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As a key component in an operational design support system, the evaluation system examines any potential hazards during startup operation simulation.


The method of program operation simulation is the same as in [8].


Operation simulation of a highvoltage nanosecond multistage generator


The WOT operation simulation was able to be finished within realistic calculation time using developed lookup table method.


An asphalt paving operation simulation model is used to demonstrate each prototypical system.




 To emulate operation on the computer, The paper propose a realtime operation simulation system based PC by manipulation 3D medical images was reconstructed from a series of twodimensional images produced by computerized tomography, magnetic resonance images, etc. Surface rendering algorithm was applied to 3D reconstruction and OPGL program was applied to the display of 3D medical images rapidly in the system. The paper also proposes the idea of the plane segregated to lines and line segregated any... To emulate operation on the computer, The paper propose a realtime operation simulation system based PC by manipulation 3D medical images was reconstructed from a series of twodimensional images produced by computerized tomography, magnetic resonance images, etc. Surface rendering algorithm was applied to 3D reconstruction and OPGL program was applied to the display of 3D medical images rapidly in the system. The paper also proposes the idea of the plane segregated to lines and line segregated any more points, which realized efficiently projection from 2D to 3D coordinate thereby to compete 3D data segment through interaction on 2D plane. By projection of the points desired we completed 3D authentic measurements including length, angle, area, volume and building human being dissection 3D database. The system has achieved such functions as rotation, translation, displaying arbitrary crosssection, osteotomy of arbitrary orientation and 3D authentic measurements. With the system, It is possible to apply in craniofacial surgery, complex fractures, heart volume measurement, and in understanding the geometry in cases that are difficult to interpret from the 2D slices. The result of applying the system to oral and maxillofacial surgery illuminates its validity.  从 CT MRI等产生系列断层图像重建三维实体 ,并在实体上进行外科手术模拟从而达到计算机仿真外科手术 ;作者提出一种基于 PC的三维医学图像实时手术模拟系统 .本系统运用表面显示算法完成了基于 PC的将系列断层图像快速重建 .利用 OPGL进行三维显示 .将面转化为线再细分为点的思想实现了三维体数据的交互分割 .将测量点投影到体数据从而定位出体数据的坐标完成实体距离、角度、面积和体积的三维真实测量并建立解剖数据库 ;该系统实现了三维图像上的任意方位切骨、测量、移动、旋转、三维任意断面切割显示 ,并已成功地用于颅颌面整形手术的模拟  AIM To complete 3D bone images segmentation in co mputer operation simulation system and to make it fast enough to be used in computer operation simulation system. METHODS 3D medical images were reconstructed from patient series of t wodimensional images produced by computerized tomography. Direct 3D bone image segmentation was done in 3D display images. World coordinate and disp lay coordinate are defined in the paper. World coordinate that had undergone some transform such as translatio n,... AIM To complete 3D bone images segmentation in co mputer operation simulation system and to make it fast enough to be used in computer operation simulation system. METHODS 3D medical images were reconstructed from patient series of t wodimensional images produced by computerized tomography. Direct 3D bone image segmentation was done in 3D display images. World coordinate and disp lay coordinate are defined in the paper. World coordinate that had undergone some transform such as translatio n, and rotation was unified with display coordinate through 2D projection plane of 3D display coordinate. We regarded the 2D projection plane as an interactive plane to ascertain the area of the cut bone. According to the idea o f differential we the cut bone area we (decomposedinto) discrete lines. By calcu lating the cross points of the every discrete line and 3D data, we got the edge of the area of the cut bone, and the 3D volume data were thus segmented. RESULTS 3D display images reconstructed by two algorithm from 256×256×94 twodimensional CT data were s egmented. The results showed 3D osteotomy could realized rapidly. The osteotomy time consume of computer is the same when either of two reconstruction methods was used. The time be varied with computer hardware and t he volume of desired bone. The hardware in the paper is applicable to the Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Simulation System. CONCLUSION The method concerns both osteotomy precision and computer time consumption. The result of the method used in oral and maxillofacial surgery simulation has proved its ava ilability.  目的 实现计算机手术模拟中的三维骨组织分割 ,即在计算机上模拟外科手术中的截骨 ,并使之能实际应用于计算机手术模拟系统中 .方法 用患者的 CT图像作为原始数据进行三维重构与显示 .在三维显示图像上进行三维截骨 .本文定义了实物坐标系与显示坐标系 .实物坐标系经过一系列变换通过三维显示的二维投影面与显示坐标系统一 .以统一的二维投影面作为交互平台确定分割平面 .基于微分的思想将分割面离散成一条条直线 ,求每条直线与三维数据的交点 ,从而确定分割边缘 ,实现三维体数据的分割 .结果 对2 5 6× 2 5 6× 94的 CT图像数据用两种算法进行三维重构的图像进行三维截骨 ,实验表明用该方法成功实现了三维截骨 .两种重构方法截骨响应时间相同 .截骨响应时间依据截骨骨块体积大小的不同和计算机硬件性能的差别有所不同 .本文所用计算机硬件能满足颅颌面整形外科手术模拟系统的需要 .结论 本方法兼顾了截骨的准确性和计算机的动态响应速度 ,用于颅颌面整形外科手术模拟系统中的结果证明了其正确性与实用性  AIM:To find out three dimensional(3D)finite model unit selection and construction in constructing pelvis and acetabular finite element model, in order to provide accurate model for pelvis and acetabular biomechanical research and operation simulation. METHODS:The cube in the obtained 3D CT image data matrix of pelvis and acetabulum was moved, hexahedron unit was used in the internal bone and Marching Cube arithmetic was used on the surface bone, tetrahedron was established to instead equivalent surface... AIM:To find out three dimensional(3D)finite model unit selection and construction in constructing pelvis and acetabular finite element model, in order to provide accurate model for pelvis and acetabular biomechanical research and operation simulation. METHODS:The cube in the obtained 3D CT image data matrix of pelvis and acetabulum was moved, hexahedron unit was used in the internal bone and Marching Cube arithmetic was used on the surface bone, tetrahedron was established to instead equivalent surface and the 3D finite element models of pelvis and acetabulum were constructed. RESULTS:The 3D finite element model was constructed by combining Marching Cube arithmetic and traditional means, the model had a clean and continuous surface, which could not only analyze the stress strain contribution of the bone surface, but also hold the characteristics of the stress strain contribution of the internal bone. CONCLUSION:Combined with the traditional means to construct 3D element model, tetrahedron unit is used on the model surface and hexahedron unit is used in the model internal. The model has a clean and continuous surface, which can not only analyze the stress strain contribution of the bone surface, but also hold the characteristics of the internal stress strain contribution of the bone.  目的:寻求骨盆及髋臼三维有限元模型构建中三维有限元模型单元的选择以及构建,为骨盆、髋臼生物力学研究及手术仿真模拟提供精确模型。方法:在获得的骨盆及髋臼三维CT图像数据矩阵中移动立方体,骨骼内部采用六面体单元,骨骼表面采用MarchingCube算法,建立四面体代替等值面,构建骨盆及髋臼三维有限元模型单元。结果:综合MarchingCube算法和传统方法构建三维有限元模型,所构建模型表面光滑连续,不仅能够分析骨骼表面应力应变分布,同时保留内部应力应变分布的特点。结论:结合传统三维有限元模型构建方法,在模型表面使用四面体单元,模型内部采用六面体单元,构建表面连续平滑的骨盆和髋臼有限元模型,不仅能够反应内部应力应变分布,而且能够模拟分析骨骼表面应力应变分布。  
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