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cancers     
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     Recent Controversies in Surgical Treatment for Pancreatic Cancers
     胰头外科治疗的近况
短句来源
     Multiple Cancers of the Esophagus and Reduplicated Cancers of the Esophagus and the Cardia (With a report of 12 cases)
     食管多发及食管、贲门重复(附12例报告)
短句来源
     Multiple Primary Cancers in the Elderly (Report of 8 Cases and Review of Literature)
     老年人多发性原发性(文献复习及8例报告)
短句来源
     Preventive Effect of Green Tea on MNNG--induced Lung Cancers and Precancerous tesions in LACA Mice
     绿茶对甲基硝基亚硝基胍诱发LACA小鼠肺前病变的预防作用
短句来源
     Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of the Seguence Related to HPV16 E_6/E_7 in Cervical Cancers
     聚合酶链反应检测宫颈中HPV16E_6/E_7相关序列
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  肿瘤
     Study of Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Solid Cancers
     前哨淋巴结定位活检在肿瘤中的应用研究
短句来源
     PTEN Regulates the Expression of Pleiotrophin and Their Clinical Implications in Breast Cancers of Chinese Patients
     肿瘤抑制基因PTEN调控Pleiotrophin的表达及与乳腺癌关系的研究
短句来源
     Study on the Gene Variations and the Susceptibility of Gastrointestinal Cancers
     胃肠道肿瘤发病相关基因的变异与肿瘤发生的遗传易感性的研究
短句来源
     Radioimmunoimaging of AFP-producing Tumors, CEA-producing Tumors and Ovarian Cancers
     分泌AFP肿瘤、分泌CEA肿瘤和卵巢癌的放射免疫显象
短句来源
     The Application of photoacoustic Spectrum in diagnosis of cancers of urine system
     光声光谱技术在泌尿系肿瘤诊断中的应用
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  癌症
     Results: The concentration of TF in cancer group (3.79±0.63) was significantly higher than the control( 3.39 ±0.59), while TAOP in cancers (4.34±0.83) was lower obviously than the healthy group (5.87±0.98).
     结果 癌症组转铁蛋白浓度(3.79±0.63)明显高于对照组(3.39±0.59),癌症组总抗氧化力(4.34±0.83)明显低于对照组(5.87±0.98)。
短句来源
     The mean LSA levels in 44 cases of gastroenteric cancers,27 cases of peritoneal tuberculosis and, 105 cases of other diseases were 158±52, 154±49 and 93±23mg/L;
     结果显示:癌症组44例、结核组27例和其它病组105例血清LSA含量分别为158±52,154±49,93±23mg/L;
短句来源
     When using "stomach cancer basic protein"(SBP)as antigen,the positive incidence was found as follows :0% in 10 normal persons, 89% (8/9) in brain tumors, 95% (36/38) in stomach cancers, 92% (55/60) in miscellaneous malignancies and 6.3% (2/32) in the others.
