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reliable     
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  可靠
     Researches on the Technology of Suppressing NACK and Reliable Multicast Based on Reliable Active Node
     抑制NACK技术与基于可靠主动结点的可靠多播通信的研究
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     Fault Tolerant Routing Algorithms of Regular Networks and Reliable Multicast
     规则网络容错路由算法及可靠组播的研究
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     RELIABLE CIRCUITS USING LESS RELIABLE RELAYS
     用继电器组成可靠的继电器电路
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     HIGHLY RELIABLE VOLTAGE STABILIZER FOR POWER SYSTEM OF LARGE-SCALE COMPUTER-PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATION OF NEGATIVE COMPENSATION
     大型计算机高可靠供电系统稳压电源——负阻补偿原理及应用
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     A reliable and practical technique for bonding DH-GaAlAs/GaAs laser diodes
     DH-GaAlAs/GaAs激光二极管的一种可靠实用的键合方法
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  可靠的
     RELIABLE CIRCUITS USING LESS RELIABLE RELAYS
     用继电器组成可靠的继电器电路
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     A Simple and Reliable Protective Circtlft for Power Supply of Lasers
     一种简单可靠的激光电源保护电路
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     A STABLE AND RELIABLE 8K-WORD MODULAR MAGNETIC CORE MEMORY
     稳定可靠的8K字模块化磁心存贮器
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     A Rapid and Reliable Assay of 3',5' cAMP-Phosphodiesterase
     一种快速可靠的3’,5’-cAMP磷酸二酯酶活力测定法
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     A Simple and Reliable Experimental Model of Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis in the Dog
     一种简易可靠的狗急性出血性胰腺炎模型
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  可靠性
     Distributed Tolerance System --A High Reliable Structure for Industry Control System
     分布式容错系统——一种高可靠性控制系统体系结构
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     A SET OF THE HIGH SAFE AND RELIABLE INTELLIGENT I/O INTERFACE UNITS
     一种高安全高可靠性的智能化I/O接口组合
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     The Random Finite Difference Method of Beam Reliable Analysis
     梁可靠性分析的随机差分法
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     DISCUSSION ON RELIABLE PARAMETER F_0 VALUE OF STERILIZATION
     试论灭菌可靠性参数F_0值
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     Symmetrical Principle between Lower Limits of Reliability and Lower Limits of Reliable Life
     可靠性下限与可靠寿命下限间的对称原理
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  了可靠
     Thus provided some suggestions with referencing values for the design of friction wheel of hoist and offered reliable designing basis for the on-the-spot production.
     为提升机摩擦轮的设计提供了一些具有参考价值的建议,为现场生产提供了可靠的设计依据。
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     Conclusions p-PDGFR-αdetection can provide reliable evidence for the further improvement of the pathological diagnosis,pathological typing and the clinical treatment of GISTs that were CD117 negative.
     结论P-PDGFR-α对CD117阴性的GIST的病理诊断、病理分型和临床治疗进一步提供了可靠的依据。
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     By utilizing constructional test data for concrete pavement in Shantou-Meiling Expressway,this paper concludes a new nonnormal probability density function,which is used to test the construction result and the results is reliable.
     利用汕梅高速公路混凝土路面标的施工试验数据,提炼出了一种新的非正态概率密度函数,并对施工结果进行了检验,得出了可靠的结果。
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     This paper tests the influences of the machine vibration on the workshop structure by using the vibration testing method,and analyzes on the vibration regularity and reasons of the structure floor based on the testing result,which provides the reliable scientific foundation for the safety evaluation on the floor structure.
     应用振动测试方法测试机器振动对厂房结构的影响,并根据测试结果分析了结构楼板振动规律及原因,对厂房结构进行安全评价提供了可靠的科学依据。
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     At first,has designed a data format in transfering,which can transfer data more than 8 bytes based on CAN specification 2.0A and makes up for the shortage of CAN protocol of application layer based on the data structure,and has established the reliable receiving and dispatching mechanism,the management mechanism and the error processing mechanism and so on,which maintains the protocol work smoothly and attains the convenient and prompt transmission through CAN bus.
     文中首先设计了一种数据传递格式,它解决了CAN V2.0规范只能传递小于8字节数据的缺点,实现了大于8字节数据的准确传输。 并在此基础上,建立了可靠的收发机制、管理机制和错误处理机制共同维护协议的运转,实现了CAN总线数据方便快捷的传输。
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      reliable
    Recently, fast and reliable algorithms for the evaluation of spherical harmonic expansions have been developed.
          
