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water
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  水分
    Mapping and Expression Analysis of Genes for Root Development in Rice(Oryza sativa L.) Under Different Water Supply
    不同水分条件下水稻根系发生发育相关基因的定位及表达分析
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    Effects and Mechanisms of Elevated Atmospheric CO_2 and Temperature on Water and Nutrient Use in Wheat
    CO_2浓度和气温升高对小麦水分养分利用的效应和机制研究
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    Growth and Development and Expression Analysis of Genes in Different Upland Rice Roots under Water Deficit
    水分亏缺条件下旱稻根系发生发育及相关基因的表达分析
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    Effect of Intercropping on Nitrogen and Water Use
    间作对氮素和水分利用的影响
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    QTLs and Candidate Genes Mapping for Rice Root Traits and Comparative Analysis under Different Water Supply Conditions
    不同水分条件下水稻根系性状QTLs的比较定位和候选基因分析
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  水资源
    The Reasonable Structural Model of Agricuttural Production for Water Use at Donghai County
    东海县合理利用水资源的农业生产结构模式
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    Food security and water shortage are two major challenges in China.
    粮食与水资源安全是全球关注的重大问题,干旱已成为我国粮食减产的主要原因。
    Providing foundation for making scientific irrigation treatments and heightening the water use rate, the advantage of artificial neural network and wavelet analysis is integrated to establish a Wavelet neural network model of predicting amount of water required of rice.
    结合BP网络和小波分析的优势,建立一种水稻需水量预测的小波BP网络模型,旨在准确预测水稻需水量,为制定合理的灌溉制度、提高水资源的利用效率提供重要依据。
    The Study on Alfalfa Planting Benefit and Countermeasure of Alfalfa Industry Development under Water Resource Scarcity Condition in Northwestern Area of China
    西北地区水资源紧缺条件下苜蓿种植效益及苜蓿产业发展对策研究
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    Shortage of water resources restricted agricultural production in arid and semiarid region.
    水资源紧缺限制了干旱半干旱地区农业生产。
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  供水
    Effects of Supplementary Water Supply on Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Arid Areas
    补充供水对干旱地区小麦产量和水分利用效率的影响
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    Mathematic Models for Relationship of Yield to Water Supply and Planting Density of Winter Wheat
    冬小麦供水和种植密度与产量关系的数学模型
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    The Relationship Between Water Supplying Depth and Root System Development of Minter Wheat
    供水深度与冬小麦根系发育的关系
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    Effect of water supply from deep soil on dry matter production of winter wheat.
    土壤深层供水对冬小麦干物质生产的影响
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    The yields of maize with deep using SAP treatment were 20. 6% and 74.9% higher than that of control under high and low water conditions, and WUE raised 30.2% and 89.0% respectively.
    深施保水剂在充分供水和渐进干旱下较对照提高玉米产量20.6%和74.9%,提高WUE为30.2%和89.0%;
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  “water”译为未确定词的双语例句
    The Effect of Water and Fertilizer on Crop Production and Its Physiological Mechanism
    农田水肥效应及其生理机制研究
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    Characteristics of Soil Temperature and Soil Water for Winter Wheat with No-tillage and Effect on Winter Wheat Growth in North China Plain
    华北平原免耕冬小麦田土壤水热特征及其对冬小麦生长发育影响研究
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    Coupling Effects of Water and Fertilizer on Seed Yield and the Yield Performance of 6 Grasses Species
    水肥耦合对6种禾本科牧草种子产量和生产性能的效应
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    Study on Ridge Cultivation and Matching Combined Minimum Tillage Implements for Soil Water Storage and Preservation in Northeastern China
    东北垄作蓄水保墒耕作技术及其配套的联合少耕机具研究
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    A Comparative Study between Sorghum and Maize on the Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Water Stress Resistance
    高粱、玉米苗期抗旱生理与分子机制的比较研究
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  water
The water-soluble glucan was obtained from Pleurotus florida fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE cellulose dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration.
      
Water and methanol extracts prepared from the stem of C.
      
Berberine present in the water and methanol extract was determined by RP-HPLC.
      
Methanol extracts demonstrated better inhibitory effects on cultured L929 cells followed by purified berberine from cell suspension cultures and water extracts.
      
