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mutation     
相关语句
  突变
     Study on the relationship among oxidative stress,mitochondrial DNA mutation and the development of Alzheimer's disease
     氧应激、线粒体DNA突变与阿尔茨海默病发生发展关系的研究
短句来源
     Involvement of PTEN Expression and Mutation in Human primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma
     抑癌基因PTEN在人原发性肝细胞性肝癌中的表达、突变及其生物学意义
短句来源
     Study of Molecular Epidemiology of HIV and Mechanism of Anti-HIV Phenomena Due to Coreceptor Mutation
     HIV分子流行病学及辅受体突变导致HIV感染抑制机理的研究
短句来源
     Study of the Transcriptional Expression and Mutation of p73 Gene in Esophageal Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance
     食管癌p73基因表达与突变的研究及临床意义
短句来源
     The Study of Novel Mutation Detection Systems Based on Gene Knock-out Cells and Transgenic Mice
     基因敲除细胞及转基因小鼠技术突变检测系统研究
短句来源
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  变异
     Study on Detection Methods of Gene Mutation and Their Clinical Applications
     基因序列变异分析的方法研究及其临床应用
短句来源
     Complex Mutation of Microsatellite Locus Spl-106 in Acipenseriformes
     鲟形目鱼类中微卫星Spl-106位点的复杂变异
短句来源
     Study on Mutation or Expression of the Tumor Suppressor Kruppel-like Factor 6(KLF6) in Hepatocellular Carcinomas and Its Functions
     肝细胞癌组织中抑癌基因KLF6的变异、表达及其功能的研究
短句来源
     Study of Mutation of CD9 Gene on Biological Characteristic of Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma
     CD9基因表达的变异对膀胱移行细胞癌生物学特性影响的研究
短句来源
     The Mutation of Amylase Enzyme Activies and Selection of Aspergillus Niger under the Treatment of Co~(60)-Y Ray
     黑曲霉经C_O~(60)-γ射线处理后糖化酶活力变异与良种选育
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  诱变
     Genetic Analysis and Breeding Applications of Giant Embryo Mutation in Indica Rice(Oryza sativa L.) Induced by Irradiation
     籼稻巨胚基因的诱变获得、遗传分析及育种应用研究
短句来源
     CONVERSION OF ALANINE DEHYDROGENASE TO GLUTAMIC DEHYDROGENASE BY NITROUS ACID INDUCED MUTATION IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS Ⅱ. THE INDUCTIVE FORMATION OF ALANINE DEHYDROGENASE IN GLUTAMIC DEHYDROGENASE-POSITIVE MUTANTS
     亚硝酸诱变导致枯草杆菌中L-丙氨酸脱氢酶对L-谷氨酸脱氢酶的转换 Ⅱ.L-谷氨酸脱氢酶阳性变种中L-丙氨酸脱氢酶的诱导形成
短句来源
     ARTIFICIAL MUTATION AND THE INHERITANCE OF SOYBEAN CHARACTERS
     人工诱变与大豆性状的遗传
短句来源
     STUDIES ON MUTATION BREEDING OF FRUIT TREES IN VITRO——1. Origin and Induction of Adventitious Shoots and Branches in Cultured Embryo of Apple and Pear
     果树试管诱变育种的研究——1.苹果、梨胚培不定梢及分枝的起源与诱导
短句来源
     The effect of induced mutation about He-Ne laser on the root tip's cell of broad bean (Vicia faba)
     He-Ne激光对蚕豆(Vicia faba)根尖细胞的诱变效应
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  基因突变
     Association of cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene mutation with lipoprotein metabolism
     胆固醇脂运转蛋白基因突变与脂蛋白代谢的相关性研究
短句来源
     Study on p53 Gene Mutation and Its Relationship with Environmental Risk Factors in Cases of Esophageal Cancer in Xi'an and Linzhou
     西安和林州市食管癌P53基因突变及其与环境致癌因素之间关系的研究
短句来源
     Study on the Effects of Overexpression of PTEN Gene on the Behavior of Bladder Transitional Carcinoma Cell Line and Mutation Analysis of PTEN Gene in Human Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinomas
     PTEN基因过表达对移行上皮癌细胞系生物学行为的影响及膀胱癌组织PTEN基因突变的研究
短句来源
     Development of System for Mutation Detection of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease PKD1 Gene and Its Application in Hans
     汉族人常染色体显性遗传性多囊肾病1型致病基因突变检测体系的建立及应用
短句来源
     Studies of Microsatellite Instability and TP53 Mutation in Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Laser Microdissection
     应用微切割技术对胃癌微卫星不稳定和TP53基因突变的研究
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  mutation
At each iterate, by reduplication, crossover and mutation, a finite set of points can be used.
      
Particle Swarm Optimization with Adaptive Mutation
      
A new adaptive mutation particle swarm optimizer, which is based on the variance of the population's fitness, is presented in this paper.
      
During the running time, the mutation probability for the current best particle is determined by two factors: the variance of the population's fitness and the current optimal solution.
      