     当用胃癌硷性蛋白(SBP)作为抗原时,其阳性率为:正常人为0%(0/10)、脑瘤为89(8/9)、胃癌为95%(36/38),其他部位癌症为92%(55/60)、非肿瘤性疾病为6.3%(2/32)。
短句来源
     Result 5 624 average expenses of patient of example cancers are 10219.14 dollarses,among them stay in the hospital the fee to occupy 4.25%,the medicine fee occupy 61.92%,the surgical operation fee occupy 4.03%,check fee is 7.10%,treatment fee is 22.70%,and different disease cancer patient that grow the expenses is different.
     结果:5624例癌症病人平均费用为10219.14元,其中住院费占4.25%、药费占61.92%、手术费占4.03%、检查费占7.10%、治疗费占22.70%,且不同病种的癌症病人费用不同。
短句来源
     CYP1A1 alleles in female genital cancers in the Polish population
     CYP1A1等位基因与波兰女性人群中的生殖道癌症
短句来源
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  恶性肿瘤
     Results Survival rate of the 1-,3-,and 5-year for malignant cancers were 38.12%,16.77% and 12.89%,respectively;
     结果恶性肿瘤的1、3、5年生存率分别为38.12%,16.77%和12.89%;
短句来源
     Methods:Plasma FⅤ:C,FⅦ:C,FⅧ:C,FⅩ:C and FⅪ:C were tested by ALC-2000 fully automatic coagulant-meter in 80patients with malignant tumor(31 lung cancers,21 bowel cancers, 12breast cancers and 16 malignant lymphomas).
     方法:采用ACL-2000全自动凝血仪一期法测定了80例恶性肿瘤患者(肺癌31例、肠癌21例、乳腺癌12例、恶性淋巴瘤16例)血浆凝血因子FⅤ:C、FⅦ:C、FⅧ:C、FⅩ:C、FⅪ:C水平。
短句来源
     RESULTS: Serum GLS in cancers, tuberculosis, pneumonia and chronic bronchitis groups were (908±300), (755±316), (820±294) and (570±147) mg/L;
     结果:恶性肿瘤、结核、肺炎、慢性支气管炎组血清GLS含量分别为(908±300)、(755±316)、(820±294)、(570±147)mg/L;
短句来源
     enhancement degree of lung cancers was 40 5±4 9Hu,low degree of bad tumor was 34 3±5 8Hu,good tumor was 11 0±5 4Hu,tuberculomas 8 2±2 4Hu,granuloms was 54 4±6 0Hu.
     肺癌的增强值 4 0 5± 4 9Hu ,低度恶性肿瘤增强值 34 3± 5 8Hu ,良性肿瘤增强值 11 0± 5 4Hu ,结核瘤增强值 8 2± 2 4Hu ,炎性假瘤增强值 5 4 4± 6 0Hu。
短句来源
     Relationship of IGF2 and H19 Genes in Children with Embryogenic Cancers
     IGF2和H19基因与儿童胚细胞恶性肿瘤的关系
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      cancers
    The complex nature of DNA methylation patterns extends to carcinogenesis because global DNA hypomethylation is found in the same cancers displaying hypermethylation elsewhere in the genome.
          
