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low temperature     
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  低温
     Fertility Expression and Stability of the Photo- and Thermo-sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Pei'ai 64S under Controlled Low Temperature Conditions
     光温敏核不育水稻培矮64S低温下育性表达及其稳定性研究
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     Photoinhibition of PSI and PSII in Chilling Sensitive Plants and Their Relationship at Low Temperature in the Low Light
     低温弱光条件下喜温植物PSI和PSII的光抑制及其相互关系
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     Low Temperature Plasma Assisted Nitriding of Inconel 690
     低温等离子体辅助Inconel 690渗氮研究
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     PEMOCVD Method with RHEED in Situ Monitoring and Low Temperature Growth of GaN Based Films
     RHEED原位监测的PEMOCVD方法及GaN基薄膜低温生长
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     Study on Low Temperature Resistance of Euonymus Radicans 'Emorald & Gold'
     金边卫矛(Euonymus radicans ‘Emorald & Gold’)低温抗性研究
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  低温下
     BEHAVIOR OF RESISTANCE MINIMUM IN THE (La_(2/3)Ca_(1/3))[Mn_(0.9)Ti_(0.1)]O_3 SYSTEM AT LOW TEMPERATURE
     (La_(2/3)Ca_(1/3))[Mn_(0.9)Ti_(0.1)]O_3低温下的电阻极小值行为
短句来源
     Low Temperature Polarized Absorption Spectra and Fine Structure for Ni ̄(2+) in Trigonal Ni_2CdCl_6.12H_2O Single Crystals
     低温下单晶Ni_2CdCl_6·12H_2O中Ni~(2+)离子偏振吸收谱及精细
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     MAGNETIC PROPERTIES AND SPIN WAVE EXCITATION AT LOW TEMPERATURE FOR AMORPHOUS (Fe_(1-x) Nb_x)_(84.5)B_(15.5)ALLOYS
     非晶态(Fe_(1-x)Nb_x)_(84.5)B_(15.5)合金低温下的磁性和自旋波激发
短句来源
     Powder La2O3, Gd2O3 started to react with NH4HF2 at low temperature, and the products were RENH4F4 (RE=La, Gd), NH4F, NH3 and H2O. RENH4F4 was decomposed to REF3 and NH4F at high temperature, accompanied with the volatilization and decomposition of NH4F.
     粉状La2O3,Gd2O3与NH4HF2在低温下开始反应,产物为RENH4F4(RE=La,Gd),NH4F,NH3和H2O,高温下RENH4F4分解为REF3和NH4F,伴有NH4F的挥发和分解;
短句来源
     RELIABLE OPERATING SCHEME OF LW17-220 AND LW31-252 SF_6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS UNDER LOW TEMPERATURE
     LW17-220及LW31-252 SF_6断路器在低温下可靠运行方案
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  低温度
     Comparison of Magnetic Properties of Sm_(0.8)Re_(0.2)(Co_(bal)Fe_(0.22)Cu_(0.06)Zr_(0.03))_(7.4)(Re=Gd,Er) Sintered Magnets With Low Temperature Coefficient of Open-circuit Flux
     具有低温度系数的Sm_(0.8)Re_(0.2)(Co_(bal)Fe_(0.22)Cu_(0.06)Zr_(0.03))_(7.4)(Re=Gd,Er)两种烧结磁体的磁性能比较
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     Al2O3-Ti aluminide composites reinforced by Nb2O5 were prepared at relatively low temperature by reaction hot-pressing (RHP) method with the exothermic reaction of Al, Ti, TiO2 and Nb2O5 powders.
