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fir forest
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  fir forest
Nitrogen Saturation and Soil N Availability in a High-Elevation Spruce and Fir Forest
      
For a Douglas fir forest ecosystem subjected to an experimental decrease in nitrogen (N) deposition, N dynamics were simulated using the dynamic simulation model NICCCE.
      
The spruce-fir forest at 1740 m consistently received the highest total deposition rates (~2200, 1200, and 700 eq ha-1 yr-1 for SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+).
      
The deposition flux of O3 to a Douglas fir forest in the Netherlands was monitored by eddy correlation during nine months.
      
At present the area of spruce-fir forest in the park is 21,242?ha.
      
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It is found that the annual fall of fir forest in dry weight ranged

冷杉林每年凋落物量(干重)0.5-4.0吨/公顷,枯枝落叶层(Ao层)干重总量每公顷40吨左右。本文通过观测和实验,探讨了冷杉林Ao层物质循环格式及其在生态系统中的养分和水分循环的特殊重要作用,以及对群落中的植物分布、生长发育的影响。

In the previous paper authors found the vegetational and climatic changes in the past 30,000—10,000 years in Beijing.This paper is based on the informations of the sporo-pollen assemblages obtained from the Gaolizang,Dawangzhang,Yinjiahe,Xiwu- liyng and etc.with drilling cores in the vicinity of Beijing. About 12,000—10,000 years ago deciduous broad-leaved trees were flourishing in Beijing.At that time the climate was warm and rather wet.10,000—8,000 years ago, the herbaceous plants,such as Artemisia,Compositae...

In the previous paper authors found the vegetational and climatic changes in the past 30,000—10,000 years in Beijing.This paper is based on the informations of the sporo-pollen assemblages obtained from the Gaolizang,Dawangzhang,Yinjiahe,Xiwu- liyng and etc.with drilling cores in the vicinity of Beijing. About 12,000—10,000 years ago deciduous broad-leaved trees were flourishing in Beijing.At that time the climate was warm and rather wet.10,000—8,000 years ago, the herbaceous plants,such as Artemisia,Compositae were flourishing in plain of Beijing and mountainous region was dominant in subalpinc conifer forest,consisting of Pinus,Picea and Abies,According to the needle-leaved forest increasing at that time we think about 9,000 B.P.that climate was cool and wetter. In the past 8,000—6,000 years,needle-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest,consisting of Pinus,Quercus and Betula thrived under a warm and wetter climate,the bogs were better developed in plain. During 6,000—2,000 years,in general review on the sporo-pollen assemblages of the Beijing we think that the climate was warm,especial about 5,000 years ago,the flora was mainly composed of deciduous broad-leaved trees,such as Ulmus,Quercus, Morus and Betula. But during 5,600 years ago or so,spruce-fir forest became predominant in the low land and the plain of Beijing again.At that time the annual mean temperature was lower than that of the present.It was corresponed to new glacial period.The flora mainly composed of Pinus was obviously reduced since 2,000 years.The glassland even increased in Beijing.

本文依据在北京高里掌、大王庄西、尹家河、西五里营等地钻孔揭示的孢粉学资料,指出北京地区近10000年以来的植被,随全球性气候的暖、冷和湿、干的波动,出现过多次森林和草原的交替。尤其在距今约9000年、5600年和3400多年出现过以云杉、冷杉和松等组成的针叶林繁盛期。以此推测大约每间隔2000多年,就有一次短期气温下降。因此本文将有助于对北京地区全新世地层划分、古气候,古地理的认识,甚至为长期气象预报提供参考资料。

In view of the importance of the timely and proper thinning to the over 333 thousand ha. commercial timber forest bases of Cunninghamia lanceolata established in Zhejiang province since 1972, this article sets the characteristic standards for the first thinning in the Chinese fir forest stands and devides the forests in Zhejiang province into 4 managerial types according to the different site index classes, management purposes and economic conditions. At the same time the theoretical formulae for...

In view of the importance of the timely and proper thinning to the over 333 thousand ha. commercial timber forest bases of Cunninghamia lanceolata established in Zhejiang province since 1972, this article sets the characteristic standards for the first thinning in the Chinese fir forest stands and devides the forests in Zhejiang province into 4 managerial types according to the different site index classes, management purposes and economic conditions. At the same time the theoretical formulae for desirable density indexes are suggested, which can be used to calculate the theoretical value of the desirable density in light of the theoretical D. B. H. increment after low thinning and the actural average D. B. H. increment of the forest stand.

本文针对浙江省1972年以来营造的33万余公顷杉木用材林基地需要适时适量地进行抚育间伐的迫切性,研究了杉木林达到首次间伐期的标准;根据不同地位指数等级、经营目的和经济条件,把浙江省杉木林划分为4个经营类型;同时分别选择了计算适宜密度指标的理论公式;根据下层间伐之后的胸径增值理论值和实际林分的平均胸径生长量,计算不同间伐强度的适宜密度指标理论值。

 
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