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escaping from
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The spectral radiuses of Galton-Watson branching processes which describes the speed of the process escaping from any state are calculated.
      
Structure of the flow of gas escaping from a gap in a pipeline
      
A study is made of the two-dimensional steady flow of gas escaping from a circular gap formed when the ends of pipes move apart along their common symmetry axis.
      
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A study is made of the influence of heat transfer on the dynamical characteristics of gas escaping from the cavity of an underground explosion.
      
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1. All kinds of colonies of Volvox africanus were found in great abundance during the first two weeks of May, 1933, from a pond in Nanking.2. The smallest colony is much smaller than that recorded from Africa and the Philippine Islands.3. The somatic cells are not connected by protoplasmic filaments in adult colonies.4. Asexual colony usually contains from two to six daughters symmetrically arranged in pairs according to size on opposite sides of the polar axis.5. Sexual colonies of different kinds are developed...

1. All kinds of colonies of Volvox africanus were found in great abundance during the first two weeks of May, 1933, from a pond in Nanking.2. The smallest colony is much smaller than that recorded from Africa and the Philippine Islands.3. The somatic cells are not connected by protoplasmic filaments in adult colonies.4. Asexual colony usually contains from two to six daughters symmetrically arranged in pairs according to size on opposite sides of the polar axis.5. Sexual colonies of different kinds are developed from the asexual mother either singly or in combination with other kinds and asexual daughters.6. Parthenogonidia develope very early in young embryos long before the latter become matured and escaped from the mother colony. 7. During the early development of parthenogonidia, at least from first to fifth or sixth divisions, no growth of the whole embryo takes the place while the number of cells increases.8. Spermatogonia attain fully-grown size and begin to divide before the time of the birth of the colony.9. The development of spermatogonium consists of seven successive divisions in forming a bundle or platelet of one hundred and twenty eight spermatozoa or microgametes.10. The number of ovaries in a female colony varies from twelve to fourty six. Generally, the larger the colony, the more the ovaries developed.11. Risexual colonies contain only two or three spermatogonia in addition to fourteen to twenty seven ovaries.12. In general, specimens recorded in Nanking are identical to those from the tropical regions such as Africa and the Philippine Islands.

關於菲洲團走子之分佈,按記載所及。僅限於菲洲,菲列濱,南印度等熱带區域。今在南京發現,於地理分佈上實為一新記錄。此種團走子在羣體成熟之後,其體質细胞間,並無原生質線交相聯絡。無性羣體每含有二至六大小不同成對均置之無性幼羣體。幼羣體在脫離母體以前,往往含有第二代幼體。各種有性羣體,亦自無性母羣體中發達而成。雄性羣體,皆为橢圓形,而較其他羣體為小。雌性羣體中之卵或大配子约有十二至四十六。雙性羣體只含有二或三精原细胞,及十五至二十七卵或大配子。孤性生殖细胞在幼羣體内即發生。當最初五或六次分裂時,细胞雖增加,而幼胎並不長大。精原细胞经七次連續之均等分裂,而成一束一百二十八精子或小配子。

Rapana pecheliensis,being amongst the largest rachigloseans found on the north coast of our country,is of high value in fishery.Tehang-Si described the general features aud the form of egg capsule of this snail in 1936 and 1955 respectively,but its life history so far is known,has escaped investi- gation.The present paper is to report the reproduction and embryonic development of this animal and tends to give a closer comparison in these respects between it and other rachiglossans ever studied.In the past...

