助手标题  
全文文献 工具书 数字 学术定义 翻译助手 学术趋势 更多
查询帮助
意见反馈
   dissemination 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.011秒
图标索引 在分类学科中查询
所有学科
新闻与传媒
中国文学
肿瘤学
出版
宗教
文化
民商法
中国近现代史
美术书法雕塑与摄影
更多类别查询

图标索引 历史查询
 

dissemination
相关语句
  传播
     Study of Dissemination and Reception History of Poem School of Han Yu and Meng Jiao
     韩孟诗派传播接受史研究
短句来源
     Study on the Edition and the Dissemination of JinSiLu
     《近思录》版本与传播研究
短句来源
     DISSEMINATION OF TIME AND FREQUENCY STANDARD OF SHANGHAI OBSERVATORY
     上海天文台时频标准的传播
短句来源
     A study on the dissemination of Lyme disease by lxodes persulcatus
     全沟硬蜱传播莱姆病的研究
短句来源
     ON THE TYPES AND DISSEMINATION CHANNELS OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON USERS
     试论农业情报类型、传播渠道及其对用户的影响
短句来源
更多       
  推广
     Application and Dissemination of the Important lim from (x→0) ((1+x)~(1/x))=e
     重要极限lim from (x→0) ((1+x)~(1/x))=e的推广及应用
短句来源
     Application and Dissemination of the Formula "W-4H
     “W—4H”公式的推广应用
短句来源
     Application and Dissemination of the Formula “W-4H”
     “W-4H”公式的推广应用(二)
短句来源
     Application and Dissemination of the Formula “W-4H”(3)
     “W-4H”公式的推广应用(三)
短句来源
     The application and Dissemination of City Construction Engineering Investigation Information System (GEIS3.0) in Beijing
     城市建设工程勘察信息系统(GEIS 3.0)在北京市的推广应用
短句来源
更多       
  播散
     type Ⅱ (intrahepatic dissemination),81 cases (72.3 %);
     Ⅱ型(肝内播散型)81例,占72.3%;
短句来源
     ②Detecting dissemination of DVT;
     ②监测DVT的播散 ;
短句来源
     Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was apt to invade portal vein to cause tumor thrombus (PVTT), while PVTT could cause the intrahepatic dissemination and metastasis of HCC.
     肝细胞肝癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)易于侵犯门静脉形成癌栓(portal vein tumor thrombus,PVTT)导致肿瘤细胞的播散和转移。
短句来源
     Effects of LFA1/ICAM1 on Coxsackievirus B3 dissemination
     LFA-1/ICAM-1在柯萨奇B组病毒播散感染中的作用初探
短句来源
     Results In 68 cases of colorectal carcinoma, the expression of TS gene in primary foci was 22 1%(15/68); and the positive rates of TS gene expression in local recurrence, abdominal pelvic dissemination and hepatic metastasis were 88 5%(23/26), 85 0%(17/20), 40 9%(9/20) respectively.
     结果  6 8例结肠直肠癌原发灶、局部复发灶、腹腔及盆腔内播散和肝转移灶中TS基因表达阳性率分别为 2 2 1%( 15 / 6 8)、88 5 % ( 2 3/ 2 6 )、85 0 % ( 17/ 2 0 )、40 9% ( 9/ 2 2 ) ;
短句来源
更多       
  “dissemination”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Detection of Blood Dissemination during the Operation of Lung Cancer and Its Significance
     肺癌术中肿瘤细胞血行播散的检测及意义
短句来源
     The Dissemination and Change of Malaysian's Chinese Traditional Music Culture
     马来西亚华人传统音乐的传承与变迁
短句来源
     Research on Personalized Information Dissemination and Conceptual Retrieval
     个性化信息分发及概念检索的研究
短句来源
     A SAMPLE OF CAT DISSEMINATION HYDROPHOBIA
     猫传狂犬病1例报告
短句来源
     Experimental Study of Effects of Disconnecting Block and Disconnecting Process on Dissemination of Light Antitank Rocket Projectile
     掉块及掉块过程对轻型反坦克火箭弹散布影响的实验研究
短句来源
更多       
查询“dissemination”译词为用户自定义的双语例句

    我想查看译文中含有:的双语例句
例句
为了更好的帮助您理解掌握查询词或其译词在地道英语中的实际用法,我们为您准备了出自英文原文的大量英语例句,供您参考。
  dissemination
Gossip (or epidemic) algorithms have recently become popular solutions to multicast message dissemination in peer-to-peer systems.
      
