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cultural practices
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  栽培措施
    From an ecologyical point of view, measures were taken through the use of tolerant cultivars the covering with the grey or aluminum color of polyethylene film, the use of fungicides and insecticides for preventing or reducing the dissemination of pathogenic inocula; and the adoption of a series of cultural practices for avoiding or removing various sources of infection.
    根据生态学观点,采取了各种措施:如采用耐病品种、遮盖或覆盖灰色或铝色的聚乙烯薄膜、用杀菌剂和杀虫剂防止或减少病原传播、采取一系列栽培措施避免或清除侵染源。
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    (2)Studies on physiology of fruit under high-temperature stress and (3)Effect of cultural practices on fruit sunburn.
    ( 2 )果实抗高温胁迫生理学研究 ; ( 3)栽培措施对防止果实日烧的效应。
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  “cultural practices”译为未确定词的双语例句
    THE DAMPING-OFF OF CONIFEROUS SEEDLINGS.Ⅰ.SYMPTOMS,CAUSAL ORGANISMS AND CULTURAL PRACTICES IN RELATION TO DISEASE DEVELOPMENT
    松苗立枯病的研究 Ⅰ、分布损失、征状类型、病原、和栽培影响
短句来源
    (2) selection of disease resistant varie-ties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.
    (2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;
短句来源
    A survey was made in Harbin region in 1981 and 1982 to investigate theoccurence of tomato virus disease on different tomato cultivars and the samecultivar cultivated with different cultural practices. Disease resistance in cer-tain hybrids(F_1) obtained by using some varieties provided with TMV-resistantgenes as male or female parents and the pathotypes of the disease were ident-ified in the meantimes.
    1981和1982年,在哈尔滨地区11个点,调查不同栽培方式和不同品种番茄病毒病的发生情况和以含抗 TMV 基因的品种为亲本所获杂种一代抗病性的表现,并对病毒病毒源类型进行鉴定。
短句来源
    Lygus lucorum and geometrid and tortricid larvae were also attacked. Changes of the spider populations were attributed mainly to fluctuation of the pest populations, pesticide application, cultural practices and climatic factors.
    3种常见蜘蛛又线金蝉蛛、粽管巢蛛、毁坏管巢蛛对假眼小绿叶蝉的日捕食达8.5~11.0头,对害虫的控制能力居茶园捕食性天敌的首位,影响茶园蜘蛛种群消长的主要因子有:害虫种群变化、农药施用、农事操作及气候因子等。
短句来源
    Since neither resistant cultivar nor effective chemicals was available,the authors suggested that,to control aphid probe introduced virus disease such as CMV,the principal measures should be cultural practices which have exclusive effect on winged aphid in the early growing stages of tobacco plants,and supplemented with other measures to improve disease resistance ability of tobacco plants in the early stages of growth.
    主张在当前既无抗病品种又无较好药剂的情况下,防治CMV等蚜传口针系病毒病应以驱(避)前期有翅蚜为主,采取多种措施提高烟株前期抗(耐)病能力为辅的防治策略。
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  cultural practices
This could be achieved through the exploration of the cultural practices of the local people and integrating useful aspects into the modern natural resource management expertise.
      
Wetting agent and cultural practices increase infiltration and reduce runoff losses of irrigation water
      
The effect of cultural practices like core aerification followed by sand topdressing and application of a wetting agent in reducing runoff of irrigation water was evaluated.
      
Runoff events after the cultural practices and the wetting agent treatment (Dispatch applied at 877 ml/ha) was repeated four times over a time period when the matric potential ranged from 15-40 kPa.
      
Explanations for divering responses can be found in the union's structure, its traditional membership and employer characteristics, its leadership's vision and ideology, and its internal cultural practices.
      
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Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the...

