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tactics
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  策略
     Study on Organization Analysis and Reconstruction Tactics of Forging Equipment Industry in China
     我国锻压设备产业组织分析及重构策略研究
短句来源
     Research of Definition and Tactics on the Key Issues in the City Grass-Roots Health Field of China
     我国城市基层卫生领域关键问题界定与策略研究
短句来源
     Tactics of Conflict
     冲突的策略
短句来源
     On Analyzing Judgement and Auditing Tactics to Fraudulent Behavior in Capital Market
     资本市场中舞弊行为的分析判定及其审计策略
短句来源
     On the Influence Factors and the Tactics of Enterprise Culture Integration in Mergers & Acquisitions
     并购企业文化整合的影响因素及策略研究
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  战术
     A Study of the Teaching Method of Basketball Techniques and Tactics
     篮球技术战术教学法研究
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     A Brief Discussion on the Collective Tactics of Volleyball
     排球集体战术之浅见
短句来源
     The Evaluation System of the Quantitative Analysis for the Techniques and Tactics in the Volleyball Competition
     排球比赛技术、战术水平发挥的定量分析评价系统——兼评第24届奥运会中国女排的比赛
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     Study in Attacking Tactics of China Women's Volleyball Team
     中国女排进攻战术研究
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     Preliminary Discussion on the Characteristics for the Tactics of Surrounding and Tackling in the Modern Football
     现代足球围抢战术特征的初步探讨
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  对策
     Problems of Textile Fabric Price System and Their Tactics
     纺织品价格体系的问题及其对策
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     Present Situation Analysis and Development Tactics of TEIS in Provincial Level……
     省厅级TEIS现状分析及开发对策
短句来源
     Economic Analyses and Tactics for Water Supply and Demand in Urban Area
     城市水资源供需经济分析与对策
短句来源
     Potentials and Tactics of Agricultural Resources Development in Changshu.
     常熟市农业资源的开发潜力与对策
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     Influence of the New Regulations on the Volleyball Techniques and Tactics as well as its Countermeasures
     新规则对排球技战术的影响及其对策研究
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  “tactics”译为未确定词的双语例句
     A STUDY ON TACTICS OF OPTIMUM ADVANCED CHANGE FOR FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
     飞行控制系统中最优事前更换策略的研究
短句来源
     The Fishery Economic Analysis and the Selection of Optimum Management Tactics.
     渔业经济分析和最佳管理策略的选择
短句来源
     UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEMS OF QUALITY ONCE AGAIN:QUALITY BUSINESS TACTICS
     对质量问题的再认识:质量经营
短句来源
     Some Features of New Attacking Tactics in Football
     足球进攻新战术的特点
短句来源
     Computer Statistical and Feedback System for the Badminton Techniques and Tactics
     羽毛球技战术计算机统计及反馈系统
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  tactics
Discomfort and fatigue developed, which restricted the abilities of the examined subjects to choose behavioral tactics.
      
The authors discuss the strategy and tactics of adaptive biocontrol with regard for the individual disorders of EEG parameters.
      
Different tactics of the microbial control of the individual immunity should be selected for subjects with different phenotypes.
      
It is proposed to call these particular strategies ecological tactics.
      
A general scheme of searching adaptive behavior with inertial switching between search tactics is presented.
      
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In order to test the tactic response of the cotton bollworm, Heliothis ammigera(Hubner), to the odors of its preferred host plant, certain volatile substances known tobe present in the cotton plant such as methanol, trimethylamine and vanillic acid werechosen as olfactory stimulants. It was found that the larvae in the early three instarswere attracted by the vapors of vanillic acid and trimethylamine in various degrees, butmethanol vapor had a repellent effect. These vapors were emitted from aqueous solu-tions...