Every node only needs to keep contact with O (log(N)) nodes, and EMMP can support the reliable dissemination of messages.
      
Considering the "distance" between peers, it causes the major data to be transmitted in a local area and reduces the backbone's traffic, and speeds up the dissemination of messages between peers.
      
In this paper, a new approach is proposed to support the efficient dissemination of XML packets when allowing the clients to specify their subscriptions with path queries.
      
The rate of dissemination of the fungus over fruit tissues was inversely related to PGIP activity.
      
更多          


Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the...

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the water-soaked appearance and then extend upwardly,and eventually become blackenedand rotted.As a rule,ths leaves of the infected plants show an abnormal coloror pale yellow,and drooping appearance.In the meantime,the root tips of theadventitious roots of the vines lose their cortex and begin to lot.Wilting followsquite rapidly and finally the entire plant dies.If the disease infects the plantafter the potatoes beginning to form,it may extend throughout the vine and in-to the roots,causing the enlarged roots to show brown streaks and finally blackenedand rotted with pungent odor. The cause of the disease may appropriately be considered as due to bacteriaand Fusarium spp.Four types of bacteria,i.e.white smooth type,yellow smoothtype,white rough type and yellow rough type,are able to cause the disease.Atleast four kinds of Fusarium,i.e.white aerial mycelium type,white mycelium withred of a purple tint substratum type,pink mycelium with red of a purple tint sub-stratum type and without aerial mycelium type are responsible for the disease.Which is the main cause of the disease? Either bacteria or Fusarium alone or theboth in combination is able to cause the disease,further tests should be madebefore a definite conclusion may be drawn. The dissemination of the wilt organisms may appropriately be considered inthree ways,namely,(1) by infested roots and vines,(2) by sick-soil,and (3) byinsects,as the sweet-potato weevil (Gycas formicarius Fabr.).The former twoways of dissemination are more definite than the latter,however,further testsand observations should be made. According to the results of 2-years field experiments in Tsen-shi and Peh-liustations,it shows that different varieties of sweet-potato possess different resis-tance to the disease.Among several varieties tested,it is found that Tai-nung No.3being a promising one,because it yields very high and is highly resistant to thedisease and to the drought.Although it is occasionally found to be susceptibleto the disease in the experiment field of Tsen-shi and is more commonly foundin the experiment field of Lin-kwei.The second variety is Tai-nung No.46 dueto its high degree of disease resistance. The results of preliminary tests indicate that the method of reproduction byold vines would decrease both in disease resistance and in yield within the samevariety. From tests conducted in two different fields,i.e.one at dry land and the ??other in the rice field,it shows that the discrepancies were found in the occur-rence of the disease and also in the relation of the method of manuring to thepercent of infection. Dipping cuttings in different disinfectants did not show any significant results.There are discrepancies in both plowed and sunned field test and two methodsof setting the vines test.These may be due to methods of treatment,landand varieties used for experiment being different. According to the results of date of planting tests in Peh-liu,it indicates thatthe occurrence and the development of the disease are closely related to the highhumidity and the high temperature.These climatic factors affect the health ofthe early growth of the plant which in turn would increase the disease resistance.It is suggested that the most suitable date for planting sweet-potato in Peh-liu isin the first decade of August. In comparing the weather records of the three districts—Lin-kwei,Peh-liu andTsen-shi—in relation to the date of early and last occurrences of the disease,itshows that an average air temperature of 23.4-28.4℃ is most suitable for the oc-currence of the disease,and an average relative humidity of 80 per cent is alsoneeded for the infection of the disease.Based on these facts,we may say thatsweet-potatoes in Lin-kwei are capable to be easily infected by the wilt organisms.except the last date of the infection would be preceded 10-20 clays.Any otherregions with similar climatic factors,it is also very possible to be infected. According to the results of 2-years experiments and facts from surveys,sug-gestive control measures are proposed: (1) excluding the disease by regulationthrough the use of quarantines enforced by an inspection station empowered torestrict or eradicate diseased roots and vines to prevent them from becomingsources of infection in disease-free districts; (2) selection of disease resistant varie-ties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.For the present time,we suggest that the use of Tai-nung No.3 in Tsen-shi and Peh-liu may meet the requirement,and promotingthe method of root reproduction in place of an old method of reproduction byrepeating vine cuttings from old vines can prevent the degeneration of the plantand decrease the infection of the disease.