    According to the fiducial distribution theory of the parameter, the author presents the confidence intervals of the parameters, the reliability and the reliable life.
          
    Both theoretical and numerical results show that the method is reliable and efficient.
          
    The results indicate that the method is reliable, sensitive, systematic and is especially suitable for practical use.
          
    This method proved to be simple, reliable and accurate.
          
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    Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith...

    Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith different climatic conditions but also from field to field under similarclimatic conditions.Our data record a range of 18-42 days.Circumstantial eviden-ces indicate that this variation is due,on the one hand,to the rainfall whichinfluences the amounts of sporulation and the frequency of penetration of thepathogene,and on the other hand,to cultural and other factors that determinethe vigor and the rate of aging of the plant itself. Actual counts of lesions formed from secondary infection in the early periodof the spread of the disease in a potato field,reveal that their distribution bearsdirect relation with the direction of the prevailing wind.It is estimated that over90% of spores fall within a rectangle of 800 sq.m.around a diseased plantcenter along the loci of wind directions. On the basis of possible function of absorbed copper ions in the enhancementof plant resistance to late blight,field experiments have been conducted by using0.1 - 0.2% copper sulfate solutions as spray.Results show that spraying 2-3 timesat 7-10 days' interval,started soon after the appearance of diseased plant center,gives remarkable control of late blight and corresponding reduction of loss inyield.The copper sulfate spray,though less effective and stable in comparisonwith the bordeaux spray,has the advantage of being more economical and easierto apply.Further experiments with the pu:pose of modifying and improving themethod are in progress.

    從馬鈴薯的開花期起可能在田间出现的晚疫病中心病株是本田當年病害即將大量發生的重要標誌。每次再侵染的潛育期,在張家口壩下地區的氣候下,大約4天。從病害的最初發現到全面枯死所經過的日期囚種種外界環境條件而有很大的差別,我們所觀察到的是18—42天。根據調查资料來推測,一方面,促進病菌孢子形成数量和侵入數量的雨水,另一方面,决定植株衰老速度的栽培條件,是這種差別的主要原因。田間再侵染所形成的病斑之分佈情况說明病菌孢子的傳播与風向有直接的關係。估計90%以土的孢子落在中心病株附近順着風向的800平方米的長方形面積上。根據馬鈴薯地上部吸收銅素以提高共抗病力的可能性,利用0.1—0.2%硫酸銅溶液作為噴射劑,在田间中心病株發現的時期開始每隔7—10天喷射共2—3次,可以顯著地降低晚疫病的為害,提高產量。這個方法在共效驗及穩定性上不如波爾多液,在藥劑費用的節省及施用的方便上則勝之?椒ǖ母牧己吞岣哒谶M一步研究中。

    In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability...

    In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability of occurrence corresponding to the flood, nevertheless, the data based upon are direct, and so the errors are low in comparison with those of indirect methods, such as the hydro-meteorological and the analogical, which might even yield radically unreliable results. Besides, in the statistical method of estimating flood flows, this method has been used to supplement those extraordinary flood data not recorded in history and yet valuable for statistics.The current method of estimating flood discharges from its trace assumes the state of steady flow and its velocity formula, from which it is impossible to obtain the maximum discharge that actually happens in the state of unsteady flow, and is only possible to calculate the discharge at maximum water level smaller than the peak discharge. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the current method and suggests another means of estimating by taking average of the upper and lower limits of the maximum discharge. The error of estimation in the new method will not be over 17% by analysis, which, as compared with the standard of allowable error in hydrometrical survey, is not considerable.

    工程設計中,欲在未經水文測驗的河流上定出設計用的洪水流率,依据洪水痕跡估算是唯一此較可靠而近似的方法。这方法只須調查洪水痕跡,測量其坡度及过水断面,估計河槽糙度,就可代入水力学中的公式而算出流速和流率,虽然这样所得的結果未必准确,且無从得知这次洪水相应的概率,但所憑借的资料是直接的,因而誤差的程度此較还小;不象水文气象法从雨量間接推算,或各种此照法依据其他流域的資料間接估計,可能得出很不可靠的結果。在流率資料統計法中,这方法也曆来增补那些历史上未曾测得的特大的可貴的洪水流率資料。 現行从洪水痕跡估算流率的方法假設了水力学中穩定流的流速公式,不能得出实际發生的不定流中的最大流率,而只約略算出那較小的最高水位吋的流率,憑以設計工程是不安全的。本文分析了現行方法的缺点所在,建議另一估算的方法,从最大流率的上下兩極限值取其平均数以估計之。新的方法的沽算誤差,循理推論,不会超过17%;衡以流速仪測量流率的許可誤差标准,並不算大。

    The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter...