    A wide variety of cancers display both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation, and either of these types of changes can be significantly associated with tumor progression.
          
    Furthermore, various DNA demethylation methodologies have been shown to increase the formation of certain types of cancers in animals, and paradoxically, DNA hypermethylation can cause carcinogenesis in other model systems.
          
    Hypermethylation of RASSF1A was frequently found in most major types of human tumors including lung, breast, prostate, pancreas, kidney, liver, cervical, thyroid and many other cancers.
          
    The thermostable fraction of serum samples from patients with ovarian, uterus, and breast cancers and benign ovarian tumor was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF(-TOF)-mass spectrometry.
          
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    It has long been known that melanomas contain the melanin pigment. The presence of the pigment in the melanotic tumor is due to the action of oxidases which catalyze the oxidation of tyrosine to melanin. Evans et al. reported that the biosynthesis of melanin from tyrosine may very probably pass through the precusors,5,6-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-indole-2-carboxylic acid (Ⅰ) and then 5, 6-dihydroxy-indole (Ⅱ) as shown by the scheme in the Chinese text.Compound (Ⅱ) had been synthesized by Beer. According to its properties,...

    It has long been known that melanomas contain the melanin pigment. The presence of the pigment in the melanotic tumor is due to the action of oxidases which catalyze the oxidation of tyrosine to melanin. Evans et al. reported that the biosynthesis of melanin from tyrosine may very probably pass through the precusors,5,6-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-indole-2-carboxylic acid (Ⅰ) and then 5, 6-dihydroxy-indole (Ⅱ) as shown by the scheme in the Chinese text.Compound (Ⅱ) had been synthesized by Beer. According to its properties, this compound was believed to be the actual precusor of melania.This conclusion was supported by the biochemical work of Mason.It is also interesting to note, that the essential constituents of one of the anticancer Chinese drug, "Fan-mu-pieh" (番木鳖), are indole alka oids. Therefore, the preparation of indole com-pounds, especially [bis-(β-chloroethyl)-amino]-indole derivatives, would be a hopeful new route for the synthesis of effective drugs in the treatment of cancer especially melanomas.In the present investigation, 5-[bis-(β-chloroethyl)-amino]-indole-2-carboxylic acid (Ⅵa), 6-[bis-(β-chloroethyl)-amino]-indole-2-carboxylic acid (Ⅵb) and 7-[bis-(β-chloroethyl)-amino]-indole-2-carboxylic acid (Ⅵc), structurally related to the precusor Ⅰ of melanin were prepared. If these compounds should be decarboxylated in vivo, they would be converted to bis-(β-chloroethyl) amino-indoles, structually related to the other precusor Ⅱ of melanin.Compound Ⅵb was prepared by a 7-step synthesis from 2,4-dinitrobenzaldehyde (Ⅶ). The latter was converted to 2-methyl-4-(2'4'-dinitrobenzylidene)-5-azIactone (Ⅷ) and the azlactone was hydrolyzed to 2,4-dinitrophenyl pyruvic acid (Ⅸ), and subsequently transferred to its ethyl-ester (Ⅹ) by the usual way. 6-[Bis-(β-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-indole-2-carboxylic acid (XIV) was obtained either by reducing Ⅹ with sodium hydrosulphite or by hydrogenating it catalytically on palladium-carbon to the amino compound (XIII), and followed by dihydroxyethylation in dilute acetic acid with ethylene oxide. Compound XIV was chlorinated with phosphrous oxychloride and the chlorinated compound (XV) was hydrolyzed to final product Ⅵb with hydrochloric acid.Compounds Ⅵa and Ⅵc were prepared from the ethyl esters of the corresponding nitroindole-2-carboxylic acids (Ⅶa and Ⅶc) through reduction, hydroxyethylation, chlorination and hydrolysis as in the preparation of Ⅵb. The intermediates Ⅻa and Ⅻc were obtained from p-nitrophenyl-hydrazone and o-nitrophenylhydrazone of ethyl pyruvate Ⅺa and Ⅺb respectively by modified Parnerter's method. Besides, some derivatives of indole-2-carboxylic acid such as N,N-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-indole-2-carboxylic acid amide (XVI), indolyl ethyleneimine (XVII) and 3-iodo-indole-2-carboxylic acid (XVIII) were also prepared.Compounds Ⅵa and Ⅵc showed inhibiting action against sarcoma 180 and melanoma in mice, but compound XVI, XVII and XVIII have no effect toward sarcoma 180. The pharmacological actions of the above compounds will be reported elsewhere.

    1.本文叙述了从2,4-二硝基苯甲醛开始经过七步反应合成6-[双-(β-氯乙基)-氨基]-吲哚-2-羧酸(Ⅵb). 2.从相应的硝基吲哚-2-羧酸(Ⅶa和Ⅶb)经还原,羟乙基化,氯化,水解制成5-[双-(β-氯乙基)-氨基]-吲哚-2-羧酸(Ⅵa)和7-[双-(β-氯乙基)-氨基]-吲哚-2-羧酸(Ⅵc). 3.制备了双-(β-氯乙基)-吲哚-2-甲酰胺(ⅩⅥ),吲哚-2-甲酰-乙烯亚胺(ⅩⅦ)和3-碘代吲哚-2-羧酸(ⅩⅧ)业已制备.

    Thirty-five chemicals, mostly new compounds and a few standard anti-cancer drugs,were tested on housefly adults (Musca domestica vicina) as chemosterilants. The che-micals were added in solution to milk powder at 1.0% or 0.5% concentration, dried,and fed for 24 or 48 hours. The number of eggs laid and the percentage of hatchingwere counted for a period of 14 days. Only Thio-TEPA (the S-analogue of aphoxide) proved to be a very effective chemo-sterilant; it induced complete sterility at 0.5% concentration...

