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heat
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  供热
    THE EXERGY ANALYSIS FOR SOME HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND THE DISCUSSION OF POTENTIAL FOR SAVING ENERGY
    几种供热系统(火用)分析与节能潜力探讨
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    A Study on the Economic Effect of Heat Supply System with 2×200MW Nuclear Heat Supply Reactor
    2×200MW核供热供热系统经济性问题探讨
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    CALCULATION OF WATER-WATER MIXING HEAT EXCHANGER USED IN HOT WATER BOILER
    集中供热热水锅炉用轴向式水-水混合式加热器的计算方法
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    Discussion on an Experimental Method of Plate Heat Exchanger for Heating
    供热用板式换热器的热工性能实验方法的探讨
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    Insulating and saving energy of heat feed pipeline
    供热管路的保温与节能
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  “heat”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of Air-Source Heat Pump Units
    空气源热泵机组动态特性及性能改进研究
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    Modeling and Simulation for Ground Source Heat Pumps System
    地源热泵系统模型与仿真
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    Theoretical and Experimental Study on Capacity-Controllable Heat Pump System with Mixed Refrigerants
    混合工质变容量热泵系统的理论与实验研究
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    Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Study on Impact of UHI on Building HAVC Energy Consumption
    城市热岛效应分析及其对建筑空调采暖能耗影响的研究
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    Study on the Methods of Modeling and Simulating for Heat Exchanger in Refrigeration System
    制冷系统换热器建模与仿真方法研究
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  heat
As applications, the wave equation on?+ × ?+ and the heat equation in a semi-infinite rod are considered in detail.
      
In a much cited article, Yau [5] proved that when the Ricci curvature is bounded uniformly below, then the only bounded solution to the heat equation ?tμ=Δμ on [0, ∞) × M which vanishes at t=0 is the one which vanishes evarywhere.
      
Well-posedness of a semilinear heat equation with weak initial data
      
In the first part the initial value problem (IVP) of the semilinear heat equation with initial data in is studied.
      
For the analogs of the heat and wave equation, we give algorithms for approximating the solution, and display the results of implementing these algorithms.
      
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The simplified Coal characteristic Coefficient β' = 2.35, as proposed in author's two previous papers to ho used with Vr for coal classification, has been for the first time repeatedly proved as shown in many graphs (Fig. 2-Fig 9) to represent (a) the foundamental characteristics of coal, like caking property, heating value, plastic layer thickness. etc. (b) the quality of the side Chain of the coal crystal (c) the percentage proportion of vitrain composition with respect to the other constitutents in...

The simplified Coal characteristic Coefficient β' = 2.35, as proposed in author's two previous papers to ho used with Vr for coal classification, has been for the first time repeatedly proved as shown in many graphs (Fig. 2-Fig 9) to represent (a) the foundamental characteristics of coal, like caking property, heating value, plastic layer thickness. etc. (b) the quality of the side Chain of the coal crystal (c) the percentage proportion of vitrain composition with respect to the other constitutents in petrographic components, during the different stages of coalification. (2) The simplified coal characteristic coefficient β' can be used to substitute the free swelling index, Roga number L.R. and the plastic layer thickness y etc in the coal classification of type together with the volatile matter on combustible basis VP for the coal classification of rank. (graph 10-graph 16) (3) Besides the VP and β' coal classification system,(Fig - 18), Carbon content on combustible basis CP with the free hydrogen H°= (HP=)for coal classification (Fig-23), VP vervus classification (Fig.-24), VP versus H°(Fig. -25) and VP versus (Fig-26) coal classification are also proposed. Comparisons of the different systems are made with the conclusion of adopting VP versus β' as the most logical system. (4) In the VP versus β' graph; the plastic layer thickness y curves (Fig.-27) represent the the rate of vitrinification during the different stages of coalification due to the different constituents of principal peat-forming plant substances. So a new international three-parameter coal classification system is proposed with the volatile matter on combustible basis VP as the first parameter and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient β' as the second principal parameter with the thickness of plastic layer y in mm as the third parameter. (Fig-28)