    The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter α_c defined as logγc/N_Fe~2 with reference to graphite as the standard state is plotted against N_c for both austenite and Fe-C melt in order to facilitate the evaluation of α_(Fe) by graphical integration. Smith's data~([1]) on equilibrium between austenite and gaseous mixtures (CO_2/CO, CH_4/H_2) are re-treated to yield α_c~γ-N_c~γ curves for 800° and 1000℃ as shown in Fig. 1. On the assumption that L_c~γ the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in austenite, does not chan preciably with temperature, the α_c~γ-V_c~γ curve for 1153℃, the iron-graphite eutectic temperature, is obtained by extrapolation and found to lie above the graphite saturation point. This fact seems to indicate that the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model is reached somewhere around N_c~γ=0.0661 (1.50%) and a point of inflection should occur at this concentration. The above-mentioned assumption has been semi-quantitatively proved in this paper and will be discussed further in another paper of this series.In a similar manner, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for liquid Fe-C alloys are drawn through the experimental points of Richardson and Dennis on equilibrium between CO_2/CO mixed gases and dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron at 1560° and 1660℃ as shown in Fig. 1. The curves are extended up to N_c~1=0.15 on the basis of Darken and Smith's model using 3600 cals. as the energy of interaction at 1560℃ between carbon atoms in the neighbouring interstitial sites as recommended by Richardson and Dens. Then, a suitable curve is drawn between N_c~l=0.15 and the graphite saturation point for 1560℃ to meet certain requirements, and a corresponding curve for 1660℃ is obtained by extrapolation, assuming that L_c~l, the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in liquid iron, does not change appreciably with temperature. Thus, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 1560° and 1660℃ are completed from low carbon concentrations up to saturation. The activities of carbon in Fe-C melts at 1600℃ with reference to graphite as the standard state are readily obtained at different carbon concentrations by interpolation, from which the reversible electromotive forces of a concentration cell of the type Fe,C|slag, C_2~2|Fe,C(sat.) have been calculated and found to agree fairly well with the experimental values obtained by and as shown in Fig. 2. This agreement may be taken as partial confirmation of the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model to liquid Fe-C alloys.From α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 160°and 1660℃, L_c~l is easily calculated to be 3930 cals., and by combining this value with certain other data, the following equation is obtained:C(gr.)=C[%]; AF°=3930-9.21 T,which differs considerably from Chipman's equation AF°=8900-12.10T given in the 1951 edition of the "Basic Open Hearth Steelmaking". It is believed that the present author's equation is more reliable than Chipman's in view of the uncertainties involved in the derivation of the latter especially regarding the evaluation of the enthalpy of solution of graphite in liquid iron.By graphical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation, the activities of iron in Fe-C melts with pure liquid iron as the standard state are obtained at different carbon concentrations and plotted against N_c~l in Fig. 3. The α_(Fe)~l-N_c~l curve thus obtained is independent of temperature. With the aid of Fig. 3 and certain other data, the activities of iron in an Fe-C melt and austenite both saturated with graphite at the eutectic temperature are evaluated with pure γ iron as the common standard state and found to be practically equal as required by the eutectic equilibrium. This fact renders additional support to the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the inflection point of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves.The shape of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves is briefly discussed from a structural viewpoint.

    作者在本文中综合分析了关於液态铁碳合金中碳活度测定的諸家研究结果並比较其优劣. 然后根据Richardson与Dennis用CO_2/CO平衡法的实验数据,用Darken与Smith的统计模型与最少假定,导出了液态鉄碳合金中α′_c与N′_c的关系(α′_c=logγ′_c,/(N_Fe′)~2,标准状态为石墨),并温度对此关系的影响.计算结果符合於(i)鉄液内石墨溶解度的实验数据;(ii)与用电动势法测定液态铁碳合金中碳活度的实验数据;及(iii)奥氏体、铁液、石墨共晶平衡的要求. 根据本文所导出的α′_c-N′_c曲綫,作者算得石墨在鉄液内的溶解热为3930卡;然后依此及其他必需数据,导出下列关系:C(石墨)=C[%],△F°=3930-9.21T. 最后作者从液态铁碳合金结构的观点讨论了图1中α′_c-N′_c曲綫的形状.

     
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