In order to test the tactic response of the cotton bollworm, Heliothis ammigera(Hubner), to the odors of its preferred host plant, certain volatile substances known tobe present in the cotton plant such as methanol, trimethylamine and vanillic acid werechosen as olfactory stimulants. It was found that the larvae in the early three instarswere attracted by the vapors of vanillic acid and trimethylamine in various degrees, butmethanol vapor had a repellent effect. These vapors were emitted from aqueous solu-tions at the concentrations of 0.006 M 0.02 M and 0.03 M respectively. By using thesugars, free amino acids and vitamins which were shown to be present in the cotton plantas gustatory stimulants and incorporating them separately in the agar-based media, it wasfound that at the concentration of 0.02 M sucrose and fructose had a definite phago-stimulating effect, glucose was less effective, and xylose was indifferent. At low concen-trations, only DL-alanine among the five amino acids tested had some phago-stimulatingeffect, and ascorbic acid at 0.01 M was phago-inhibitive. These results show that thecotton bollworm as a polyphagous species responds differently to the individual com-ponents of the host plant which may act either as attractants or repellents, phago-stimulants or phago-inhibitors. Different species and varieties of cotton plants and some descendants from thehybridization between cotton and some other malvaceous plants such as Hibiscus palus-tris,H. mutabilis, Malva sylvestris and Althaea rosea were used to test the tactic andfeeding responses of the cotton bollworm. It was found that when the larvae had thechance to choose their food, they were more readily attracted to the leaves of Gossypiumhirsutum and certain variety of G. barbadense, but not so readily to some of the hybriddescendants, some of which may even show repulsive properties in the test. In thisrespect different varieties of H. barbadense also had different effects. When there wasno chance to choose their food, the larvae were observed to consume different quantitiesof foliage from different plants in a definite period of time and to become conditionedto the host plants with which they were brought up. Simultaneous chemical analysis showed that the water content as well as the total andprotein nitrogen contents of the cotton leaves gradually decreased as growth proceeded.The total nitrogen content also dropped when the squares developed into flowers, andthe protein content was found to reach the maximum when the squares had attained alength about 2.5 cm. The total and protein nitrogen contents of the bolls dropped asthe latter grew and aged. The total and protein nitrogen contents of the leaves seemedto be the highest as compared with those of the squares and bolls. The quantities ofsoluble and reducing sugars of the young leaves exceeded those of the tender and oldleaves, but the sugar contents of the bolls were found to be much higher than those ofthe leaves. The sugar contents of the squares were relatively low. In spite of these disparities, it was possible to grow the larvae after hatching into maturity separately andsolely on the leaves, squares and bolls of the cotton plants. In these rearing experi-ments, the cumulative quantities of food consumed, the rates of development and mor-tality, and the weights of pupae thus obtained were found to be conspicuously different.It is interesting to note that the larvae during the whole course of development wouldconsume the old leaves to an amount which may double the total quantity of the foodconsumed when the young leaves were offered. When the bolls were used as food thecumulative quantity consumed exceeded several times that when the leaves were used.This difference is presumably attributed to the differences in the water and sugar con-tents of the different organs of the cotton plant, as already shown that sugars usuallywould evoke a strong phago-stimulating effect. The general impression is that the plantorgans which have the higher sugar and water contents usually have a better nutritiveeff

本工作选用棉花不同器官所含有的几种化学成分作为嗅觉和味觉刺激剂,测验棉铃虫对它们的反应;结果表明一至三龄的幼虫对甲醇三甲基胺、香草酸等的趋性不同,四龄幼虫对不同的糖类、氨基酸等的取食反应也各不一。这说明幼虫对食料植物中的个别化学成分有感觉辨识的能力。用不同品种的海岛棉、陆地棉、以及棉花和其它锦葵科植物杂交所产生的后代的叶片来试验棉铃虫对它们的趋性和取食反应,结果表明当有选择的机会时幼虫对陆地棉和一定品种海岛棉有较强的趋性,对某些杂交后代的趋性很弱。在不能选择的条件下棉铃虫在一定时间内对不同种类或品种的棉叶的取食量也不相同,并对原来的食料植物可形成条件化。 曾对棉花不同器官的含水量、含氮物质和糖类进行了测定,同时分别用叶、蕾和铃将新孵化的幼虫饲养到老熟。幼虫取食不同器官时的累积食量、发育速度、死亡率,和变成的蛹的重量均有明显的差别。当以大叶为食时幼虫的总食量超过以嫩叶为食时的一倍以上;以铃为食时总食量可为以嫩叶为食时的数倍。这种差异可能是因铃中水分和含糖量较高,对幼虫的取食发生强烈的助长作用所造成的。因此,同株植物上含糖和含水缺多的器官对棉铃虫似乎有较好的营养效应,而这种效应可能是通过糖类等的味觉刺激来增加取食...