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the water-soaked appearance and then extend upwardly,and eventually become blackenedand rotted.As a rule,ths leaves of the infected plants show an abnormal coloror pale yellow,and drooping appearance.In the meantime,the root tips of theadventitious roots of the vines lose their cortex and begin to lot.Wilting followsquite rapidly and finally the entire plant dies.If the disease infects the plantafter the potatoes beginning to form,it may extend throughout the vine and in-to the roots,causing the enlarged roots to show brown streaks and finally blackenedand rotted with pungent odor. The cause of the disease may appropriately be considered as due to bacteriaand Fusarium spp.Four types of bacteria,i.e.white smooth type,yellow smoothtype,white rough type and yellow rough type,are able to cause the disease.Atleast four kinds of Fusarium,i.e.white aerial mycelium type,white mycelium withred of a purple tint substratum type,pink mycelium with red of a purple tint sub-stratum type and without aerial mycelium type are responsible for the disease.Which is the main cause of the disease? Either bacteria or Fusarium alone or theboth in combination is able to cause the disease,further tests should be madebefore a definite conclusion may be drawn. The dissemination of the wilt organisms may appropriately be considered inthree ways,namely,(1) by infested roots and vines,(2) by sick-soil,and (3) byinsects,as the sweet-potato weevil (Gycas formicarius Fabr.).The former twoways of dissemination are more definite than the latter,however,further testsand observations should be made. According to the results of 2-years field experiments in Tsen-shi and Peh-liustations,it shows that different varieties of sweet-potato possess different resis-tance to the disease.Among several varieties tested,it is found that Tai-nung No.3being a promising one,because it yields very high and is highly resistant to thedisease and to the drought.Although it is occasionally found to be susceptibleto the disease in the experiment field of Tsen-shi and is more commonly foundin the experiment field of Lin-kwei.The second variety is Tai-nung No.46 dueto its high degree of disease resistance. The results of preliminary tests indicate that the method of reproduction byold vines would decrease both in disease resistance and in yield within the samevariety. From tests conducted in two different fields,i.e.one at dry land and the ??other in the rice field,it shows that the discrepancies were found in the occur-rence of the disease and also in the relation of the method of manuring to thepercent of infection. Dipping cuttings in different disinfectants did not show any significant results.There are discrepancies in both plowed and sunned field test and two methodsof setting the vines test.These may be due to methods of treatment,landand varieties used for experiment being different. According to the results of date of planting tests in Peh-liu,it indicates thatthe occurrence and the development of the disease are closely related to the highhumidity and the high temperature.These climatic factors affect the health ofthe early growth of the plant which in turn would increase the disease resistance.It is suggested that the most suitable date for planting sweet-potato in Peh-liu isin the first decade of August. In comparing the weather records of the three districts—Lin-kwei,Peh-liu andTsen-shi—in relation to the date of early and last occurrences of the disease,itshows that an average air temperature of 23.4-28.4℃ is most suitable for the oc-currence of the disease,and an average relative humidity of 80 per cent is alsoneeded for the infection of the disease.Based on these facts,we may say thatsweet-potatoes in Lin-kwei are capable to be easily infected by the wilt organisms.except the last date of the infection would be preceded 10-20 clays.Any otherregions with similar climatic factors,it is also very possible to be infected. According to the results of 2-years experiments and facts from surveys,sug-gestive control measures are proposed: (1) excluding the disease by regulationthrough the use of quarantines enforced by an inspection station empowered torestrict or eradicate diseased roots and vines to prevent them from becomingsources of infection in disease-free districts; (2) selection of disease resistant varie-ties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.For the present time,we suggest that the use of Tai-nung No.3 in Tsen-shi and Peh-liu may meet the requirement,and promotingthe method of root reproduction in place of an old method of reproduction byrepeating vine cuttings from old vines can prevent the degeneration of the plantand decrease the infection of the disease.

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試...

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試驗田也会發生过多次。老藤繁殖会降低同一品种的抗病性和产量,值得我們注意。在旱地和水田不同試驗地上所得結果,可初步说明發病情况很不一致,追肥与不追肥处理的發病率也不一致。藥剂处理种苗效应不显著,翻晒土壤及二种种植法試驗结果不一致,想与試驗方法、試驗地不同和供試品种不同有密切关系。薯瘟的發生与發展和高温潮湿有密切关系,而这些气候因素对于植株的早期生??長壮健及增强抗病性也有关系。初步建議,在北流地区以立秋(8月上旬)种植較为适当。从临桂雁山、北流和岑溪三处的气候記录,和薯瘟开始發生与最后發生日期的記录看来,可以初步說平均气温23.4—28.4℃最适于薯瘟的發生。相对湿度平均在80%以上亦适于本病的發生。由此可見,在临桂雁山地区,薯瘟可能是容易發生的,不过停止發病日期会提早10—20天。其他地区如有相似气温与湿度情况,那也是会發生薯瘟的。根据二年試驗結果和調查所得情况,初步提出防治薯瘟的办法如次:(1)应采取种薯和种苗的檢疫措施,禁止病区的种薯运往無病地区,以防蔓延;(2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;多施草木灰,适当施用石灰,根外追肥,适期种植等,以增强植株的抗病性,避免病害的侵染,保証丰产。目前在岑溪及北流地区,可先推广种植“台农三号”品种,并提倡以薯塊育苗,切勿采用老藤繁殖,以避免植株的衰退,减少薯瘟的發生。

It has been experienced that in Peking immediately after the soil is defrozen in the spring, no trace of soft-rot bacteria can be isolated from the field soil, although this organism can be readily isolated from the undecomposed residues of the Chinese cabbage in the field, if there is any. The soft rot of the Chinese cabbage in cellar develops throughout the storage period. It is therefore convinced that the-primary source of infection of the soft rot of the Chinese cabbage is either from the undecomposed residues...