     采用反应热压(RHP)工艺,利用Ti、Al、TiO2及Nb2O5之间的放热反应,在较低温度下制备了Nb2O5强化Al2O3/TiAl复合材料。
短句来源
     On the Nd-Fe-B Magnet of Low Temperature Coefficient and Its Magnetic Hardening Mechanism
     低温度系数Nd-Fe-B磁体及磁硬化机制的研究
短句来源
     It points out that using hydrothermal method can obtain cubic Pb(TixZr1-x)O3 nano-powders, with the character of good disperse, fine grain, diameter of 0.5~2 mm,in the low temperature(160℃).
     通过研究得出,采用水热法可以在较低温度下(160℃)实现Pb(TixZr1x)O3 四方相纳米粉晶体的合成,其粉体分散性好,颗粒细小,粒径为0.5~2 mm。
短句来源
     The mineralizing f luid shows the characteristics of middle to low temperature (320~100 ℃), middl e mass fraction of NaCl(11.4%~17.0%), weak reduction.
     该矿床成矿流体具有中低温度(320~100℃)、中等NaCl质量分数(114%~170%)、弱还原等特征。
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  温度低
     (2) MoS_2 hollow spheres with diameter of about 200 ~300 nm were synthesized successfully through a solvothermal route using Cyanex 301 as sulfur source and surface modification agent in the mixture of ethanol and distilled water(V:V=3:1) at a low temperature 190 ℃.
     (2)以酸性萃取剂Cyanex 301作为硫源和表面修饰剂,在醇-水混合溶剂(V:V=3:1)中采用溶剂热法,190℃下制备了粒径约200~300nm的MoS_2空心球,与文献比较此方法具有反应温度低,能耗小,条件温和易控制等优点;
短句来源
     One-dimensional nanostructures of metal borate are successfully synthesized viasolution-phase method at low temperature, approximately 700℃~900℃ less thanthat in conventional solid-state reaction.
     提供了一种新的低温液相合成非金属三元氧化物硼酸盐的一维纳米结构的方法,比传统固相反应方法的反应温度低近700°C ~900°C,显示了湿化学合成的优势。
短句来源
     While under the conditions of low temperature and low supersaturation, crysal morphology is mainly column or long column, Surface structure on (1010) forms growth layers, that on (1011) and (0111) forms growth three pyramids, and that on (1121) forms growth layers.
     在温度低、过饱和度小的条件下形成的晶体,晶形以长柱状、柱状为主,(1010)形成水平生长层,(1011)和(0111)形成生长锥,(1121)形成生长层;
短句来源
     Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has may merits such as working in low temperature, being convenient to maintain, low-noise when operated and able to realize no exhaust.
     质子交换膜燃料电池(proton exchange membrane fuel cell,简称PEMFC)具有工作温度低、维护方便、运行噪声低、可实现零排放等优点。
短句来源
     It was shown that fluorite phase can formed at a relative low temperature when Al_2O_3 was doped into SDC. Al_2O_3-SDC powder with fluorite structure can be obtain at 600℃ by calcined the dried gel. The Al_2O_3-SDC powder has a nanometer particle(40~50 nm) with narrow particle size distribution.
     实验研究结果表明,掺杂Al_2O_3的SDC电解质粉体成相温度低,干凝胶在600℃煅烧即可获得均匀的具有萤石结构的粉体,而且粉体的粒度较小(40~50nm),且粒度分布集中,粉末颗粒形貌基本呈球形,具有良好的烧结活性。
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      low temperature
    Nanostructured Bi2Te3 synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical route
          