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試...

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試驗田也会發生过多次。老藤繁殖会降低同一品种的抗病性和产量,值得我們注意。在旱地和水田不同試驗地上所得結果,可初步说明發病情况很不一致,追肥与不追肥处理的發病率也不一致。藥剂处理种苗效应不显著,翻晒土壤及二种种植法試驗结果不一致,想与試驗方法、試驗地不同和供試品种不同有密切关系。薯瘟的發生与發展和高温潮湿有密切关系,而这些气候因素对于植株的早期生??長壮健及增强抗病性也有关系。初步建議,在北流地区以立秋(8月上旬)种植較为适当。从临桂雁山、北流和岑溪三处的气候記录,和薯瘟开始發生与最后發生日期的記录看来,可以初步說平均气温23.4—28.4℃最适于薯瘟的發生。相对湿度平均在80%以上亦适于本病的發生。由此可見,在临桂雁山地区,薯瘟可能是容易發生的,不过停止發病日期会提早10—20天。其他地区如有相似气温与湿度情况,那也是会發生薯瘟的。根据二年試驗結果和調查所得情况,初步提出防治薯瘟的办法如次:(1)应采取种薯和种苗的檢疫措施,禁止病区的种薯运往無病地区,以防蔓延;(2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;多施草木灰,适当施用石灰,根外追肥,适期种植等,以增强植株的抗病性,避免病害的侵染,保証丰产。目前在岑溪及北流地区,可先推广种植“台农三号”品种,并提倡以薯塊育苗,切勿采用老藤繁殖,以避免植株的衰退,减少薯瘟的發生。

Various factors affect the development of headblight of wheat caused by Gibbe-rella zeae (Schw.) Petch under field conditions.The present investigation carriedout in 1955 and 1956 at Nanking,Kiangsu province,was primarily concerned withthe development of spores of the pathogen and the amount of rainfall in relationto disease development.For the purpose of inducing epiphytoties of the disease,asusceptible variety of wheat to headblight was grown in the inoculated plots.Inoculation was made at the surface of the...

