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safeguards
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The model takes into account interest rates, projected changes in currency values, relative risk and corporate policies and safeguards.
      
Special attention is given to an intervention technique that safeguards the autonomy of both patient and psychotherapist.
      
The article demonstrates how legal safeguards against encroachments of civil liberties in pursuing security have continuously faded.
      
Because of this development today the German legal system provides only limited constitutional safeguards against further limitations of civil liberties in the name of an increased security.
      
'Guantanamo: What safeguards for the fight against terrorism'
      
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The adoption of Chapter Ⅸ in SOLAS 74 Convention. and the ISM Code represents aimportant change in shipping safety management concept. The shipping company is then required to establish,implenent and maintain a Safety Management Syetem (SMS)to achieving the objectives provided in the Code,rather than the ship and its Master. Shipping industry also recognizes the safeguard of maritime safety can not be achieved simply by stipulating stringent rules on ships and their crew and equipment but strengthening...

The adoption of Chapter Ⅸ in SOLAS 74 Convention. and the ISM Code represents aimportant change in shipping safety management concept. The shipping company is then required to establish,implenent and maintain a Safety Management Syetem (SMS)to achieving the objectives provided in the Code,rather than the ship and its Master. Shipping industry also recognizes the safeguard of maritime safety can not be achieved simply by stipulating stringent rules on ships and their crew and equipment but strengthening on-shore management.In accordance with the requirements of the ISM Code, the SMS should ensure the complaince with mandatory rules and regulations of international Conventions,Protocals and Codes as well as national laws,decrees,particularly those conventions developed by international Maritime Organization. This paper cites some administrative and operative regulations from SOLAS 74,MARPOL 73/78,STCW 78 with brief explanation as references to assist shipping companies in Preparing SMS documentation.

通过1974年海上人命安全公约第Ⅸ章纳入国际安全管理规则,代表了航运安全管理概念上的一次重大改变。由此要求船公司而不仅是船舶和船长去建立、实施和保持一个“安全管理体系”以达到安全管理规则中所规定的目标。航运界也意识到保障海上安全不能单靠严格规定船舶、船员和设备的各种规则,而应强化陆上管理来达到。根据安全管理规则的要求,安全管理体系应当保证符合国际公约、议定书和规则以及本国的法律、法令等强制性规定及规则,特别是海事组织制订的公约。该文摘引一部份74海上人命安全公约,73/78防污染公约,78年培训、发证和值班公约中的管理性和操作性规则,并作简要说明,希望船公司在制订管理体系文件时作为参考并有所帮助。

Letter of credit(L/C)is often suspended or refused to becollected in order to protect the domestic or local interests,thus doing a lot of harm to the smooth operation of the letter of credit.So judicial guarantee is needed to safeguard the negotiation and acceptance of the letter of credit with and view of showing respect to the independence of the letter of credit.

跟单信用证在实践中,存在一种为保护本地或本国当事人利益,动辄止付信用证的做法。这极大地损害了信用证的运作机制,增大了社会成本。因此,要尊重信用证的独立性原则,只有在欺诈而且信用证没有承兑或议付时才能采取保全措施。同时,也要注意保护善意第三人的利益。

Matters of domestic jurisdiction” are related to not only a country's sovereign rights but also the sphere of the regulation of internatinal law. A correct understanding of the range of “matters of domestic jurisdiction”is of vital significance to the safeguarding of international peace and national stability . the essence of the stipulation, “No interference of what are essentially matters of any country's domestic jurisduction” in Article 2, section 7 of the United Nations charter can only be mastered...

Matters of domestic jurisdiction” are related to not only a country's sovereign rights but also the sphere of the regulation of internatinal law. A correct understanding of the range of “matters of domestic jurisdiction”is of vital significance to the safeguarding of international peace and national stability . the essence of the stipulation, “No interference of what are essentially matters of any country's domestic jurisduction” in Article 2, section 7 of the United Nations charter can only be mastered trom the historical data concerning the formulation of the charter and its international practice after the founding of the United Nations.

“国内管辖事件”,既关系到国家主权 ,也关系到国际法调整的领域。正确理解“国内管辖事件”的范围 ,对于维护国际和平与国家稳定具有重要的意义。至于《联合国宪章》第二条第七款所规定的 :不干涉“在本质上属于任何国家国内管辖之事件”的精神实质 ,只有从宪章制订过程中的历史资料和联合国成立后的国际实践中才能获取正确的答案

 
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