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first criticality
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  first criticality
The first period is from first criticality until onset of refuelling.
      
Then, a mixture of fuel balls and dummy balls will be loaded gradually to approach first criticality.
      
March 2nd first criticality and in August full power was reached.
      


The paper summarizes the characteristics and the results of the fuelloading,the first criticality and the test of adjusting the control rods for5MW THR.It introduces the extrapolation method and pratical steps whichensuse the reactor safety.To reduce the space effect,the special measurementmethod is adopted during the fuel loading and the extrapolation criticality.The experiments show that these methods are effective.

概述了5MW THR 的装料,首次临界和控制棒调平试验的特点和结果。介绍了为保证安全所采用的外推方法和实际步骤。为了减小空间效应,在装料和外推临界过程中采用了特别的测量手段。实验证明,这些方法是有效的。

The first criticality experiment of 5MW Low Power Reactor(LPR)is described.Because 5MW LPR utilizes the spent fuel andberyllium reflector,the photo neutrons becomes a strong inher-ent neutron source and it will be enhanced with loading fuelelements.Therefore,there is considerable fluctuation in the criti-cal extrapolation by loading fuel elements.But the whole critica-lity approaching process is still safe enough.The relative reacti-vity worth curves of control rods were obtained in the subcriti-cal condition.By...

The first criticality experiment of 5MW Low Power Reactor(LPR)is described.Because 5MW LPR utilizes the spent fuel andberyllium reflector,the photo neutrons becomes a strong inher-ent neutron source and it will be enhanced with loading fuelelements.Therefore,there is considerable fluctuation in the criti-cal extrapolation by loading fuel elements.But the whole critica-lity approaching process is still safe enough.The relative reacti-vity worth curves of control rods were obtained in the subcriti-cal condition.By means of the count extrapolation while withdra-wing rods stepwise,5MW LPR achieved its first criticality.

本文介绍5MW 低功率堆(5MW LPR)首次装料及首次临界试验。由于本堆使用有燃耗的燃料元件,铍作反射层,光激中子成为强的内中子源,其强度随着燃料元件装量的增加而增加。因此,装料时元件法外堆结果有较大的涨落,但整个装料过程是安全的。在次临界下,做了控制棒相对效率曲线,然后,提升控制棒,进行计数外推,达到首次临界。

The 10MW high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR 10) was built at Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, and the first criticality was attained in Dec. 2000. The high temperature gas cooled reactor physics simulation code VSOP was used for the prediction of the fuel loading for HTR 10 first criticality. The number of fuel element and graphite element was predicted to provide reference for the first criticality experiment. The prediction calculations toke into account...

The 10MW high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR 10) was built at Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, and the first criticality was attained in Dec. 2000. The high temperature gas cooled reactor physics simulation code VSOP was used for the prediction of the fuel loading for HTR 10 first criticality. The number of fuel element and graphite element was predicted to provide reference for the first criticality experiment. The prediction calculations toke into account the factors including the double heterogeneity of the fuel element, buckling feedback for the spectrum calculation, the effect of the mixture of the graphite and the fuel element, and the correction of the diffusion coefficients near the upper cavity based on the transport theory. The effects of impurities in the fuel and the graphite element in the core and those in the reflector graphite on the reactivity of the reactor were considered in detail. The first criticality experiment showed that the predicted values and the experiment results were in good agreement with little relative error less than 1%, which means the prediction was successful.

10 MW高温气冷实验堆 (简称 HTR- 10 )在清华大学核能技术设计研究院建成 ,并于 2 0 0 0年 12月实现了初次临界。该文利用高温气冷堆物理模拟程序 VSOP对 HTR- 10初次临界装料进行预估 ,计算了初次临界所需燃料球和石墨球数 ,为临界实验提供依据。在计算中考虑了燃料元件的双重非均匀性、谱计算中的曲率反馈和石墨球与燃料球均匀混合的效应以及堆芯顶空腔附近扩散系数的输运修正。还详细考虑了堆芯燃料球和石墨球以及反射层石墨中杂质对反应性的影响。初次临界实验表明 ,临界装料的预估值与试验结果相对误差在 1%之内 ,预估是成功的

 
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