The ability of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to break away from the local optimum is greatly improved by the mutation.
      
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A mutant of Bacillus subtilis which contained L-glutamic dehydrogenase (GDH) but has lost L-alanine dehydrogenase (ADH) was induced by nitrous acid. Both ADH of the wild type and GDH of the mutant were purified about 60-fold and the physicochemical properties were compared. These two enzymes were found to be indistinguishable upon chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and in thermostability. The kinetic constants for the ADH and GDH reactions were also similar. A notable difference between these two enzymes has...

A mutant of Bacillus subtilis which contained L-glutamic dehydrogenase (GDH) but has lost L-alanine dehydrogenase (ADH) was induced by nitrous acid. Both ADH of the wild type and GDH of the mutant were purified about 60-fold and the physicochemical properties were compared. These two enzymes were found to be indistinguishable upon chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and in thermostability. The kinetic constants for the ADH and GDH reactions were also similar. A notable difference between these two enzymes has been found in immunological reactions.In view of the striking similarity of the two enzymes and the fairly higher frequency of mutation from the wild type, ADH to the mutant, GDH type and vice versa by nitrous acid induction, the authors suggested that the ADH to GDH transition was due to a single point mutation.

枯草杆菌野生型菌株(細胞內仅有L-丙氨酸脫氫酶ADH,没有L-谷氨酸脫氫酶GDH),經亚硝酸处理后引起突变。变种菌株沒有ADH,但获得GDH。将野生型細菌中的ADH与变种細胞中的GDH分別純化60倍后,比較它們的性貭,发現这两种脫氫酶在DEAE-纤維素柱层析,与热稳定性方面均无区別,ADH与GDH的动力学常数也非常相似。只有在免疫学反应方面,这两者有較明显的不同。由于这两种脫氫酶的性貭非砄嗨?同时野生型菌株(ADH~+)經亚硝酸誘发成GDH~+变种以及GDH~+变种誘发回变为野生型的頻率都相当高。因此我們认为因突变而使細菌細胞內ADH轉换为GDH可能由于一点变异所引起。

The glutamic dehydrogenase(GDH)-positive mutant, B. subtilis IRC-3-N-1, produced alanine dehydrogenase(ADH)when grown in nutrient medium. The formation of ADH by this mutant was inductive in nature. The inducer for ADH synthesis was not restricted to the substrate of the enzyme. Aspartic acid, threonine, both enantiomorphs of alanine and pyruvate were all effective.During the fractionation of the enzymes, GDH and the induced ADH were coexistent in the same fraction and distributed in almost the same proportions....

The glutamic dehydrogenase(GDH)-positive mutant, B. subtilis IRC-3-N-1, produced alanine dehydrogenase(ADH)when grown in nutrient medium. The formation of ADH by this mutant was inductive in nature. The inducer for ADH synthesis was not restricted to the substrate of the enzyme. Aspartic acid, threonine, both enantiomorphs of alanine and pyruvate were all effective.During the fractionation of the enzymes, GDH and the induced ADH were coexistent in the same fraction and distributed in almost the same proportions. The inductive ADH was found to be indistinguishable from its constitutive form in the wild type in regard to electrophoretic mobility. Since inductive formation of ADH did not cause a corresponding decrease of the constitutive GDH and contrarily, inhibition of ADH synthesis did not bring about any change of the level of the GDH in the mutant cells, the possibility that GDH was converted metabolitically to ADH was ruled out.All the GDH-positive mutants including those obtained by nitrous acid treatment and those of spontaneous origin are capable of inductive synthesis of ADH.In view of the inducibility of ADH synthesis in the GDH-positive mutants and the foregoing data on the immunology of these two enzymes, it was assumed that the genetic transition of ADH to GDH was a result of the mutation of a regulatory gene concerned in the synthesis of ADH.

枯草杆菌B.subtilis IRC-3-N-1,GDH~+变种在营养培养基上生长时能产生ADH。这样合成的ADH是誘导性貭的。誘导物除了酶的底物,L-丙氨酸外,尚有DL-天門冬氨酸,DL-苏氨酸,D-丙氨酸与丙酮酸。将酶进行純化时,GDH与誘导性的ADH始終同时存在于每一步驟中,而且两者的比例不变。誘导性的ADH与野生型细菌的本貭性ADH在电泳移动率上沒有区別。由于ADH誘导形成时,并末观察到变种細胞內GDH的相应減少,同时抑制了ADH的誘导合成,并不引起GDH水平的变化,因之由后者直接轉变成前者的可能性并不存在。所有GDH~+变种,包括自亚硝酸誘发突变或自发突变来源的,都能誘导生成ADH。从以上这些試驗結果,以及以前关于ADH与GDH免疫学試驗的結果,作者們认为枯草杆菌中,由亚硝酸誘发突变而引起ADH轉換成GDH的原因是由于与ADH合成有关的調节基因发生突变的結果。

The paper presents in detail the technique of leucocytes culture from human peripheral blood for the study of human chromosomes. The techniques involve both the standard method and the semi-micro method with some modifications which have been developed in this laboratory to suit our purposes. With the aid of these techniques, cytogenetic analyses for 7 different cases belonging to 4 different types of congenital defects were made, and the main results are briefly described as follows:1. Down's syndrome (4 cases)....

