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     Key to A Software for Collecting Books
     图书采编软件设计的关键技术
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     Multiuser Automatical Management System for Purchasing and Cataloging in Western Language Books
     西文图书采编多用户自动化管理系统
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     Semantic Expression in Books Management DB Design
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     Five Articles of Comment on the Analysis of the Books which Mashiwentong(马氏文通) Quoted
     《马氏文通》引分析指瑕五则
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     MARC description of discs attached to books and their management and utilization
     随附盘的MARC著录与管理利用
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     16 Books That Define America
     定义美国的16本(英文)
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     3. books students should read;
     3、教学生读什么 ;
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     50 students were investigated randomly to analyze books covers' influences to undergraduates' interest of buying.
     为分析籍封面对大学生购兴趣是否有影响,随机选择了50名大学生进行调查。
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     The source of AIDS knowledge was TV(76.3%)>books(56.4%)>special propaganda(46.9%)>broadcast(46.2%)>teaching in class(25.1%)>introduce by schoolmate(22.5%)>else(10.7%).
     大学生艾滋病知识来源为电视(76.3%)>书籍(56.4%)>专门宣传(46.9%)>广播(46.2%)>课堂教育(25.1%)>同学介绍(22.5%)>其他(10.7%)。
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     With the appearance of books, book design will be the inevitable result.
     有了书籍的出现,必然就会有书籍设计艺术(Book Design)的产生。
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     The leading sources for parents' AIDS knowledge were books and magazines (55.5%), television program and broadcast (22.8%) and medical experts (13.2%).
     家长艾滋病性知识来源前 3位的分别为书籍、杂志 (55 .5 % ) ,电视、广播 (2 2 .8% ) ,医学专家 (1 3 .2 % )。
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     Results: Among 345 legal questionnaires, 52.2% got more score of 6. The interviewees got knowledge of reproductive health from newspapers, journals and books accounting for 80.8%, friends for 36%, exhibitions and lectures for 32.5% and Internet for 31.3%.
     结果 :合格表格 345份。 5 2 2 %被调查者生殖健康知识得分超过6分 ,生殖健康知识来源途径为报刊、书籍占 80 8% ,同性朋友 36 % ,科普展览 32 5 % ,互联网 31 3%。
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     DATA SOURCES: A computer-based search of books and papers about self-regulation between January 1995 and August 2005 was conducted in ProQuest Database (Psychology Journals) and CNKI Database between January 1994 and February 2006 with the key words of "self-regulation".
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     Study on the Color Printing Books of the Ming Dynasty
     明代套色印本研究
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     A Study on the Memorial Obituarese in DunHuang Handwritten Books
     敦煌写本祭悼文研究
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     Research on Digitization of Agricultural Ancient Books
     农业古籍数字化整理研究
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     磨芋古称考=Verifieation on chinese names of A.konjac in ancient books/Sun Erhu
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Review of books of problems in analytical chemistry for higher educational institutions
      
The structure and content of main Russian books of problems in analytical chemistry were analyzed.
      
Recommendations are given on the use of previously published books of problems and on the development of new ones.
      
New Books on Chromatography and Analytical Chemistry
      
New Books Sistematicheskie i Sluchainye Pogreshnosti Khimicheskogo Analiza (Systematic and Random Errors in Chemical Analysis),
      
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It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter...

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter of principle, the point of application should never be slighted while the obliquity of the earth pressure could only have a value that is compatible with the conditions for equilibrium. (2) If the point of application of the soil reaction is taken into account in the problem, the sliding wedge would only tend to slide either on the plane of sliding or on the surface of wall but not on both at the same time, thus frustrating the very conceptidn of sliding wedge upon which Coulomb's Theory is founded. (3) The above discrepancies arise from the fact that the shape of the surface of sliding should be curvilinear in order to make the wedge tend to slide as desired, while Coulomb, however, adopted a plane surface instead. (4) Coulomb, in finding the plane of sliding, made use of the maximum earth pressure on the wall (for active pressure), which refers to the different magnitudes of pressure corresponding to different assumed inclinations of the plane of sliding. But from the relation between the yield of wall and amount of pressure, this maximum value is really the minimum pressure on the wall, which it is the purpose of the theory to find. In engineering books, however, this terminology of maximum pressure has caused considerable confusion, with the result that what is really the minimum pressure is carelessly taken as the maximum design load for the wall. How can a minimum load be used in a design?This paper also attempts to clarify some contended points in Rankine's Theory: (1) It is claimed by Prof. Terzaghi that Rankine's Theory is only a fallacy because of the yield of wall and that of the soil mass on its bed. This charge is unjust as it can be compared with Coulomb's Theory in the same respect. (2) Some books declare that Rankine's Theory is good only for walls with vertical back, but it is proved in this paper that this is not so. (3) It is also generally believed that Rankine's Theory is applicable only to wall surfaces with no friction. This is likewise taken by this paper as unfounded and illustration is given whereby, in this regard, Rankine's Theory is even better than Coulomb's, because it contains no contradiction, as does Coulomb's.