    Thirty-five chemicals, mostly new compounds and a few standard anti-cancer drugs,were tested on housefly adults (Musca domestica vicina) as chemosterilants. The che-micals were added in solution to milk powder at 1.0% or 0.5% concentration, dried,and fed for 24 or 48 hours. The number of eggs laid and the percentage of hatchingwere counted for a period of 14 days. Only Thio-TEPA (the S-analogue of aphoxide) proved to be a very effective chemo-sterilant; it induced complete sterility at 0.5% concentration when fed for 24 hours.Very few or no eggs were laid, and of those laid, none hatched. 6-MP and N-mustardwere less effective, the other anti-cancer drugs such as Nitromin, Sarcolysin, acetyl-sarcolysin, dopan, endoxan and other substituted purines and pyrimidines were still lesseffective. Three new compounds of the triazine type proved to be as effective as the standardanti-cancer drugs, but most of the others were ineffective. Investigation of the use of Thio-TEPA as insect chemosterilant and screening ofother new compounds are in progress.

    本文报告了一批对昆虫可能具有不育性的药剂的筛选结果。试验采用了Mitlin(1958)或Labrecque(1960)所用的饲食法,以家蝇成虫作试验昆虫,用一定浓度处理一定时间。试验试用了三十余种化合物,其中包括几个不同类型的新化合物及一些已知的抗癌有效新药物。试验证明,这批化合物多数都具有一定毒性,但绝大多数对家蝇无不育性效果,少数有部分效果,只有Thio-TEPA属于1—2级(即用0.5%,处理24小时,全部不产卵或卵不孵化),其他化合物都属于3—5级。从不育性效果来看,它们主要减少了产卵数,而对孵化率的影响较小。此外,本文还讨论了这批化合物的不育性效果的性质及其实用价值。

    In the 3'-MeDAB induced liver tumour, it was found that the activities of glucoses-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase and dipeptidases were higher than those in the normal liver, while the activities of glutamic dehydrogenase, glutaminase(phosphate-activated), ornithine carbamyl transferase, tryptophan pyrrolase, threonine dehydrase and tyrosine transaminase were lower or even absent.Changes in most enzyme activities were observed in the precancerous stage and the pattern of these changes...

    In the 3'-MeDAB induced liver tumour, it was found that the activities of glucoses-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase and dipeptidases were higher than those in the normal liver, while the activities of glutamic dehydrogenase, glutaminase(phosphate-activated), ornithine carbamyl transferase, tryptophan pyrrolase, threonine dehydrase and tyrosine transaminase were lower or even absent.Changes in most enzyme activities were observed in the precancerous stage and the pattern of these changes followed that in the liver tumour. Thus in the course of carcinogenesis, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase and dipeptidase(glycylglycine as substrate)increased while those of glutamic dehydrogenase, glutaminase and ornithine carbamyl transferase decreased. However, there was no significant change in the activity of dipeptidase when DL-alanylglycine was used as substrate. Changes in activity of tryptophan pyrrolase and tyrosine transaminase were not pronounced as compared with those of the control. The activity of glutathione reductase in the liver tumour was similar to that of normal liver, but it increased from the 4th to 13th week of feeding of the carcinogen. Threonine dehydrase was remarkably influenced by the nutritive factor of the basal diet so that the effect of 3'-MeDAB on threonine dehydrase could not be observed during carcinogenesis.A comparative study has been made with 2-MeDAB, a non-carcinogenic substance. It had no apparent effect on the above enzymes except that it caused the activity of glutamic dehydrogenase to be higher than that of the control.Further experiments have shown that the specific activities of glutamic dehydrogenase and glutaminase in the mitochondria of liver tumour were lower than those of the control. In the precancerous liver the specific activity of glutaminase in the mitochondria was lower than that of the control, while there was no significant change in the case of glutamic dehydrogenase.From these results together with those from other laboratories a possible biochemical mechanism of the carcinogenesis induced by 3'-MeDAB was proposed(Fig. 12). It was suggested that the change in enzyme activity during carcinogenesis may possibly have resulted from the carcinogen being first metabolized in the liver, leading to a higher activity of the oxidative metabolism of glucose-6-phosphate and exhibiting influences on liver enzymes by the metabolites of 3'-MeDAB through different mechanisms. Consequently there produced an abnormal growth and differentiation of liver cell which became neoplastic with the formation of liver cancer, 2-MeDAB may be metabolized in a different way from that of 3'-MeDAB thus producing different effects on most enzyme activities. It is therefore evident that the specific effect of 3'-MeDAB on the liver enzymesmay be closely related to its property of carcinogenisity.