It has been experienced that in Peking immediately after the soil is defrozen in the spring, no trace of soft-rot bacteria can be isolated from the field soil, although this organism can be readily isolated from the undecomposed residues of the Chinese cabbage in the field, if there is any. The soft rot of the Chinese cabbage in cellar develops throughout the storage period. It is therefore convinced that the-primary source of infection of the soft rot of the Chinese cabbage is either from the undecomposed residues from the field or from the debris in the cabbage cellar. The seed Chinese cabbage from the cellar after overwintering is planted out at the end of march and meanwhile carries the soft rot organisms to the field. Furthermore, a number of insects serves as spreaders. Isolations of a number of insects found either in cabbage cellar or in spring cabbage fields reveal that 76% of Sarcophaga sp., 66.8% of Fannia sp., 4% of Apis mellifera, 40% of Athalia rosae and 30% of Plutella maculipennis are found to carry soft-rot organisms both externally and internally. The results of an field experiment point out that the early diseased cabbage plants in the field serve as centers of infection of the soft-rot disease. The bacteria are disseminated in the field by the irrigation water. However, only those cabbage plants which are wounded at the basal part are liable to the attack. It is therefore suggested that in addition to the control of insect pests in connection with the adequate cultural practice, the thoroughness of eliminating the centers of infection by prompt removal of the diseased plants from the field every time before irrigation must be observed. In the present paper a rapid method for determining the pathogenic soft-rot bacteria from the soil is described.

白菜軟腐細菌Erivinia aroideae不能在田間土壤中越冬,但能在未分解的病菜根和病菜叶中越冬。用病根及病叶等所作的堆肥中不能分离出具有致病力的軟腐細菌。菜窖中的废菜叶为軟腐細菌越冬及繁殖的主要場所之一?杭居陕橛?Sarcophaga sp.)及花蝇(Fannia sp.)传布到田間的感病作物上,另外也可以由蜜蜂(Apis mellifera L.)、叶蜂(Athalia rosae L.)及小菜娥(Plutella maculipennis curtis)等繼續在白菜間传布。此外窖中移出的菜种株上亦带有病原細菌。因此認为菜窖中及田間殘菜根的越冬細菌是軟腐病的初次侵染源。菜畦內发生的早期病株是軟腐細菌的供給者。凡是畦內菜株受伤而有早期病株时全畦发病最重;畦內菜株无伤而无早期病株时发病最輕。在菜株受伤的情况下,早期病株的影响特别显著。灌溉水有在畦內传布病原細菌的能力。建議在防治中結合栽培及防虫必須注意在每次灌水前及早拔除早期病株,以增进防治的效果。

1) There are two species of the spotted bollworms, Earias fabia (Stoll.) and E.insulana (Boisd.) as pests of cotton in the cotton growing region of Lukiang. Infesta-tion by the spotted bollworms was very insignificant before 1957, when cotton wasplanted in the spring only. But the infestation due to the spotted bollworms becameworse from 1958--1960, as the cotton plantation system changed, i.e. from the singlespring season cotton changed into the spring seeding cotton, the summer seeding cotton,the fall seeding...

1) There are two species of the spotted bollworms, Earias fabia (Stoll.) and E.insulana (Boisd.) as pests of cotton in the cotton growing region of Lukiang. Infesta-tion by the spotted bollworms was very insignificant before 1957, when cotton wasplanted in the spring only. But the infestation due to the spotted bollworms becameworse from 1958--1960, as the cotton plantation system changed, i.e. from the singlespring season cotton changed into the spring seeding cotton, the summer seeding cotton,the fall seeding cotton, the regenerating cotton and the ratoon cotton since 1957.2) The writers have suggested that the changes in cultural practices is necessary inorder to check the spotted bollworms. These procedures are to rotate cotton and grains,to make early crop, to use resistant strain, and to eradicate wild host-plants, etc.3) The results of the large scale field experiments against Earias spp. by changingagronomic practices in Lukiang during 1961 are very satisfactory. The population ofthe spotted bollworms in January and February was greatly decreased, 99.7 per centless than those of 1960. The moths trapped by molasses in the spring were also re-duced, 99.1 per cent less than last year. The cotton plants were infested much laterand lighter, and the average numbers of larvae on the cotton plants were reduced 65per cent, or even 96 per cent less as compared with those of 1960. Eventually, theyield of seed cotton in Lukiang increased about 30 per cent in that year.

(1)云南保山潞江棉区为害棉花的金钢钻有翠纹金钢钻(Earias fabia(Stoll.))和埃及金钢钻(Earias insulana(Boisd.))两种。在1957年以前该棉区一年只种一季春播棉,金钢钻发生轻微。在1957—1960年,先后采用了春播、夏播、秋播、再生和宿根等多样植棉方式,形成了有利于金钢钻全年取食的食物链索,于是金钢钻发生为害逐年加重,成为棉产事业的重大威胁。 (2)已往大都单独依靠使用药剂防治金钢钻,收效不大。作者等提出改变栽培制度各项措施防治金钢钻。其内容包括改种一季棉实行棉粮输作,促进早熟,改种抗虫品种等,此外也产除野生寄主植物。 (3)1961年在潞江棉区大面积试行改变裁培制度后的情况是:1、2月份冬季虫口密度比1960年减少99.7%。春季用糖浆诱来蛾量比1960年减少99.1%。棉花受害晚而轻,直到7月上旬金钢钻为害盛期,虫口密度仍比1960年减少65%以上,有的甚至减少96%。该地几个公社的单位面积籽棉产量比上年增加30%左右,也显然与虫害减轻有关。

 
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