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  farmers
Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made.
      
The total function score value of every gradation unit is conformed to the results of farmers' assessment.
      
Technical and institutional innovations need to go hand in hand to provide viable livelihood opportunities for smallholder farmers in mountain watersheds.
      
Coping with pressures of modernization by traditional farmers: a strategy for sustainable rural development in Yunnan, China
      
While farmers are aware of ecological sustainability of traditional farming, they prefer Chinese fir forestry because it is less labour-intensive, has a high market value, and releases time for profitable off-farm work.
      
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Since the third plenary session of the eleventh Chinese Communist Party, the progress of agricultural mechanization in Fujian developed with greater speed. In comparison with 1978, the total mechanical strength of the province amounted to double in quantity in 1983. Such progress in agricultural mechanization advanced within the consecutive eight years and in return brought bumper crop yields in Fujian. The country industries were also well developed. The income of the farmers increased in many folds....

Since the third plenary session of the eleventh Chinese Communist Party, the progress of agricultural mechanization in Fujian developed with greater speed. In comparison with 1978, the total mechanical strength of the province amounted to double in quantity in 1983. Such progress in agricultural mechanization advanced within the consecutive eight years and in return brought bumper crop yields in Fujian. The country industries were also well developed. The income of the farmers increased in many folds. In recent years, a lot of specialization family group, distinct family group appeared in various rural districts. They engaged in the production and trading of farming products. Gradually, the rural economics shifted from the farmer self sustenance. half self sustenance to the great scale commodity production. In the rural commodity production of the province, agricultural mechanization played an important role. Any district that obtained well developed rural commodity production in the province, so was the popularization of the agricultural mechanization. In other word. mechanization in production occurred soon after the manufacture of rural commodity. The development of commodity production was well correlated with agricultural mechanization and promoted each other. It is only the great development of commodity production that we can liberate the backward means of hand labor to mechanical ways of production- to put forward the application of machines. The foundation of mechanization can only be realized when the staple agricultural products come into prominance in rural economics. Thus, the advancement of rural commodity production admits the brilliant future of agricultural mechanization and the application of rural machines. They are so important in the manufacture and circulation of any commodity.

党的十一届三中全会以来,我省农业机械化发展较快,1983年拥有农业机械总动力数量比1978年翻了一番。农业机械的发展,促进了我省农业连续八年获得丰收,乡镇企业逢勃发展,农民收入成倍增加。近年来,我省农村涌现了大批的专业户、重点户,出现了许多专业村,从事农业商品的生产,农村已逐步从自给、半自给的经济向大规模商品生产转化。商品生产同农业机械的发展是相互依赖、相互促进的。农业经济的商品化是实现机械化的基础,农村商品生产的发展为农业机械化开拓了广阔的前景。农业机械在商品的生产和流通领域内大有可为。本文对这一领域作了初步的分析讨论。

The ecological environment has been greatly improved in Sijinzi rural area where plant coyer has increased from 6.8 percent to 16.3. percent. Two hundred and fifty-five sand, dupes .have been fixed by applying able measures to local conditions and adjusting proportions of farm, forestfy and grazing land which increased from 4:1:5in 1970 to 1.5:2.5:6 in 1984. Damage by wind erosion never occured after establishment of shelterbelts toproteet farmland. The pastlirehas been effectively protected by taking measures...

The ecological environment has been greatly improved in Sijinzi rural area where plant coyer has increased from 6.8 percent to 16.3. percent. Two hundred and fifty-five sand, dupes .have been fixed by applying able measures to local conditions and adjusting proportions of farm, forestfy and grazing land which increased from 4:1:5in 1970 to 1.5:2.5:6 in 1984. Damage by wind erosion never occured after establishment of shelterbelts toproteet farmland. The pastlirehas been effectively protected by taking measures to close hillsides to facilitate artificial grass establishment. The forage grass for one livestock (eg. horses, cattle, mules and-don-keys) was raised from 1.850kg. to 3, 000kg.. Although cultivated land for crop production was reduced by 58.3 percent, the total products were increased by 1.4 percent because of an increase in per unit area yield. Peasants or farmers in this rural area have turned their pure farming into a diversified economy. Annual income per person has increased from 177 to 500 Yuan. The abundance of natural resources are gradaally chatrging into useable products resuttiug in a superio-economy, A view of woody laad, bumper harvest and flourishing livestock was realized because of rational adjustment in farming, forestry and animal husbandry.

四井子乡因地制宜,调整农、林、牧用地,由70年代的4:1:5调至1984年的1.5:2.5:6.森林覆盖率由6.8%提高到16.3%,从而改善了生态环境,255个沙丘基本固定.农田防护林营造后,风蚀再未形成灾害;封山育草、人工育草的措施有效地保护了草场,每头大牲畜饲草占有量由整前的3700斤增加到6000斤,粮豆耕种面积虽减少了58.33%,但因提高了单产量,总产却增加了1.4%.该乡农民由单纯种植粮食转为多种经营,人均年收入由177元提高到500元.全乡农业自然资源优势逐步向产品优势、商品优势和经济优势转变,出现了林茂、畜旺、粮丰的景象.

In order to heighten the farmers' socialist consciousness and enrich their kaowledge of science, great attention should be paid to the research on the relations of production and superstructure besides productive forces in the field of enterprise management science, according to the characteristics of the Chinese farmers and the conditions of rural socicty. With a view not only to producing plentiful agricultural products for the sake of meeting the people's material and cultural needs, but also...

In order to heighten the farmers' socialist consciousness and enrich their kaowledge of science, great attention should be paid to the research on the relations of production and superstructure besides productive forces in the field of enterprise management science, according to the characteristics of the Chinese farmers and the conditions of rural socicty. With a view not only to producing plentiful agricultural products for the sake of meeting the people's material and cultural needs, but also to creating abundent spiritual wealth, the managers of socialist agricultural enterprises should execute two new functions of enterprise management—serving function and educating function, besides planning,organizing, controlling and other functions This is the most important characteristic of Chinese enterprise management science, which is different from that in the West.

根据我国农民的特点和农村的实际情况,建立中国的社会主义农业企业经营管理学,不仅要研究生产力方面的问题,还要加强对生产关系和上层建筑方面的研究,以便在提供丰富的农产品满足人民物质文化生活需要的同时,不断提高农民的社会主义觉悟和科学文化水平,产生出丰硕的精神成果。因之,企业管理者除了执行计划、组织、控制等职能外,还要执行两个新的管理职能:即服务职能和教育职能。这是我国管理科学别区于西方资本主义企业管理的一个重要特征。

 
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