6周以后),OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ活性持续降低,同时ACT 活性持续增高。肝癌结节中OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ活性约为正常肝的10~20%,ACT 活性约为正常肝的2倍。癌变过程中这两类酶活性的相互改变与发育过程中的情况正好相反。在发育过程中,胚胎肝内OCT 及GPS_Ⅰ活性较成年水平低,而ACT 活性则较高。新生后CPS_Ⅰ及OCT 活性升高,同时ACT 活性降低。(3)肝与肝癌上述酶可能...

本实验以二乙基亚硝胺诱发大鼠肝癌为动物模型,结合病理形态学研究了细胞增殖与组织特异代谢关键性酶ACT 及OCT,CPS_1活性的相互改变及其与癌变的关系,同时作了鼠肝发育过程中酶活性变化的比较研究。(1)根据DENA 引癌过程中酶活性CPS_Ⅰ/ACT,OCT/ACT 及ACT/CPS_Ⅰ,ACT/OCT 相对比值的变化,以及病理形态观察结果,DENA 引癌过程大致可分为三个阶段:喂DENA6周以内为单纯性增生期。此时期酶活性相对比值的改变是可逆的,与再生肝相似。第6周以后至16周为癌变期。此时期出现肝细胞异型性增生及癌变病灶。酶活性相对比值的改变是不可逆的。16周到30周为癌变细胞发展成为肝细胞癌期。(2)癌变过程中(喂DENA6周以后),OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ活性持续降低,同时ACT 活性持续增高。肝癌结节中OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ活性约为正常肝的10~20%,ACT 活性约为正常肝的2倍。癌变过程中这两类酶活性的相互改变与发育过程中的情况正好相反。在发育过程中,胚胎肝内OCT 及GPS_Ⅰ活性较成年水平低,而ACT 活性则较高。新生后CPS_Ⅰ及OCT 活性升高,同时ACT 活性降低。(3)肝与肝癌上述酶可能是相同的。因为酶活性的最适pH 和在聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳图上的分布都是一致的。肝与肝癌OCT 及ACT 的K_m 相同而V_m 不同,说明癌变过程中酶活性的变化,主要是由于酶蛋白量的改变。此外,肝癌线粒体的蛋白量减少,但OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ的比活性(单位/毫克线粒体蛋白)仍较正常肝线粒体的低。(4)讨论了增生和分化与癌变的关系。初步认为,肝细胞的癌变是反分化(分化逆转)问题,和正常分化一样系由于基因表现的改变,不一定包含基因结构的改变。就与癌变有关的细胞增殖和分化的矛盾而言,细胞增殖及其有关酶活性的增高,可能是癌变发生的基础,而组织特异功能及其关键性酶活性的降低,可能与癌变的关系更为密切。因此癌变的发生,可能是由于在细胞分裂过程中致癌物使肝细胞特异功能基因的调节控制失常,从而引起增生代谢与特异代谢关键性酶活性不可逆的改变,使之失去肝细胞增殖与特异功能的正常平衡,而代之以不受控制的增生,最后形成癌细胞。

The normal liver mRNA wasisolated by oligo(dT)-cellulose chroma-tography of RNA extracted from liverpolysomes. The isolated mRNA wasproved to be biologically active byalbumin translation in two protein syn-thesizing systems; one was wheat germcell-free protein synthesizing system andthe other was Xenopus oocyte translationsystem. Applying the active liver mRNAto transform hepatoma cells in vitro, itwas observed 1) the mRNA from mouseliver inhibited nucleic acid and proteinsynthesis of mouse ascites hepatoma...

The normal liver mRNA wasisolated by oligo(dT)-cellulose chroma-tography of RNA extracted from liverpolysomes. The isolated mRNA wasproved to be biologically active byalbumin translation in two protein syn-thesizing systems; one was wheat germcell-free protein synthesizing system andthe other was Xenopus oocyte translationsystem. Applying the active liver mRNAto transform hepatoma cells in vitro, itwas observed 1) the mRNA from mouseliver inhibited nucleic acid and proteinsynthesis of mouse ascites hepatoma andthe human liver mRNA was primarilyseen to inhibit the growth slightly ofcultured human hepatoma (BEL-7404);2) albumin synthesis was induced inboth lines of hepatoma respectively bycorresponding liver mRNA, the scatteredribosomes in the cytoplasm of humanhepatoma cells was agglutinated to formpolysomes under electron microscopeexamination; 3) agglutination of humanhepatoma cells by concanavalin A wasweakened, the changed characteristicswere maintained after three subculturesof the hepatoma cells. These experi-mental results indicate that the diffe-rentiated state of hepatoma cells is notfixed and unchanged and mRNA fromnormal liver is able to revert partly thehepatoma cells toward normality. Asfor the mechanism of transformation bymRNA in question, we suppose, it isprobably due to the functioning pro-teins translated by the mRNA addedfrom normal liver, or the mRNA directlyregulating the gene expression at trans-cription level.

正常肝信息核糖核酸是从肝聚核蛋白体抽提RNA,通过寡聚(dT)纤维素亲和层析制备。分离的正常肝mRNA在麦胚蛋白合成系统和爪蟾卵翻译系统检定,能够翻译白蛋白,由此证明是有生物学活性的。用正常肝mRNA在离体情况下对肝癌细胞进行逆转分化研究,发现:(1)小鼠正常肝mRNA能抑制小鼠腹水肝癌细胞核酸和蛋白质的合成;初步见到人的正常肝mRNA能轻度抑制人体肝癌细胞(BEL-7404)的生长。(2)相应的正常肝mRNA分别在小鼠腹水肝癌和人肝癌细胞诱导了白蛋白合成;在人体肝癌细胞内核蛋白体聚成聚核蛋白体。(3)人体肝癌细胞受刀豆凝集素(Con A)凝集的能力减弱,这种凝集特性的改变,可以维持至3次细胞传代。这些实验结果显示肝癌细胞并非固定不可改变的,在正常肝mRNA作用下能够向正常逆转分化;讨论了mRNA转化机理,认为可能是通过肝mRNA翻译的蛋白质或mRNA本身直接调节基因转录来实现的。

 
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