The rolling development model of ecological economy combined water conservancy construction with schistosomiasis control
      
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For the study of the influence of oxidation-reduction conditions of thesoil on the growth of rice plant,pot experiments with three paddy soilswere conducted.The used soils included an acid paddy soil derived from quartiary red clay,an acid mountain paddy soil derived from granite anda neutral alluvial paddy soil.It was found that the application of green manure just before plantingin amount equivalent to 1% of the soil led to the retardation of growth ofrice as compared with the control treatment;dry weights...

For the study of the influence of oxidation-reduction conditions of thesoil on the growth of rice plant,pot experiments with three paddy soilswere conducted.The used soils included an acid paddy soil derived from quartiary red clay,an acid mountain paddy soil derived from granite anda neutral alluvial paddy soil.It was found that the application of green manure just before plantingin amount equivalent to 1% of the soil led to the retardation of growth ofrice as compared with the control treatment;dry weights of tops of riceplant amounted to only 78%,22% and 45% respectively of the controls forthe three soils.The difference in growth between the two treatments wasmost remarkable in the early period of plant growth.If the green manurehad been decomposed for one month in pot under semi-aerobic conditionsbefore planting,then the unfavorable effect could be noted only in theneutral alluvial paddy soil which contained a relatively larger amount oforganic matter.The improvement of oxidation-reduction conditions of the soil by inter-mittent applications of hydrogen peroxide and keeping the soil moisturecontent at a level of about 50—70% of water-holding capacity instead ofwaterlogging improved plant growth in soils with intensive reductionprocesses,the effect being most conspicuous in the acid mountain paddysoil where the unfavorable effect of green manure was also most remark-able.Measurements of oxidation-reduction potentials of leaves and stalks ofrice showed that the potentials were lowest when grown in pots with greenmanure,and were highest when hydrogen peroxide had been applied intothe soil.There was also a rough correlation between potentials determinedwith platinum electrode and with quinhydrone electrode,thus indicatingthat the redox systems of rice plant when grown under different oxidation-reduction conditions were not the same both expressed as intensity factor(redox potential)or as quantity factor(the change in redox potential ofquinhydrone).For the purpose of explaining the unfavorable effect of intensively re-duced conditions of the soil on the growth of rice plant,it was noted thatthere was a parallelism between the amounts of exchangeable and water-soluble ferrous iron of the soil and the magnitudes of unfavorable effect.Further pot experiment confirmed this supposition,in which the applicationof ferrous sulfate in amount of 50 mg.iron per 100 grams of soil alreadyled to the retardation of growth of rice.Conclusions were made that the unfavorable effect of reduction condi-tions of paddy soils on the growth of rice was due to the excessive amountof reduced materials,in which ferrous iron probably occuppied an out-standing position,and measures leading to the improvement of oxidation-reduction conditions of the soil could overcome this unfavorable effect.

1.土壤处于强烈的还原条件下时,对水稻生长有不良的影响,如果将土壤中的氧化还原条件改善,则对水稻的生长有益。2.土壤中的氧化还原情况,直接影响水稻体中的氧化还原电位,土壤电位低者,水稻中的电位也低。3.土壤中还原性物质的数量与水稻生长情况表现了明显的一致性,可见水稻在强烈还原条件下的生长不良,与还原性物质的过多有关。在还原性物质中,亚铁离子约占一半左右。4.试验结果指明,土壤中过多的亚铁离子,对水稻有毒害作用。

For the purpose of comparing the relative effect of various farm manures,field experimentswere carried out for four years at Nanking on a paddy soil;containing organic matter 1.5%,deri-ved from yellowish brown earth.The adsorption of nitrogen by one harvest of rice plant of the medium ripening variety was22—27% for rape-seed cake,17% for green manure,15% for water-logged compost,13% forstable manure,and 4.6—6% for pond mud.For rice of the early ripening variety,the percentageadsorption of nitrogen was...