(1)简化特性系数β’=2.35代表着煤的分子结构中侧链的本质,而纯燃质挥发分 VP代表着煤的原始物质中侧链与核心部分的相对数量. (2)简化特性系β',即自由氢碳比率函数,是煤岩成分比例不同的标志;角质类和不透明质与透明基质数量的相对比例的标志;是镜煤质与非镜煤质含量相对数值比例的标志,亦即是镜煤化程度的标志。 (3)简化特性系β'反映了煤的特性,焦油产率,炼焦性质,胶层厚度,发热量及碳含量,氢含量,氧含量等,并有充分的证明。 (4)简化特性系β’揭露了近百年来国际间对於煤的特性的秘密,而是国际上有最完善的理论根据的分类指标。 (5)因此,作者建议(a)用VP及β’来作为中国煤工艺技术分类指标(6)用VP,β'与y作为国际煤分类指标,其中 厚度y,根据作者的见解,代表着煤在碳化过程中,凝 化的速度的标志。

This paper describes briefly the world current practices on high quality large dam concrete. In gravity dam, the maximum compressive stress is relatively low and the strength of the concrete is mainly determined by the lowest practicable cement content. Durability is most important for dam concrete. The use of moderate heat cement, fly ash as pozzolan, air entraining agent and water reducing agent to improve the workability and durability of concrete are the successful practices on mass concrete. Recently,...

This paper describes briefly the world current practices on high quality large dam concrete. In gravity dam, the maximum compressive stress is relatively low and the strength of the concrete is mainly determined by the lowest practicable cement content. Durability is most important for dam concrete. The use of moderate heat cement, fly ash as pozzolan, air entraining agent and water reducing agent to improve the workability and durability of concrete are the successful practices on mass concrete. Recently, greater care is being taken in sand manufacture and its gradation control. Rod mill and hydraulic separating equipment arc usually used for this purpose. With the improvements in concrete placing, spreading, vibrating equipments and the development of admixtures, dry consistency concrete has been used for dams extensively in some countries. Particular careful attention must be paid to quality control and temperature regulation of large dam concrete in order to secure high quality concrete and to prevent cracking in it.

本文综述了关于大坝混凝土的经验.在重力坝中,混礙土的强度实际上一般决定于实际可能的最低水泥用量,而不是决定于设计应力.混凝土的耐久性得到了普遍重视.近来有不少工程采用了粉煤灰作为混合材料。随着施工设备的改进,有些国家采用了低流态混凝土浇筑混凝土坝.为提高混凝土坝的质量,加强了溫度控制和质量控制.

In this paper, different from the thermal efficiency consideration as reported in the recent literatures (1, 2, 3, ), an exergy analysis of the ordinary solar thermal power system is presented. It is found that the exergy loss is predominant in evaporator of the system. A way of "sectional matching" is thus suggested to minimize the loss of available energy due to heat transfer temperature drop. The exergy efficiencies of the solar collectors and the second loop system are discussed in detail. The numerical...

In this paper, different from the thermal efficiency consideration as reported in the recent literatures (1, 2, 3, ), an exergy analysis of the ordinary solar thermal power system is presented. It is found that the exergy loss is predominant in evaporator of the system. A way of "sectional matching" is thus suggested to minimize the loss of available energy due to heat transfer temperature drop. The exergy efficiencies of the solar collectors and the second loop system are discussed in detail. The numerical comparison with the data of reference (1) is given. It is shown, by adoption of sectional matching, not only the exergy efficiency of the second loop system can be increased, but also the collectors can be operated in even more preferable temperature ranges, so that the exergy efficiency of the whole system could be increased about 10-25%, while the total surface area required for the collectors decreased 10-25% correspondingly, and thence the capital cost of solar thermal power system could be reduced by 6-13%. Various factors have been discussed. Principles of selecting the main parameters of the sectional matching system have been given finally.

近年来有些文献[1,2,3]从热效率的角度讨论了常规太阳能动力装置的经济性,本文则与此不同,分析了它们的效率,从中发现蒸发器的损失在二次系统中是主要的。为此建议了一种“分段匹配”方式,以减少由于传热温差引起的可用能损失。本文详细讨论了这种装置的集热器和二次系统的效率,并与文献[1]的数据进行了计算比较。计算表明,由于采用分段匹配方式后,不仅二次系统的效率可以得到提高,而且还能使集热器在较合适的温度范围下工作,因而使整个太阳能动力装置的效率较常规方式的可以提高10%~25%,集热器面积相对减少10%~25%,设备投资相对减少6%~13%。本文还讨论了各种影响因素。最后给出了分段匹配时一些主要参数的选择原则。

 
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