Rapana pecheliensis,being amongst the largest rachigloseans found on the north coast of our country,is of high value in fishery.Tehang-Si described the general features aud the form of egg capsule of this snail in 1936 and 1955 respectively,but its life history so far is known,has escaped investi- gation.The present paper is to report the reproduction and embryonic development of this animal and tends to give a closer comparison in these respects between it and other rachiglossans ever studied.In the past four years,in addition to the trac ment of cell lineage and of morphogenetic process of embryonic stages data bearing upon the breeding season,sexual activities and spawning habit were collected.The breeding season of R.pecheliensis,like that of its sister species,R.thornasiana,lasted from the begining of June almost to the middle of August.Nevertheless this period eeemed to be affected by changes of temperature.During spawning,groups of eggs,after being fertilized one after another in a chamber just posterior to the pallial oviduct,were extruded into the latter where they became encapsulated.In the whole lumen of this duct of a female with her shell over 7.6 m.m.in height,usually no lees than two to three capsules being in formation might be found at a time,the larger and more complete one being nearer to its exit.Examinations of new-laid capsules did not reveal nurse eggs which had been found in other rachiglossans such as Purpura,Buccinum and Fasiolaria.All eggs within a capsule began to segment after the capsule was laid at temperature ranging from 21.0° to 26.5℃.The shape of blastomeres together with yolk lobe resulting from the first cleavage or the second one and the relation of cleavage plans in the later stage appeared identical completely with that of R.thomasiana,Nassa mutabilie and N.reticulatus,bnt somewhat different from that of Purpura lapillus,though in later stages of cleavage all these snails expressed an uniformity specially in the pattern of arrangement of blastomeres.Tbe presence of the yolk lobe in the first cleavage of R.pecheliensis had resulted in the formation of a trefoil btage which was very similar to that occured in the development of Ilyanassa and Dentalium.The only difference between them lies in the manner of movement by which the yolk lobe was formed.In R.pechelieusis,the yolk lobe appeared as soon as the blastomeres AB and CD were constricted off from its animal pole,while in the other two,this structure came off entirely from the vegetal pole of the egg.As cleavage proceeded a blastoderm cap came into view and when it covered three seventh of the surface of the yolk cell 4D epibolic gastrulation took place.Before the closing of the blaetopore the endoderm cells 4A.4B.and 4C.divided repeatedly to form the ventral lip of the pore.This and the delay of their becoming invested by the ectoderm cells showed that the cleavage of R.pechelienc-is was in some degree alike a meroblastic type,mostly due to the concentrating up of the yolk into 4D.Within the capsule embryos passed through a veliger stage.It was about four to five weeks from the time the ova were laid until the fully formed veligers escaped from the capsule.The organogenesis in the veliger stage of R.pecheliensis closely resembled that of Nassa reticulatus.During or just after hatching the rudiments of the osphradium,gill filaments,and heart had not yet appeared,to say nothing of that of sexual organs.

1、强棘红螺的产卵期与红螺Rapana thomasiana者相同,是在每年6——8月。产卵盛季在7月下半月。产卵时所需水温为20°—26℃,最适宜水温为23°—25℃ 。 2、雌雄成体螺于产卵前1——2日先进行交配。参加交配的两个体并元身体大小的比例关系。作者于1954年7月曾在青岛水族馆发现一雌性强棘红螺与一雄性红螺进行交配,但未能观察其产卵与胚胎发育。此种杂种交配的情况过去尚无人报告。从能够进行交配以及在生殖、产卵、和卵子发育方面的相似来看,上述两种红螺的种间关系值得重新加以研究。 3、于生殖季节内,雌螺多在黎明前后开始产卵,少数在下午或其他时间开始产卵。在正常情况下,成体螺一次将卵产完,但产卵历时长短(一般为1——2月)和卵袋产出数目多寡,均与雌螺大小成正比关系。最小而能够产卵的雌螺的壳高为50毫米。 4、在产卵期间,每一母体的输卵管外套段内有1——2个卵袋同时在形成着。由同一母体所产出的卵袋,以产出的先后不同,而有不同长度,先产者较短,后产者较长。同时由于此长度的不同,各卵袋中所含卵子数量又有多寡之分。不过,尽管有上述各种不同,但同一袋内所有卵子均可进行分割并发育为幼虫。 5、强棘红螺卵子早期分割的...