本工作选用棉花不同器官所含有的几种化学成分作为嗅觉和味觉刺激剂,测验棉铃虫对它们的反应;结果表明一至三龄的幼虫对甲醇三甲基胺、香草酸等的趋性不同,四龄幼虫对不同的糖类、氨基酸等的取食反应也各不一。这说明幼虫对食料植物中的个别化学成分有感觉辨识的能力。用不同品种的海岛棉、陆地棉、以及棉花和其它锦葵科植物杂交所产生的后代的叶片来试验棉铃虫对它们的趋性和取食反应,结果表明当有选择的机会时幼虫对陆地棉和一定品种海岛棉有较强的趋性,对某些杂交后代的趋性很弱。在不能选择的条件下棉铃虫在一定时间内对不同种类或品种的棉叶的取食量也不相同,并对原来的食料植物可形成条件化。 曾对棉花不同器官的含水量、含氮物质和糖类进行了测定,同时分别用叶、蕾和铃将新孵化的幼虫饲养到老熟。幼虫取食不同器官时的累积食量、发育速度、死亡率,和变成的蛹的重量均有明显的差别。当以大叶为食时幼虫的总食量超过以嫩叶为食时的一倍以上;以铃为食时总食量可为以嫩叶为食时的数倍。这种差异可能是因铃中水分和含糖量较高,对幼虫的取食发生强烈的助长作用所造成的。因此,同株植物上含糖和含水缺多的器官对棉铃虫似乎有较好的营养效应,而这种效应可能是通过糖类等的味觉刺激来增加取食量所造成。

In 1963, five neighbouring brigades with different cropping systems in Yuankiang and Nanhsien, Hunan were chosen for the comparative studies on the relations between the cropping system and the population of the paddy borer, Tryporyza incertulas (Wlk.), in order to look for the most economical and effective tactics and methods of control for this serious pest. The chief results were summarized as follows: 1. Among neighbouring brigades in the same region, a sharp difference in the amount of initial population...

In 1963, five neighbouring brigades with different cropping systems in Yuankiang and Nanhsien, Hunan were chosen for the comparative studies on the relations between the cropping system and the population of the paddy borer, Tryporyza incertulas (Wlk.), in order to look for the most economical and effective tactics and methods of control for this serious pest. The chief results were summarized as follows: 1. Among neighbouring brigades in the same region, a sharp difference in the amount of initial population of the paddy borer is one of the important factors influencing its population and damage in the current year. To destroy almost thoroughly the hibernating larvae of the paddy borer by means of cultural practices on a sufficient scale, not only the damage by the first and second generations could be prevented, but the population and damage of the later generations might also be reduced. On this basis, if it is possible to suppress further the population of the second generation by ploughing and flooding the early rice fields on proper time, the damage made by the later generations might be even more effectively repressed. 2. The degree of borer damage depends upon the combined effect of the degree of coincidence of the vunlerable growth stages of rice and the prevailing period of larval hatching and also the borer population. So far as cultural centrol is concerned, to regulate the growth stages of rice and the repression of borer population should be both utilized as much as possible. 3. The cultivation of double-cropping rice (with two crops on the same fields per year) brings not only advantageous but also disadvantageous effects to the development of the paddy borer. Under the conditions of Yuankiang and Nanhsien, Hunan, certain practices in the cultivation of double-cropping rice might be utilized as a part of the means of paddy borer control. 4. In rice belts with complicated cropping system, early planting of the medium-rice could not only avoid serious borer damage, but might also induce the second generation moths laying more eggs on small areas of late medium-rice or single cropping late rice, thus making it possible to kill more borers with less insecticides and save the burden of chemical control for the following generation. 5. It was suggested that the paddy borer control should be carried on the basis of cultural methods, that is, to supress the borer population and regulate the growth stages of rice by means of cultural practices as much as possible, and then recruited with necessary applications of insecticides.

1963年在湖南沅江及南县选择隣近的种植制不同的五个生产大队,調查对比、分析耕作栽培措施及其他生态因素,与三化螟种羣数量消长及为害程度的关系,探索最經济有效的稻螟防治策略和综合措施。各对比点結果一致証明,在同一地区相距不远的大队間,三化螟发生基数大小的悬殊差別,是决定当年发生数量及为害程度輕重的一个重要因素。在适当的面积(大队)上結合耕作栽培措施相当彻底地消灭三化螟越冬幼虫,不仅可控制第一、二代的为害,且对压低第三、四代的发生量和为害程度也有明显的作用。在此基础上如能进一步结合夏收灭茬連續压低虫源,更可加強对后期螟害的控制。螟害程度决定于水稻最易受害生育期与稻螟盛发期配合的程度和螟虫发生数量的綜合影响。因此,在农业防治方面,結合耕作栽培措施压低虫源及調节水稻生育期并恶化螟虫的生活条件,均应尽可能的利用。扩种双季稻对三化螟的发生为害有有利和不利的两面。在湘北滨湖稻区的情况下,可以結合双季稻的耕作栽培,連續压低虫源作为控制螟害的一項措施。在种植制复杂的稻区,中稻早栽既可避免第三代三化螟的为害,且可促使第二、三代三化螟更多地集中在小面积的迟中稻或单季晚稻上,有利于集中施药歼灭。稻螟的防治策略应以农业防治为基础,結合...

