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social groups
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  social groups
What is the public's opinion on this problem, to what degree is its scope comprehensible, and how significant does it seem to different social groups and to the population as a whole? The author suggests answers to these questions.
      
The aim of the epidemiological investigation was the definition of social groups at high risk for admission to hospital as psychogeriatric patients.
      
Parties remain affiliated with their respective social groups in distinctive ways - despite the fact that the professional backgrounds of their members have become more similar.
      
The exchange of information regarding the environment is continuous within social groups of non-human primates.
      
We may conclude that in common voles at least unrelated non breeding females may contribute to the formation of social groups.
      
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As a social group, the rich and powerful local personalities of the Qin and Han dynasties mainly consisted of nobles of the former six states, well-Rnown chivalrous persons, great landlords and rich merchants. Being proud of their great wealth, they did not observe the social rules, doing whatever they wanted in the locality and gradually being at odds with the interests of the feudal state. Although the Qin and Han dynasties adopted many measures to control the development of their forces, they...

As a social group, the rich and powerful local personalities of the Qin and Han dynasties mainly consisted of nobles of the former six states, well-Rnown chivalrous persons, great landlords and rich merchants. Being proud of their great wealth, they did not observe the social rules, doing whatever they wanted in the locality and gradually being at odds with the interests of the feudal state. Although the Qin and Han dynasties adopted many measures to control the development of their forces, they grew stronger and became the social basis of the separatist political powers during the late Han Dynasty.

秦汉时期的乡里豪民作为一个社会群体,其构成主要有六国贵族、间巷之侠、兼并之家和富商大贾,他们恃财骄溢,越礼僭制,日渐与封建国家产生了离心倾向。虽然秦汉王朝采取了一系列措施抑制其势力发展,但收效甚微,其仍以顽强的生命力发展起来,并以所谓名士身份操纵乡举里选,以宗族势力控制地方政权,成为汉末割据政权的社会基础。

Shanren as a social group became very popular during the late Ming period. They were characterized with the capability of composing poems and were commonly guests to high-level officials and rich people. The popularity of Shanren was related to the common quest of elegant styles, the economic prosperity, political corruption, the disorder of the Civil Service System, Buddhist and Taoist influences, and the mixture of Confucians with literary people. As a dependent social group, although there were...

Shanren as a social group became very popular during the late Ming period. They were characterized with the capability of composing poems and were commonly guests to high-level officials and rich people. The popularity of Shanren was related to the common quest of elegant styles, the economic prosperity, political corruption, the disorder of the Civil Service System, Buddhist and Taoist influences, and the mixture of Confucians with literary people. As a dependent social group, although there were some honorable members among the Shanren, the main stream of them conducted non-respectable activities. The popularity of Shanren reflects the existence of an intellectual tendency abandoning the Confucian life styles. In literary history, nevertheless, Shanren contributed to the development of an relax and free expression styles which was significant during the late Ming times.

作为一个社会阶层的山人在晚宋一度活跃。明初山人敛迹 ,抵明中叶以后复演为极盛。晚明山人以能诗为特征 ,以游历于达官富室为谋生手段。山人在晚明的盛行是由于经济繁荣条件下对于高雅文化的普遍追求、政治黑暗、科举入仕道路的壅塞、佛道思想流行造成的出世心理和心学影响下的任情适性的士风 ,以及儒生与文人的混合。作为一个寄生的阶层 ,山人之主流的社会行为为谋食所需而污。山人之盛反映了知识分子脱离传统儒家人生道路的倾向。这种倾向在文学上对晚明飘逸闲适的文风颇有影响

The merchant stratum was the characteristic social group of central Shanxi. On one hand they associated with high-ranking officials, on the other hand they devoted themselves to local development, in order to be approved by local society. Still, they could not establish an independent position outside the mainstream moral system leaving them with an awkward dual social role. Simultaneously, central Shanxi merchants had a pronounced gentry first merchant last consciousness, after gaining wealth...

The merchant stratum was the characteristic social group of central Shanxi. On one hand they associated with high-ranking officials, on the other hand they devoted themselves to local development, in order to be approved by local society. Still, they could not establish an independent position outside the mainstream moral system leaving them with an awkward dual social role. Simultaneously, central Shanxi merchants had a pronounced gentry first merchant last consciousness, after gaining wealth through commerce they headed toward the path of an official career. Thus, as the merchants advanced toward modernity, the characteristics of the old merchant class faded out as they pursued a more official role. This was the special feature of professional emergence.

商人阶层是晋中地区最具特色的社会群体。他们一方面结交高官 ,另一方面以多种方式参与社会生活 ,追求塑造本阶层的社会中坚形象。但是晋中商人不具有独立于主流道德伦理之外的意识系统 ,他们的社会角色是一个尴尬的双面角色。同时 ,晋中商人具有浓厚的士首商末意识 ,经商致富后他们的人生走向大多再次回流仕途。随着晋中社会向近代迈进 ,商人阶层呈现出旧阶层淡出、职业化凸显的特色。

 
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