1、强棘红螺的产卵期与红螺Rapana thomasiana者相同,是在每年6——8月。产卵盛季在7月下半月。产卵时所需水温为20°—26℃,最适宜水温为23°—25℃ 。 2、雌雄成体螺于产卵前1——2日先进行交配。参加交配的两个体并元身体大小的比例关系。作者于1954年7月曾在青岛水族馆发现一雌性强棘红螺与一雄性红螺进行交配,但未能观察其产卵与胚胎发育。此种杂种交配的情况过去尚无人报告。从能够进行交配以及在生殖、产卵、和卵子发育方面的相似来看,上述两种红螺的种间关系值得重新加以研究。 3、于生殖季节内,雌螺多在黎明前后开始产卵,少数在下午或其他时间开始产卵。在正常情况下,成体螺一次将卵产完,但产卵历时长短(一般为1——2月)和卵袋产出数目多寡,均与雌螺大小成正比关系。最小而能够产卵的雌螺的壳高为50毫米。 4、在产卵期间,每一母体的输卵管外套段内有1——2个卵袋同时在形成着。由同一母体所产出的卵袋,以产出的先后不同,而有不同长度,先产者较短,后产者较长。同时由于此长度的不同,各卵袋中所含卵子数量又有多寡之分。不过,尽管有上述各种不同,但同一袋内所有卵子均可进行分割并发育为幼虫。 5、强棘红螺卵子早期分割的形式,与红螺者完全相同,舆两种织纹螺Nassamutabilis,Nassa reticulatus者?

Headblight of wheat [Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch] is one of the serious wheat diseases in Yangtze Valley. Studies on this disease were carried out in 1952-1963 at Wangting, Kiangsu Province. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The correlation between the climate factors and degree of disease incidence was analysed on the basis of twelve years' records. It seems obvious that the number of rainy days occured during the period from the end of April to the end of May, especially in the first part of...

Headblight of wheat [Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch] is one of the serious wheat diseases in Yangtze Valley. Studies on this disease were carried out in 1952-1963 at Wangting, Kiangsu Province. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The correlation between the climate factors and degree of disease incidence was analysed on the basis of twelve years' records. It seems obvious that the number of rainy days occured during the period from the end of April to the end of May, especially in the first part of May, is a decisive factor for the epiphytotics of the disease. Temperature, although influencing, is not a decisive factor in the epiphytotics. Observations revealed that the ascocarp on the rice stub is the main source of pathogen of the disease in this region. The multiplication and dissemination of the pathogen depend on the amount of rainfall. Based upon an analysis of the twelve years' records, the may be there are six types of disease development to be observed, namely, early-period prevalence, middle-period prevalence, late-period prevalence, incidence being checked by scanty, rainfall by low temperature, and escaping from the disease owing to early heading of wheat. Regression method was used to estimate the effect of rainfall on the epidemic in terms of the percentages of headblight and the number of rainy days during the period from the beginning of flowering to 20 days there after. A regression equation was formulated: Y=6.61x—48.35, where Y=incidence of the disease, and X= number of rainy days. These informations may be utilized in forecasting.

对1952—1963年病害流行程度与穗期气象要素之間的相关性测定結果表明,各年发病程度与4月下旬至5月下旬(小麦抽穗至糊熟)特別是5月上中旬(小麦开花至灌浆初期)的降雨日数、相对湿度呈明显的正相关;与同期的降雨量、平均气温相关不显著。稻桩上产生的子囊壳是本地区初侵染的主要来源,初侵染的数量和流行程度有关,其数量积累决定于雨湿条件。小麦开花灌浆初期最易感病,此时期降雨日数是病害流行的决定性因素。根据十二年資料分析結果,病害流行可以分为六种类型:早期发生型;中期发生型;后期发生型;少雨限制型;低温限制型;生育提早限制型。根据1957—1963年預测圃小麦开花后二旬內的降雨日数与发病率的相关,以发病率为应变量求出迴归方程式:Y=6.61 X—48.35,为中期預測提出雨日指标。

 
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