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。...

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。(2)有些工程書中認為朗金理論是專為垂直的墙?

Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slope-deflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both time-consuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution...

Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slope-deflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both time-consuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution simplifies calculations to a great extent, as there is no need to solve simultaneous equations, and therefore it has been warmly received bY practical engineers. Many soviet scholars are also devoted to its study. There are, however, defects in this method, namely: (1) Should the moments obtained in the successive cycles of distribution and carrying-over prove to converge very slowly, twenty or more such cycles must be done if fairly accurate results are expected.(2) In the case of analyzing structures under various conditions of loading, while it is possible to find the influence moments by applying a unit moment at each joint as proposed by Prof. Hardy Cross, it would bequite laborious in the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents containing a large number of members, especially when subjected to unsymmetrical loadings.For the remedy of the first defect, such Chinese scholars as Profs. Lin Tung Yen, Chao Tsu Wu, Meng Chao Li and Tsai Fang Yin have made much contribution, and the author of this paper has recently written a discussion on the two papers of the last-mentioned scholar. For the remedy of the second defect, the author is unaware of any except that mentioned below.One of the soviet scholars, Dr. P. P. Shaggin (i.e.) has suggested important improvements with regard to both these defects. For the former, he adopted a method of single-cycle distribution; and for the latter, he invented the method of successive conjugation which greatly reduces the work of calculation in finding the influence moments. The essence of these methods is well-worth studying on the part of our Chinese engineers. After an intensive study, the author of this paper thinks that, while Dr. Shaggin's methods are quite correct in principle, his methods of calculation can still be somewhat improved, as described herein, so as to be made more easily applied in practice.This paper Shaggin based upon the book, (Calculation of Multi-storey Frames by the Method of Successive Conjugation) published in 1954 by Dr. P. P. Shaggin in Leningrad, U. S. S. R., shows that, in applying a unit moment at each joint of a given statically indeterminate structure, one can easily find the influence moments at the ends of all the members, and that, after multiplying the unbalanced fixed-end moments at each joint calculated in accordance with the given external loads, by the respective influence moments, the sum of such products added to the original fixed-end moments will give at once the actual moments at each end of the members in the structure.Three notable improvements are indicated in this paper:(1) Dr. Shaggin's formula (5") on page 11 of his book, has been altered to formulas (3) in this paper. (2) For multi-storey bents, Dr. Shaggin's method of finding the conjugate moments (i. e. the influence moments) by formulas is replaced by the usual method of simple moment-distribution.(3) The author of the paper has extended the method to the analysis of multi-storey and multi-bay bents under any system of unsymmetrical loading.Of course, for structures under a single system of loading, influence moments need not be found and, generally speaking, it would be more convenient to apply the original method of moment-distribution; for a multi-storey bent, it would be better, even in this case, to modify it by applying the method of successive conjugation.The author is of the opinion that the application of the methods described in this paper, being convenient and time-saving, would be useful to the practical engineers.

本文以蘇聯學者沙金博士最近出版之“用逐次互聯法計算多層排架”一書为依據,叙述在已知超靜定結構中每一結點,施以單位力矩,可以很容易地求得各桿端的影響力矩;然後依照其所受外力荷載,求得各結点處的定端力矩,分別乘以相當的影響力矩,相加之後並加以原有的定端力矩,即得各該桿端的實際力矩。若結構承受多種多样的荷載(不問其為豎向的或平向的、對稱的或不對稱的),用此篇所述之方法以推算各桿端力矩,著者認為最便利、最省時,並且適合實際工作者之需要。

A textbook on sewerage and sewage treatment is in preparation. About the Korolkov equations, we have had different understanding. In this paper, the writer sugests the way of representation of these equations in the coming book.

К.Н.柯罗里科夫公式是目前在苏联通用的计算曝气池的公式。三本排水工程教科书和教学参考书中都叙述了这些公式。叙述的方式各各不同,给人的印象也就不同。最近我们在编写排水工程,对某些问题进行了讨论。这里提出关于柯罗里科夫曝气池计算公式的编写方法,希望大家讨论。

 
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