Thus provided some suggestions with referencing values for the design of friction wheel of hoist and offered reliable designing basis for the on-the-spot production.

Conclusions p-PDGFR-αdetection can provide reliable evidence for the further improvement of the pathological diagnosis,pathological typing and the clinical treatment of GISTs that were CD117 negative.

By utilizing constructional test data for concrete pavement in Shantou-Meiling Expressway,this paper concludes a new nonnormal probability density function,which is used to test the construction result and the results is reliable.

This paper tests the influences of the machine vibration on the workshop structure by using the vibration testing method,and analyzes on the vibration regularity and reasons of the structure floor based on the testing result,which provides the reliable scientific foundation for the safety evaluation on the floor structure.

At first,has designed a data format in transfering,which can transfer data more than 8 bytes based on CAN specification 2.0A and makes up for the shortage of CAN protocol of application layer based on the data structure,and has established the reliable receiving and dispatching mechanism,the management mechanism and the error processing mechanism and so on,which maintains the protocol work smoothly and attains the convenient and prompt transmission through CAN bus.

Recently, fast and reliable algorithms for the evaluation of spherical harmonic expansions have been developed.

According to the fiducial distribution theory of the parameter, the author presents the confidence intervals of the parameters, the reliability and the reliable life.

Both theoretical and numerical results show that the method is reliable and efficient.

The results indicate that the method is reliable, sensitive, systematic and is especially suitable for practical use.

This method proved to be simple, reliable and accurate.

Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith...

Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith different climatic conditions but also from field to field under similarclimatic conditions.Our data record a range of 18-42 days.Circumstantial eviden-ces indicate that this variation is due,on the one hand,to the rainfall whichinfluences the amounts of sporulation and the frequency of penetration of thepathogene,and on the other hand,to cultural and other factors that determinethe vigor and the rate of aging of the plant itself. Actual counts of lesions formed from secondary infection in the early periodof the spread of the disease in a potato field,reveal that their distribution bearsdirect relation with the direction of the prevailing wind.It is estimated that over90% of spores fall within a rectangle of 800 sq.m.around a diseased plantcenter along the loci of wind directions. On the basis of possible function of absorbed copper ions in the enhancementof plant resistance to late blight,field experiments have been conducted by using0.1 - 0.2% copper sulfate solutions as spray.Results show that spraying 2-3 timesat 7-10 days' interval,started soon after the appearance of diseased plant center,gives remarkable control of late blight and corresponding reduction of loss inyield.The copper sulfate spray,though less effective and stable in comparisonwith the bordeaux spray,has the advantage of being more economical and easierto apply.Further experiments with the pu:pose of modifying and improving themethod are in progress.

In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability...

In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability of occurrence corresponding to the flood, nevertheless, the data based upon are direct, and so the errors are low in comparison with those of indirect methods, such as the hydro-meteorological and the analogical, which might even yield radically unreliable results. Besides, in the statistical method of estimating flood flows, this method has been used to supplement those extraordinary flood data not recorded in history and yet valuable for statistics.The current method of estimating flood discharges from its trace assumes the state of steady flow and its velocity formula, from which it is impossible to obtain the maximum discharge that actually happens in the state of unsteady flow, and is only possible to calculate the discharge at maximum water level smaller than the peak discharge. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the current method and suggests another means of estimating by taking average of the upper and lower limits of the maximum discharge. The error of estimation in the new method will not be over 17% by analysis, which, as compared with the standard of allowable error in hydrometrical survey, is not considerable.

The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter...

The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter α_c defined as logγc/N_Fe~2 with reference to graphite as the standard state is plotted against N_c for both austenite and Fe-C melt in order to facilitate the evaluation of α_(Fe) by graphical integration. Smith's data~([1]) on equilibrium between austenite and gaseous mixtures (CO_2/CO, CH_4/H_2) are re-treated to yield α_c~γ-N_c~γ curves for 800° and 1000℃ as shown in Fig. 1. On the assumption that L_c~γ the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in austenite, does not chan preciably with temperature, the α_c~γ-V_c~γ curve for 1153℃, the iron-graphite eutectic temperature, is obtained by extrapolation and found to lie above the graphite saturation point. This fact seems to indicate that the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model is reached somewhere around N_c~γ=0.0661 (1.50%) and a point of inflection should occur at this concentration. The above-mentioned assumption has been semi-quantitatively proved in this paper and will be discussed further in another paper of this series.In a similar manner, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for liquid Fe-C alloys are drawn through the experimental points of Richardson and Dennis on equilibrium between CO_2/CO mixed gases and dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron at 1560° and 1660℃ as shown in Fig. 1. The curves are extended up to N_c~1=0.15 on the basis of Darken and Smith's model using 3600 cals. as the energy of interaction at 1560℃ between carbon atoms in the neighbouring interstitial sites as recommended by Richardson and Dens. Then, a suitable curve is drawn between N_c~l=0.15 and the graphite saturation point for 1560℃ to meet certain requirements, and a corresponding curve for 1660℃ is obtained by extrapolation, assuming that L_c~l, the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in liquid iron, does not change appreciably with temperature. Thus, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 1560° and 1660℃ are completed from low carbon concentrations up to saturation. The activities of carbon in Fe-C melts at 1600℃ with reference to graphite as the standard state are readily obtained at different carbon concentrations by interpolation, from which the reversible electromotive forces of a concentration cell of the type Fe,C|slag, C_2~2|Fe,C(sat.) have been calculated and found to agree fairly well with the experimental values obtained by and as shown in Fig. 2. This agreement may be taken as partial confirmation of the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model to liquid Fe-C alloys.From α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 160°and 1660℃, L_c~l is easily calculated to be 3930 cals., and by combining this value with certain other data, the following equation is obtained:C(gr.)=C[%]; AF°=3930-9.21 T,which differs considerably from Chipman's equation AF°=8900-12.10T given in the 1951 edition of the "Basic Open Hearth Steelmaking". It is believed that the present author's equation is more reliable than Chipman's in view of the uncertainties involved in the derivation of the latter especially regarding the evaluation of the enthalpy of solution of graphite in liquid iron.By graphical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation, the activities of iron in Fe-C melts with pure liquid iron as the standard state are obtained at different carbon concentrations and plotted against N_c~l in Fig. 3. The α_(Fe)~l-N_c~l curve thus obtained is independent of temperature. With the aid of Fig. 3 and certain other data, the activities of iron in an Fe-C melt and austenite both saturated with graphite at the eutectic temperature are evaluated with pure γ iron as the common standard state and found to be practically equal as required by the eutectic equilibrium. This fact renders additional support to the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the inflection point of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves.The shape of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves is briefly discussed from a structural viewpoint.