1963年在湖南沅江及南县选择隣近的种植制不同的五个生产大队,調查对比、分析耕作栽培措施及其他生态因素,与三化螟种羣数量消长及为害程度的关系,探索最經济有效的稻螟防治策略和综合措施。各对比点結果一致証明,在同一地区相距不远的大队間,三化螟发生基数大小的悬殊差別,是决定当年发生数量及为害程度輕重的一个重要因素。在适当的面积(大队)上結合耕作栽培措施相当彻底地消灭三化螟越冬幼虫,不仅可控制第一、二代的为害,且对压低第三、四代的发生量和为害程度也有明显的作用。在此基础上如能进一步结合夏收灭茬連續压低虫源,更可加強对后期螟害的控制。螟害程度决定于水稻最易受害生育期与稻螟盛发期配合的程度和螟虫发生数量的綜合影响。因此,在农业防治方面,結合耕作栽培措施压低虫源及調节水稻生育期并恶化螟虫的生活条件,均应尽可能的利用。扩种双季稻对三化螟的发生为害有有利和不利的两面。在湘北滨湖稻区的情况下,可以結合双季稻的耕作栽培,連續压低虫源作为控制螟害的一項措施。在种植制复杂的稻区,中稻早栽既可避免第三代三化螟的为害,且可促使第二、三代三化螟更多地集中在小面积的迟中稻或单季晚稻上,有利于集中施药歼灭。稻螟的防治策略应以农业防治为基础,結合重点药治。在种植制复杂的稻区建議采取結合耕作栽培連續压低虫源、調节水稻生育期及恶化螟虫生活条件的各項措施并药治二代桥梁田,对三、四代进行重点药治。

Six species of stem-borers injurious to rice plant have been hitherto known from China. The paddy borer, Tryporyza incertulas (Walker), does the greatest damage and is distributed in the principal rice area in Central and South China. The main factors influencing the fluctuation of population include climate, food, cropping system and biotic factors, among which rice as a food plant and its cropping system play a more marked role. In has been proven that the infestation, survival, reproduction and the degree...

Six species of stem-borers injurious to rice plant have been hitherto known from China. The paddy borer, Tryporyza incertulas (Walker), does the greatest damage and is distributed in the principal rice area in Central and South China. The main factors influencing the fluctuation of population include climate, food, cropping system and biotic factors, among which rice as a food plant and its cropping system play a more marked role. In has been proven that the infestation, survival, reproduction and the degree of damage done are closely related to the growth stages of rice. The tillering and booting stages are advantageous to this pest, while the seedling, transplanting to rejuvenating, prebooting, and ripening stages are disadvantageous. The initial population and living conditions of the paddy borer have a very profound in- fluence on the subsequent changes of the population, and both of which are affected by the cropping system of rice. The size of initial population is determined by the effective pest sources in spring, and has a close bearing on the population size of the current year, especially the first and the second generations. The degree of borer damage depends upon the growth stage of rice plants during the prevailing period of larval hatching and also the population size of the borers. In different regions, it is necessary to utilize as much as possible the cultural practices to eliminate the sources of infestation, repress the initial population and prevent the epidemic of the later generations. Moreover, it is important also to improve cultural practices, regulate the growth stage of rice and deteriorate the living conditions of the paddy borer in order to avoid or reduce borer injury. Chemical control plays also an important role in paddy borer control. The insecticide commonly used now is 6% γ BHC. The effective dosage is 1.5 carries~* per mow to prevent dead hearts and 2 catties each mow in preventing white heads. The essential methods used to apply BHC for borer control are splashing and toxic-earth-casting, both of which are equally effective for the prevention of dead hearts. Although splashing is less satisfactory in preventing white heads, but due to its higher efficiency it is also adopted. As to the proper time of applicaton, during the prevailing period of larval hatching, rice plants at tillering or booting stages should be carefully protected. However, if the borer damage is less than 1% according to forecasting, the application of insecticides will be unnecessary. For the prevention of dead hearts, the proper time of application is 1-2 days before the hatching peak under normal conditions. In an outbreak year, nevertheless, insecticides should be applied at the beginning of the peak. In order to prevent white heads, the booting as well as the early heading stages are recommended as the right time for BHC application. When the booting stage of the rice plant occurs before the hatching peak, the insecticide is usually applied at the beginning of the peak; while the hatching peak happens before the booting stage, application should be done at the beginning of booting. The paddy borer is the chief pest of rice in China, causing an annual loss not less than 10% in average years before liberation. Since the founding of New China, significant advances have been made in scientific research work. The paddy borer control work have been Carried out under the guidance of the policy of plant protection "to promote prevention and elimination simultaneously, with prevention playing the leading role". And the proper tactics of control "to carry on systematic control with cultural control as the basis and recruiting with necessary applications of insecticides", effective control measures and methods of prognosis have been adopted. The control campaign are carried on as mass movements. Therefore, the borer damage has been practically kept in check. In 1963, the average damage due to riceborers was reduced to around 29%, and in many localities even below 1%. All these were achieved by the cooperation among the leading cadres, techanical personnel and masses, under the light of the three red banners of the general line, the big leap forward and the people's communes.