For the purpose of comparing the relative effect of various farm manures,field experimentswere carried out for four years at Nanking on a paddy soil;containing organic matter 1.5%,deri-ved from yellowish brown earth.The adsorption of nitrogen by one harvest of rice plant of the medium ripening variety was22—27% for rape-seed cake,17% for green manure,15% for water-logged compost,13% forstable manure,and 4.6—6% for pond mud.For rice of the early ripening variety,the percentageadsorption of nitrogen was 30%,20%,7.3% and 5.7% for the green manure,water-loggedcompost,mixed stable manure of cattle and swine,and grass compost respectively.On the basis of relative effect of various manures on the yield of rice,it was calculated that1 kg N of stable manure was equivalent to 0.45 kg N of rape-seed cake,0.55 kg N of greenmanure,0.7 kg N of water-logged compost,and 2.1—2.5 kg N of pond mud.For rice of theearly ripening variety,1 kg N of stable manure was equivalent to 0.38 kg N of gree manure,0.49 kg N of water-logged compost,and 1.19 kg N of grass compost.The liberation of nitrogen from manures proceeded most rapidly for the green manure,rape-seed cake entering the second and then water-logged compost.The liberation of nitrogen fromthe pond mud was so slow that it could hardly be distinguished from the controll treatment.Attention must pay to use nitrogen fertilizers as top-dressing when large amount of green manurehad be applied in order to prevent the lodging of rice plant,and on the contrary the applicationof top-dressing was essential when pond mud was used as the basic dressings.

本试验(自1956—1959年)在南京黄褐色母质发育的水稻土(有机质1.5%,全N0.086%,速效P_2O_5 0.008%,速效K_2O 0.0178%)上进行。1.各农肥的肥效如下:(1)氮素肥效折合率约为:中稻:堆(?)肥1斤N(?)菜饼0.45斤N(?)绿肥0.55斤N(?)草塘泥0.7斤N(?)塘泥2.1—2.5斤N。早稻:猪牛(?)肥1斤N(?)绿肥0.38斤N(?)草塘泥0.49斤N(?)青草堆肥1.15斤N。(2)对水稻的氮素吸收利用率约为:中稻:菜饼22—27%,草塘泥15%,绿肥17%,堆(?)肥13%,塘泥4.6—6%。早稻:绿肥30%,草塘泥20%,猪牛(?)肥7.25%,青草堆肥5.7%。2.各农肥在水田中自6月中旬至9月上旬,NH_4-N 的释放量以绿肥最快最大,菜饼的分解速率仅次于绿肥,但在施肥一个半月后释放量达到最高峯。草塘泥兼有迟速效特性,释放速率及释放量都比较平稳,不象绿肥那样猛发,又比堆(?)肥速效成份高,比河泥养分释放快。堆(?)肥释放情况介于草塘泥与河泥之间,后期分解量较高。河泥释放量最差,有时几和对照相近。此外,土壤分析结果指出:在种中熟籼稻的土壤中NH_4-N ...

本试验(自1956—1959年)在南京黄褐色母质发育的水稻土(有机质1.5%,全N0.086%,速效P_2O_5 0.008%,速效K_2O 0.0178%)上进行。1.各农肥的肥效如下:(1)氮素肥效折合率约为:中稻:堆(?)肥1斤N(?)菜饼0.45斤N(?)绿肥0.55斤N(?)草塘泥0.7斤N(?)塘泥2.1—2.5斤N。早稻:猪牛(?)肥1斤N(?)绿肥0.38斤N(?)草塘泥0.49斤N(?)青草堆肥1.15斤N。(2)对水稻的氮素吸收利用率约为:中稻:菜饼22—27%,草塘泥15%,绿肥17%,堆(?)肥13%,塘泥4.6—6%。早稻:绿肥30%,草塘泥20%,猪牛(?)肥7.25%,青草堆肥5.7%。2.各农肥在水田中自6月中旬至9月上旬,NH_4-N 的释放量以绿肥最快最大,菜饼的分解速率仅次于绿肥,但在施肥一个半月后释放量达到最高峯。草塘泥兼有迟速效特性,释放速率及释放量都比较平稳,不象绿肥那样猛发,又比堆(?)肥速效成份高,比河泥养分释放快。堆(?)肥释放情况介于草塘泥与河泥之间,后期分解量较高。河泥释放量最差,有时几和对照相近。此外,土壤分析结果指出:在种中熟籼稻的土壤中NH_4-N 在10微克/克土(ppm)以下似难被利用(图1)。3.就植株氮素吸收利用及生长情况可看出:施用绿肥对中稻的营养生长有特别促进作用。如施用量稍多,就会引起先期猛发,徒长茎叶,增加草谷比例,产量并不能提高,因此施绿肥时,配合速效氮肥做面肥或施追肥时应特别注意,在绿肥用量较高时,再用速效氮肥往往有害无益。如直接施用绿肥,则施用量不宜过多,耕翻时也要适当提早,速效肥要看苗施用。草塘泥性平稳,用做基肥时,配合少量化学氮肥做面肥及穗肥均可进一步提高产量。堆(?)肥与河泥性质慢,不论施用于中稻或早稻,均必须增施速效肥料,不然肥效很低。早稻生长初期气温低,农肥养分释放慢,同时早稻生长期短,插秧后20天即进入幼穗分化期,因此分解较快的绿肥,及含速效氮较多的草塘泥用做早稻基肥,效果更为显著。所有农肥增施了速效氮肥做面肥及追肥都有良好增产效果,其中分解愈慢的农肥效果愈大。例如绿肥及草塘泥增施速效氮肥后产量增加48.3%及43.2%,N 素吸收利用率增加1倍及8成,而青草堆肥配合速效氮肥时,产量增加85%,N 素吸收利用率提高近四倍(表13)。4.各农肥单独施用做早稻基肥时,植株每日氮素吸收量皆以抽穗期为最多,若增施速效N 肥后,则每日氮素吸收量最多时期均由抽穗期提前至幼穗分化期,同时产量也显著提高(表5)。

