The basic transformation of meaning occurs at the level of deep structures of the two languages with clauses as the operational unit,while the generation of the surface structure in the target language is determined not only by the grammar and the comparative rhetoric features of the target language,but also by the semantic strctures of the sentences at the surface structure level in the source language.
Facsimile of culture refers to the basic criterion of translation, one which requires that the meaning, form and style of the source language be precisely expressed in the translation from the angle culture.
A coding is provided, whose source language is synchronous pi-calculus including match operator, fully replicated operator, input and output prefixes while the asynchronous pi-calculus as the target language contains lazy replicated operator, input prefix and output message.
while foreignization is source-language-culture-biased and it helps the target language readers to fully appreciate the special source language culture and enriches the target language, but it may hinder the target readers understanding when the source language terms are too unique to understand.
Generally speaking, there are two principal strategies to deal with culture involved in translation, namely, TL (target language) culture-oriented domestication and SL (source language) culture-oriented foreignization.
Nowadays, there are two familiar translation methods:foreignizing method which takes source language culture as a result and domesticating method which takes target language culture as a result. The question of which method is better depends on specific language environment and purpose of translators.
A certifying compiler takes a source language program and produces object code, as well as a "certificate" that can be used to verify that the object code satisfies desirable properties, such as type safety and memory safety.
Source language constructs are transformed into specialized object classes.
The algebraic specifications for a model checker define the logic source language, the target language representing sets of states in a model, and the embedding of the source language into the target language.
The construction of a compiler for the NEDIS high-level simulation language is based on the reduction of the main parser algorithm by splitting the source language grammar into a set of subgrammars that allow application of classical parsing methods.
Given two translation examples, the similar parts of the sentences in the source language must correspond to the similar parts of the sentences in the target language.