在中国为害水稻較重的螟虫已知有6种,以三化螟 Tryporyza incertulas (Wlk.)最为重要,分布于我国中南部稻区。本文阐述了气候、食料、水稻栽培制度和生物等因素对三化螟种群数量变动的影响,并指出作为螟虫食料的水稻及其栽培制度的作用更为明显。研究証明,三化螟的产卵、侵入、成活、繁殖和为害都与水稻的生育期有密切关系,水稻的分蘖期及孕穗期,都是水稻最易受害的生育期,在这两个时期被害,会造成枯心或白穗;而秧田期、移植至回青期、圓稈期和成熟期都对螟虫不利。螟虫的发生基数和生活环境条件,密切影响种群数量的变动,而这些都受水稻栽培制度的影响。发生基数决定于春季螟虫的有效虫源,其数量的大小对当年的螟虫,尤其对第一、二代的发生量有密切关系。螟害程度主要决定于:(1)种群数量和(2)水稻最易受害的生育期与螟虫盛发期配合程度的综合作用。为了加強防治,各地区必须因地制宜,利用耕作栽培措施,一方面尽可能消灭虫源、压低发生基数、控制以后各代螟虫的发生;另一方面力求改进栽培技术、調节水稻生育期,恶化螟虫的生活条件,避免或減輕螟害。化学防治也是治螟的一項重要措施。目前广泛应用的药剂是6%丙体六六六,每亩用量在防治枯心时为1...

在中国为害水稻較重的螟虫已知有6种,以三化螟 Tryporyza incertulas (Wlk.)最为重要,分布于我国中南部稻区。本文阐述了气候、食料、水稻栽培制度和生物等因素对三化螟种群数量变动的影响,并指出作为螟虫食料的水稻及其栽培制度的作用更为明显。研究証明,三化螟的产卵、侵入、成活、繁殖和为害都与水稻的生育期有密切关系,水稻的分蘖期及孕穗期,都是水稻最易受害的生育期,在这两个时期被害,会造成枯心或白穗;而秧田期、移植至回青期、圓稈期和成熟期都对螟虫不利。螟虫的发生基数和生活环境条件,密切影响种群数量的变动,而这些都受水稻栽培制度的影响。发生基数决定于春季螟虫的有效虫源,其数量的大小对当年的螟虫,尤其对第一、二代的发生量有密切关系。螟害程度主要决定于:(1)种群数量和(2)水稻最易受害的生育期与螟虫盛发期配合程度的综合作用。为了加強防治,各地区必须因地制宜,利用耕作栽培措施,一方面尽可能消灭虫源、压低发生基数、控制以后各代螟虫的发生;另一方面力求改进栽培技术、調节水稻生育期,恶化螟虫的生活条件,避免或減輕螟害。化学防治也是治螟的一項重要措施。目前广泛应用的药剂是6%丙体六六六,每亩用量在防治枯心时为1.5斤,防治白穗为2斤。主要的施药方法为泼浇和撒毒土,两者对防治枯心的效果都很好;撒毒土防治白穗的效果虽稍差,但操作簡便易行。在螟虫发生期內,适值分蘖和孕穗的水稻田一般都要施药;但預测螟害低于1%的田块,可不防治。防治枯心的施药适期一般在孵化高峯前1—2天天开始,如虫量很大,要提前到盛孵始期用药。防治白穗的施药适期是:在蚁螟盛孵前孕穗的水稻,普通在盛孵始期开始施药;蚁螟盛孵后孕穗的水稻,在孕穗始期开始用药。稻螟是我国长期以来的一种严重害虫,解放前因螟害常年損失稻谷10%以上。解放后,在党和政府的領导下,科学技术有了显著的进展,治螟工作貫彻了“防治并举、以防为主”的方針,“以农业防治为基础,重点使用药剂綜合防治”的策略;采用了准确的預测預报;开展了群众性的防治活动,基本上控制了螟虫的危害,1663年的螟害率已压低到2%左右,不少地区已降低到1%以下。这都是在总路线、大跃进、人民公社三面紅旗光輝照耀下,領导、技术人員、群众三結合所取得的成果的

 
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