Photophosphorylation of isolated chloroplasts mediated by phenazine methosulphate(PMS) menadione bisulphite(Vit. K), flavinmononucleotide(FMN) as well as by ferricyanide[Fe(CN)_6] and its coupled Hill reaction was studied in flashing light. Natural sunlight focused by convex lenses to an intensity of about 300,000lux and intercepted by a rotating disc was used as the flashing source(Fig. 1). Chloroplasts were prepared from young leaves of water-cultured wheat seedlings as described earlier. ATP was measured...

Photophosphorylation of isolated chloroplasts mediated by phenazine methosulphate(PMS) menadione bisulphite(Vit. K), flavinmononucleotide(FMN) as well as by ferricyanide[Fe(CN)_6] and its coupled Hill reaction was studied in flashing light. Natural sunlight focused by convex lenses to an intensity of about 300,000lux and intercepted by a rotating disc was used as the flashing source(Fig. 1). Chloroplasts were prepared from young leaves of water-cultured wheat seedlings as described earlier. ATP was measured as ~(32)P incorporated by the method of Nielsen and Lehninger.With flashes of 1 millisecond, the yield per flash increases with, the length of the dark time up to a maximum. The maximum dark time for the Vit. K and Fe(CN)_6 coupled Hill reaction is 0.05-0.07 sec at 10-20℃(Fig. 2, 3 & 4). For PMS, the maximum dark time is 0.03 sec(Fig. 2). Higher temperature shortens the dark time in both Vit. K and PMS systems. The maximum yield per flash is higher in the Vit. K system than with PMS. Yield per flash increases with temperature(Fig. 2).o-Phenanthroline(3×10~(-5)M) inhibits the dark reaction in both systems to a similar extent. The maximum yield per flash is inhibited by about 85% in the Vit. K system and only 40% in the PMS system. sThe similarity of the dark time requirement of the photophosphorylation mediated by Vit. K, FMN, Fe(CN)_6 and its coupled Hill reaction to that of photosynthesis indicates that the limiting reaction is perhaps common to all, involving the photosynthetic electron-carrier chain, including the participation of molecular oxygen. The short dark in(?)erval required by the PMS system as well as its different response to o-phenanthroline shows that PMS mediates a different pathway probably a"short cut".Further investigations on the dependence of yield on the flash duration and its relation to temperature, cofactors and inhibitors will be reported in a succeeding paper.

1.在1×10~(-3)秒強閃光下,Vit K,FMN及Fe(CN)_6~≡偶联的光合磷酸化的每閃产量达到最高所需的暗时間相等,在10—20度时为0.05—0.07秒。这与光合作用及希尔反应的暗反应速度相似。而循环光合磷酸化所需的暗时間却要短1—2倍。2.Vit K所导致的光合磷酸化的最高每閃产量高于PMS系統,且都受温度及閃时长短的影响。3.Vit K系統的最高每閃产量被3×10~(-5)二氮杂菲抑制了85%,而PMS系統則仅抑制40%。两系統的暗反应都受到程度相近的抑制。4.文章討論了PMS及Vit K系統途径的差异与暗反应速度之間的关系。

 
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