Various factors affect the development of headblight of wheat caused by Gibbe-rella zeae (Schw.) Petch under field conditions.The present investigation carriedout in 1955 and 1956 at Nanking,Kiangsu province,was primarily concerned withthe development of spores of the pathogen and the amount of rainfall in relationto disease development.For the purpose of inducing epiphytoties of the disease,asusceptible variety of wheat to headblight was grown in the inoculated plots.Inoculation was made at the surface of the soil with mycelium cultured on wheatgrain shortly after planting,and an "artificial rain" by frequent spray of water tothe plants was supplied after heading.Investigations were made on the develop-ment and dissemination of ascospores and conidia of the pathogen,the seasonaldevelopment of the disease and the meteorological factors involved. Field observations showed that the headblight fungus on the soil surface inthe inoculated plots produced both kinds of spores with ths ascospores much morepredominant than the conidia.Perithecia and mature ascospores could be formedboth in the fall and in next spring through early summer under conditions ofadequate moisture and warm temperature suitable for their development.It wasindicated by trapping the spores in the air that the ascospores produced on thesoil surface were the chief source of inoculum for primary infection although theconidia formed on the infected spikes were equally important in spreading the di-sease in the field later in the season.The frequency and amount of ascosporesand conidia present in the air depended upon the height in spore trapping.Whilespores were found most frequently and most abundantly at a height of 17 cm.above the ground,much less spores were caught at heights of 33 cm.and up to117 cm.There was a tendency to decrease in the amount of spores with theincrease in height.A comparative survey of the spores in the air in the inoculated ??and uninoculated plots indicated that a great majority of spores could not bedisseminated very far from their source of production.This,together with thefact that comparatively more spoies were trapped on raining days,made it rea-sonable to consider splashing rain as the more important agent than wind forspore dissemination. The amount of inoculum existing in the soil and the rainfall were proved tobe the factors of utmost importance for the epiphytotic of the disease.In 1955,the average percentages of headblight for the inoculated plots with and withoutthe spray of water were 29.4 and 13.4% respectively,in comparison with the neigh-bouring fields where only very few infected heads were observed.In 1956,theaverage percentages for headblight in the four experimental plots:(1) inoculatedand sprayed with water,(2) inoculated and not sprayed,(3) uninoculated andsprayed,and (4) uninoculated and not sprayed,were 42.98,42.05,11.91 and6.26%,respectively.In these four corresponding plots,the average percentagesfor culm rot were 4.27,3.89,3.65 and 2.17%.Although there was no significantdifference in the final percentages of both headblight and culm rot between thesprayed and unsprayed plots either with or without inoculation,probably due tothe continuous heavy rain in the latter part of the wheat-growing season,yethigher percentages were always observed in the sprayed plots than in the un-sprayed ones throughout the period of disease development.Under conditions ofabundant inoculum in the soil and heavy rainfall,increase in percentage of head-blight could reach as much as 32% within a period of two days even when theplants were already near maturity.In 1955,a daily average temperature over20℃ was found to be favorable for the development of headblight,but observa-tions made in 1956 did not show significant effect of the temperature on thedevelopment of disease.

1.赤霉病菌在土壤表面的病組織上能产生分生孢子及子囊孢子,而以子囊孢子为??主。子囊孢子在播种后入冬前和入春后都能發生,以春夏季發生較多,冬季發生極少。子囊壳形成的多少与成熟程度决定于气温和土湿,較高的温度和潮湿土壤有利于子囊壳的形成和子囊孢子的成熟. 2.春季在麦株附近空气中出現的病菌孢子,前期以子囊孢子为主,后期子囊孢子和分生孢子都有發生。孢子出現的次数和数量以距离地面0.5尺高度的最多,愈高則愈少;孢子發生的数量在雨天或雨后最多。土壤表面形成的子囊孢子和病穗上产生的分生孢子,其傳播似都以雨水的飞濺作用为主,且大部分孢子的傳播距离并不很远。3.在土壤接菌的情况下,苗腐和基腐病的發生并不严重,更少引起植株死亡的現象。秆腐在1955年發生極少,1956年在大田及試驗区內都很普遍。4.土壤內病菌量和雨湿的多少是影响穗腐和秆腐的主要因素,而前者更为重要。在土壤接种喷水、接种不噴水、不接种噴水和不接种不喷水4区,穗腐率分別为42.98,42.05,11.91及6.26%,秆腐率分別为4.27,3.89,3.65及2.17%。5.大量的病菌孢子和連續降雨是促成病害迅速發展的主要条件。20℃以上的日平均温度似有利于病害...