The paper presents in detail the technique of leucocytes culture from human peripheral blood for the study of human chromosomes. The techniques involve both the standard method and the semi-micro method with some modifications which have been developed in this laboratory to suit our purposes. With the aid of these techniques, cytogenetic analyses for 7 different cases belonging to 4 different types of congenital defects were made, and the main results are briefly described as follows:1. Down's syndrome (4 cases). Most of the cells analyzed in each case showed 47 chromosomes, and the extra chromosome was found to be one of the smallest chromosome in the karyotype. This finding is apparently in agreement with trisomic G-type as previously reported in the literatures. It is highly probable that the origin of this aberration may arise from non-disjunction of one pair of the smallest chromosomes occured in o?genesis, since there is an indication in the rise of the frequencies of Down's syndrome with the age of the mother.2. Testicular feminization syndrome (1 case). The case reported here involves the finding of the same syndrome in 3 successive generations in one family. Chromosomal analysis was available from only one patient and the result demonstrated that most cells showed a chromosome number of 46 with the normal male XY complement, which was found to be in conformity with the discovery that the chromatin was negative on nuclear sexing. This finding is in obvious disagreement with XXY constitution as suggested by some authors to account for the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. Together with the reports of some other workers, analysis of the familial history of the case gives further evidence in support of the suggestion by Grumbach and Barr that this syndrome may be inherited as due to either a sex-linked recessive or a sex-limited dominant factor, though the existing genetic evidence does not suffice to distinguish between the two possibilities.3. Anorchism (1 case). Chromosome analysis of the patient in question revealed the diploid chromosome number to be 46, including an X and a Y chromosome. The nuclear chromatin pattern was also demonstrated to be of male type. Since this case was a sporadic one, it could be assumed to have been originated by mutation. 4. Female pseudohermaphroditism (1 case). A preliminary analysis of the patient revealed the possibility of being an XO(45)/XY(46) mosaic. But this can not be ascertained without further verification from the observations on the skin and bone marrow cultures.

本文详细地介绍了以外周血液培养来研究人类染色体的技术,这些都是我们实验室几年来根据国外文献作了一些修改,以适合于我们的具体条件而拟订的.同时应用这些方法对若干病例作了细胞遗传学的研究,主要结果如下:1.四例先天愚型:在这些病例中,绝大多数中期细胞的染色体数均为47.核型分析表明为G-三体型.一般认为这是由于母亲在卵细胞形成时发生了染色体不分离的结果.2.睾丸女性化:这里报导了一个很大的家系,这一综合症的患者在该家系中已络续出现了三代.其中的一个病人用于白细胞的染色体研究.结果是正常人的双倍体数(2n=46), 具有正常男性的核型,即XY.口腔粘膜及多形核嗜中性球的性染色质扦查为阴性.这种结果显然不符合于这样的假设,即认为该种综合症的性染色体组成是XXY.结合以往一些作者的研究,我们认为该综合症是以伴性隐性或限性的常染色体显性而遗传的.但从现有证据尚不足以区分这两种的可能性.3.无睾畸形:白细胞的双倍体数为2n=46,显示正常的男性核(XY).性染色质为阴性.鉴于该病例为散发性的,我们认为它有可能起因于基因突变.4.女性假两性畸形:由白细胞的初步分析,认为可能是XO(45)/XY(46)嵌合体.但为了肯定其确切...

本文详细地介绍了以外周血液培养来研究人类染色体的技术,这些都是我们实验室几年来根据国外文献作了一些修改,以适合于我们的具体条件而拟订的.同时应用这些方法对若干病例作了细胞遗传学的研究,主要结果如下:1.四例先天愚型:在这些病例中,绝大多数中期细胞的染色体数均为47.核型分析表明为G-三体型.一般认为这是由于母亲在卵细胞形成时发生了染色体不分离的结果.2.睾丸女性化:这里报导了一个很大的家系,这一综合症的患者在该家系中已络续出现了三代.其中的一个病人用于白细胞的染色体研究.结果是正常人的双倍体数(2n=46), 具有正常男性的核型,即XY.口腔粘膜及多形核嗜中性球的性染色质扦查为阴性.这种结果显然不符合于这样的假设,即认为该种综合症的性染色体组成是XXY.结合以往一些作者的研究,我们认为该综合症是以伴性隐性或限性的常染色体显性而遗传的.但从现有证据尚不足以区分这两种的可能性.3.无睾畸形:白细胞的双倍体数为2n=46,显示正常的男性核(XY).性染色质为阴性.鉴于该病例为散发性的,我们认为它有可能起因于基因突变.4.女性假两性畸形:由白细胞的初步分析,认为可能是XO(45)/XY(46)嵌合体.但为了肯定其确切的核型,还有待于对病者的皮肤和骨髓作进一步的研究.

 
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