    在3'-MeDAB誘发的肝癌組織中,G-6-PD、6-PGD、二肽酶的活性都較正常肝高,而另一些酶如GDH、GMA、OCT、TP、TD、TTA的活性則較正常肝低或甚至測不出来。大多数酶活性都在癌前期即有明显的变化,其变化情况多趋向于癌的特征,如肝癌組織中活性較高的酶,在引癌过程中其活性較对照組有升高趋势,如G-6-PD、6-PGD、二肽酶(以甘氨酰甘氨酸为底物);肝癌組織中活性降低的酶,在引癌过程中其活性有降低趋势,如GDH、GMA、OCT。但以丙氨酰甘氨酸为底物的二肽酶活性的变化則与对照組基本相似。癌前期TP及TTA活性較对照組都无明显差异。肝癌組織中GSSGR活性与正常肝相似,但在引癌过程中(4—13周)則有升高趋势。苏氨酸去水酶受基础食料中营养因素的影响較大,癌前期看不出3'-MeDAB对它的影响。非致癌物,2-MeDAB,除了使GDH活性升高外,对上述其他酶活性都无明显的影响。肝癌綫粒体內GMA和GDH比活性都較对照組及正常肝綫粒体为低。癌前期肝綫粒体GMA比活性較对照組显著降低,而GDH比活性則无明显改变。根据本实驗及其他实驗室結果,我們认为:3'-MeDAB所引起的肝脏酶活性变化,可能是由于它在肝...

    在3'-MeDAB誘发的肝癌組織中,G-6-PD、6-PGD、二肽酶的活性都較正常肝高,而另一些酶如GDH、GMA、OCT、TP、TD、TTA的活性則較正常肝低或甚至測不出来。大多数酶活性都在癌前期即有明显的变化,其变化情况多趋向于癌的特征,如肝癌組織中活性較高的酶,在引癌过程中其活性較对照組有升高趋势,如G-6-PD、6-PGD、二肽酶(以甘氨酰甘氨酸为底物);肝癌組織中活性降低的酶,在引癌过程中其活性有降低趋势,如GDH、GMA、OCT。但以丙氨酰甘氨酸为底物的二肽酶活性的变化則与对照組基本相似。癌前期TP及TTA活性較对照組都无明显差异。肝癌組織中GSSGR活性与正常肝相似,但在引癌过程中(4—13周)則有升高趋势。苏氨酸去水酶受基础食料中营养因素的影响較大,癌前期看不出3'-MeDAB对它的影响。非致癌物,2-MeDAB,除了使GDH活性升高外,对上述其他酶活性都无明显的影响。肝癌綫粒体內GMA和GDH比活性都較对照組及正常肝綫粒体为低。癌前期肝綫粒体GMA比活性較对照組显著降低,而GDH比活性則无明显改变。根据本实驗及其他实驗室結果,我們认为:3'-MeDAB所引起的肝脏酶活性变化,可能是由于它在肝內进行代謝引起G-6-P旁路代謝的活跃,以及3'-MeDAB代謝产物通过各种不同机制对酶的影响所致。这些酶活性的变化可能导致肝細胞的异常生长和异常分化因而形成肝癌(图12)。非致癌物,2-MeDAB,可能与3'-MeDAB的代謝途径不同,因而产生不同的影响,而3'-MeDAB所产生的特殊影响則可能与其致癌作用有关。

     
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