1.赤霉病菌在土壤表面的病組織上能产生分生孢子及子囊孢子,而以子囊孢子为??主。子囊孢子在播种后入冬前和入春后都能發生,以春夏季發生較多,冬季發生極少。子囊壳形成的多少与成熟程度决定于气温和土湿,較高的温度和潮湿土壤有利于子囊壳的形成和子囊孢子的成熟. 2.春季在麦株附近空气中出現的病菌孢子,前期以子囊孢子为主,后期子囊孢子和分生孢子都有發生。孢子出現的次数和数量以距离地面0.5尺高度的最多,愈高則愈少;孢子發生的数量在雨天或雨后最多。土壤表面形成的子囊孢子和病穗上产生的分生孢子,其傳播似都以雨水的飞濺作用为主,且大部分孢子的傳播距离并不很远。3.在土壤接菌的情况下,苗腐和基腐病的發生并不严重,更少引起植株死亡的現象。秆腐在1955年發生極少,1956年在大田及試驗区內都很普遍。4.土壤內病菌量和雨湿的多少是影响穗腐和秆腐的主要因素,而前者更为重要。在土壤接种喷水、接种不噴水、不接种噴水和不接种不喷水4区,穗腐率分別为42.98,42.05,11.91及6.26%,秆腐率分別为4.27,3.89,3.65及2.17%。5.大量的病菌孢子和連續降雨是促成病害迅速發展的主要条件。20℃以上的日平均温度似有利于病害的發展,但兩年的結果不很一致,可能由于其他因子的影响。

Headblight of wheat [Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch] is one of the serious wheat diseases in Yangtze Valley. Studies on this disease were carried out in 1952-1963 at Wangting, Kiangsu Province. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The correlation between the climate factors and degree of disease incidence was analysed on the basis of twelve years' records. It seems obvious that the number of rainy days occured during the period from the end of April to the end of May, especially in the first part of...

Headblight of wheat [Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch] is one of the serious wheat diseases in Yangtze Valley. Studies on this disease were carried out in 1952-1963 at Wangting, Kiangsu Province. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The correlation between the climate factors and degree of disease incidence was analysed on the basis of twelve years' records. It seems obvious that the number of rainy days occured during the period from the end of April to the end of May, especially in the first part of May, is a decisive factor for the epiphytotics of the disease. Temperature, although influencing, is not a decisive factor in the epiphytotics. Observations revealed that the ascocarp on the rice stub is the main source of pathogen of the disease in this region. The multiplication and dissemination of the pathogen depend on the amount of rainfall. Based upon an analysis of the twelve years' records, the may be there are six types of disease development to be observed, namely, early-period prevalence, middle-period prevalence, late-period prevalence, incidence being checked by scanty, rainfall by low temperature, and escaping from the disease owing to early heading of wheat. Regression method was used to estimate the effect of rainfall on the epidemic in terms of the percentages of headblight and the number of rainy days during the period from the beginning of flowering to 20 days there after. A regression equation was formulated: Y=6.61x—48.35, where Y=incidence of the disease, and X= number of rainy days. These informations may be utilized in forecasting.

对1952—1963年病害流行程度与穗期气象要素之間的相关性测定結果表明,各年发病程度与4月下旬至5月下旬(小麦抽穗至糊熟)特別是5月上中旬(小麦开花至灌浆初期)的降雨日数、相对湿度呈明显的正相关;与同期的降雨量、平均气温相关不显著。稻桩上产生的子囊壳是本地区初侵染的主要来源,初侵染的数量和流行程度有关,其数量积累决定于雨湿条件。小麦开花灌浆初期最易感病,此时期降雨日数是病害流行的决定性因素。根据十二年資料分析結果,病害流行可以分为六种类型:早期发生型;中期发生型;后期发生型;少雨限制型;低温限制型;生育提早限制型。根据1957—1963年預测圃小麦开花后二旬內的降雨日数与发病率的相关,以发病率为应变量求出迴归方程式:Y=6.61 X—48.35,为中期預測提出雨日指标。

 
<< 更多相关文摘    
图标索引 相关查询

 


 
CNKI小工具
在英文学术搜索中查有关dissemination的内容
在知识搜索中查有关dissemination的内容
在数字搜索中查有关dissemination的内容
在概念知识元中查有关dissemination的内容
在学术趋势中查有关dissemination的内容
 
 

CNKI主页设CNKI翻译助手为主页 | 收藏CNKI翻译助手 | 广告服务 | 英文学术搜索
版权图标  2008 CNKI-中国知网
京ICP证040431号 互联网出版许可证 新出网证(京)字008号
北京市公安局海淀分局 备案号:110 1081725
版权图标 2008中国知网(cnki) 中国学术期刊(光盘版)电子杂志社