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central authorities
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  中央
    Entering the 21 century, facing the changes of the relationship betweenTaiwan and mainland and independence of Taiwan movement, Hu Jintao, whorepresents the new generation of leading nucleus of the central authorities, putforward four recommendations.
    迈入21世纪,面对两岸关系的新变化以及岛内各种不断升级的“台独”分裂活动,胡锦涛代表新一届中央领导集体就新形势下的对台工作提出了四点意见。
短句来源
    The scientific development concept of human-based, all -round, harmonious and sustainable one is advanced by the new-session leading comrades of the central authorities, on the basis of inheriting the Marxism social development theory, developing and discarding all other development theories in the world, concluding and introspecting the development experiences and lessons in China and foreign countries as well as analyzing scientifically the current China reality, which is once again keeping pace with the contemporary times of the Marxism social development theory.
    “以人为本,全面、协调、可持续”的科学发展观是新一届中央领导集体在继承马克思主义社会发展理论、扬弃世界上其它各种发展理论、总结和反思中外发展的经验与教训、科学分析当代中国实际的基础上提出来的,是马克思主义社会发展理论的又一次与时俱进。
短句来源
    The supervision on the local government by central authorities has been one of the major issues about the relation between central and local governments.
    中央对地方的监督一直是中央与地方关系中的主要问题之一。
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    This benefit from a series of measures of stabilizing the army from central authorities, and it is the prerequisite that the people's army carried out the task of "Three Supports and Two Militarizations ".
    各地“革命委员会”的普遍建立,标志着作为“三支两军”核心的“支左”主体任务已经完成,全国局势日渐稳定,军队继续执行“三支两军”任务的必要性已经淡化。 九大以后,党组织的恢复和重建工作迅速提上日程。
短句来源
    But also the new generation of leading nucleus ofthe central authorities strengthens to oppose independence of Taiwan, and makes to defend the unity of country.
    并加强了反“台独”力度,制定了《反分裂国家法》,开始以法律手段来维护国家的统一。
短句来源
    Although every generation of CPC’s leading nucleus of the central authorities put forward a series of policies varied with time and circumstances, the spirit of these policies comes down in one continuous line, that are on the premise of the firmness of‘one China’principle, we try our best to realize the mainland’s peaceful reunification.
    虽然中共历代领导集体顺时而立、因势而变、与时俱进地制定出一系列对台方针,但这些方针的基本精神却是一脉相承的,那就是在坚持一个中国原则的前提下,付诸以最大努力实现祖国的和平统一。
短句来源
    In the period of Republic of China, the central authorities didn't formulate unified special prostitute laws and regulations, basically followed the management system of extracting " the prostitute contributes " of the end of Qing Dynasty.
    民国期间,中央政府没有制定统一的专门禁娼法规,基本沿袭了清末抽取“妓捐”的娼妓管理制度。
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  central authorities
The institutional framework is a federal system, in which local authorities are responsible for the supply of public services and the financing of these services, and where the central authorities are in charge of income redistribution.
      
Commercialization of agriculture and the development of strong central authorities are not wholly deleterious to peasant society.
      
It points to the frustrations that educators are likely to encounter in situations where central authorities attempt to curtail teachers' autonomy through stricter administrative control.
      
In addition, some problems remain in administrative structures, such as five central authorities instead of one.
      
There is a trend to more home health care, but this is hampered by splitting of responsibilities of local, departmental or central authorities.
      
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AbstractDuring the nearly half a century since the end of the Second World War, conflicts and disturbances in Black Africa have undergone three major qualitavive changes: From the end of the War to the 1960s, the nature of the conflicts was essentially that of anti colonial and anti imperialist struggle generated by national independence and self determination; after independence, with the US vs USSR contention for strategic space zones, the conflicts there carried the typical feature of "proxy wars";and...

AbstractDuring the nearly half a century since the end of the Second World War, conflicts and disturbances in Black Africa have undergone three major qualitavive changes: From the end of the War to the 1960s, the nature of the conflicts was essentially that of anti colonial and anti imperialist struggle generated by national independence and self determination; after independence, with the US vs USSR contention for strategic space zones, the conflicts there carried the typical feature of "proxy wars";and following the end of the cold war, the conflicts have largely lost their colour of "polar-confrontation" and become a sort of crisis and conflict that was caused by the external activation of domestic institutional defects which spilled over to international arena, that is, conflicts which were mainly rooted internally. By "domestic institutional defects", they refer to various problems caused by the state system factors which in Black Africa are focussingly reflected in the low level of national integration, the loss of central authority and the combination of the nagative role of the tribal structure with the corruption of the government. Without taking account of these defects within these countries, all intervention policies and efforts for conflict settlement are bound to fail. Thus ,the key to solve Black Africa's conflicts lies in the internal reform of these countries.

冷战后黑非洲冲突与安全的若干思考唐笑虹一、冲突的性质二战以来,黑非洲一直是一块不平静的土地,历经了40多年的冲突与战乱,始终烽烟不断。近半个世纪中,发生在这里的冲突经历了三次大的质变。二战结束到60年代,冲突的性质主要是由民族独立、自决引发的反殖反帝...

Abstract This article holds that China has entered a period of accelerated overall transition in social structure. The mode of development during this period should be one of dynamic stability. The political intension of this mode could be described as one that maintains central authority and at the same time encourages innovation. Obviously pursue of stability should not be used as an excuse against reform, for a certain degree of instability might bring about positive effect. In practice, the Chinese...

Abstract This article holds that China has entered a period of accelerated overall transition in social structure. The mode of development during this period should be one of dynamic stability. The political intension of this mode could be described as one that maintains central authority and at the same time encourages innovation. Obviously pursue of stability should not be used as an excuse against reform, for a certain degree of instability might bring about positive effect. In practice, the Chinese Communist Party has successfully handled stability in the transitional period by selecting the right point of departure and maintaining a steady pace of development.

本文认为:当前我国已经进入了一个全面的、加速的社会转型时期,转型时期中国社会的稳定模式应是发展中的稳定、动态的稳定,其政治学意义上的内涵可以描述为在中央保持权威的同时,改革要不断创新;由于一定程度的社会不稳定也具有某些正功能,因而不能把追求稳定当作反对改革的借口;在实际的改革进程中,通过合理选择改革起点和渐进性改革模式,中国共产党成功地把握了转型时期的社会稳定问题

Since Qin-Han Dynasties the system of prefectures and counties always took the leading position because of the continuous consolidation and development of autocratic monarch in ancient China,but the system of enfeoffment as a form different from Western Zhou Dynasty long and successively existed.The system of enfeoffment as well as the system of prefectures and counties were the embodied form of the relation of the central authority and local administrations under the autocratic monarch,the long argument...

Since Qin-Han Dynasties the system of prefectures and counties always took the leading position because of the continuous consolidation and development of autocratic monarch in ancient China,but the system of enfeoffment as a form different from Western Zhou Dynasty long and successively existed.The system of enfeoffment as well as the system of prefectures and counties were the embodied form of the relation of the central authority and local administrations under the autocratic monarch,the long argument of both reflected the struggle between the totalitarianism and division of power.

由于中国古代社会君主专制的中央集权政权不断巩固与发展 ,自秦汉以来郡县制一直占主导地位 ,而分封制也以与西周不同的形式长期延续存在。分封制与郡县制都是君主专制政体下中央和地方关系的体现形式 ,二者的长期争论反映了中央集权与地方分权的斗争。

 
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