    Chemical and physical reactions during the low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of nanostructured Bi2Te3 powders were investigated in-situ by pH measurement, color observation of the solution and X-ray diffraction analysis of the powders.
          
    The accelerometer has a high sensitivity of 6.91 kHz/g, a low temperature coefficient, and a simple fabrication process.
          
    The Raman spectra of unintentionally doped gallium nitride (GaN) and Mg-doped GaN films were investigated and compared at room temperature and low temperature.
          
    In a heating-annealing cycle, the environmental temperature is first elevated to a high level and then decreased extremely slowly until a final low temperature T is reached.
          
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    The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second...

    The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second one occursin mid-July and the last in late-August. Due to the lower temperature, theemergence of the first generation need about two months. 2. In day time, the adult is usually inactive, while in windless night,after seven o'clock, it becomes very active and lays eggs mostly on green bollsand calyx. about a week later, the eggs hatch and the newly-hatched larvaeare shortly getting into the bolls. After four days they often eat into theseeds. Ten days later, the lint is so stunted as to become dusky yellow incolor, thus both the yield and the quality of cotton are greatly lowered. Themature larvae appear about half a month after. 3. Field experiments have shown that three dustings of 10% DDT- sulfurpowder were very effective. In the severely damaged cotton area, the thirdspray may be simultaneously done with controlling the cotton leaf-hoppers andthe cotton leaf-rollers. 4. About 84% hibernating larvae in cotton seeds will come out when thecotton exposed in sun light and stored in the farmer's house. Hence it seemsadvisable to put cloth or other soft material covers on the cotton stored inorder to collect and kill the larvae under them. In addition, destruction of allremaining bolls on the cotton stalks, as early as possible in winter is important. 5. For controlling the bollworms in cotton store-houses, the followingresults have been obtained 50% wettable DDT diluted with 20 parts of water,91% of larvae were killed within 30 days; 6.5% 666 (benzene hexachloride)gave a mortality of 63% in four months. Wettable 6.5% 666 diluted withwater (1:100), has been proved to be the most effective ovicide which destroys99.4% of eggs while parathion (E605) also gave a very high mortality at97.7%. But 50% wettable DDT (1:100) Kills eggs at 64.2% and lead arsena-te only 16.2% respectively. 6. There were 39.1% overwintering larvae parasitized by parasitic mitesand wasps. Among them, most are the mite, Pediculoides ventricosus Newport,while the parasitic wasps Eurypterna arakawae Mats. less than 0.5%.

    红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉籽内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.籽花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将籽花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%,砒酸铃最差...

    红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉籽内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.籽花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将籽花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%,砒酸铃最差为16.2%。 6.越冬幼虫被寄生的平均有39.1%,发现天敌有二种,其中绝大多数是榖痒螨(Pediculoides ventricosus

    Creep under very small torsional stress has been investigated for 99.95% polycrystalline iron in the temperature range of 350°-525℃. The general features of the creep curves obtained are essentially the same as those previously reported for 99.991% aluminum. The creep is shown to be consisted of two parts, one occurring at lower temperatures or shorter times and the other at higher temperatures or longer times. The first part of the creep is limited in extent and is associated with the viscous...

    Creep under very small torsional stress has been investigated for 99.95% polycrystalline iron in the temperature range of 350°-525℃. The general features of the creep curves obtained are essentially the same as those previously reported for 99.991% aluminum. The creep is shown to be consisted of two parts, one occurring at lower temperatures or shorter times and the other at higher temperatures or longer times. The first part of the creep is limited in extent and is associated with the viscous behavior of grain boundaries. The activation energy for this grain-boundary creep is 78,000 ± 4,000 calories per mole according to the present creep and stress relaxation measurements. This value is close to the activation energy for self-diffusion of iron, a correlation which indicates that, in so far as to the mechanism of atomic migration is concerned, grain boundaries may not be very different from the interior of the grains.

    用99.95%的多晶纯铁作了从350°-525℃的扭转微蠕变及应力弛豫试验,所得结果的概貌与以前用多晶纯铝所得的基本上相同。从蠕变曲线上可以看出这蠕变是由两部分组成的:第一部分是在较低温度或较短时间内发生的,第二部分是在较高温度或较长时间内发生的。第一部分的蠕变是有限的,是由于晶粒间界的粘滞性滑移所引起。根据微蠕变及应力弛豫测量的结果,这一部分蠕变所包含的激活能是78,000±4,000卡/克分子。这个激活能(晶粒间界滑移激活能)的数值与纯铁自扩散的激活能很相近,表示晶粒间界与晶粒内部对于原子迁移的基本过程而言并没有显著的差异。 加碳于纯铁中对于这两部分的蠕变都有显著的影响。最值得注意的结果是含碳量少到0.0004%时已经使晶粒间界的粘滞性滑移受到显著的阻碍。这些发现在控制金属高温蠕变的问题上指出一个一般性的原则,对于以前所提出来的晶粒间界空穴模型也提供了一些新的实验证据。 根据加碳的实验结果,对于第二部分高温蠕变的机构也提出了一个初步的看法,这蠕变所包括的基本过程可能是晶粒内部的空穴中的原子重新排列。

    The velocities of reaction of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide in dioxane- water mixture have been determined in seven different temperatures(5°,10°, 15°,20°,25°,30°and 35°).For each temperature,the compositions of solvent mixture are 0,5,10,15,20,25 and 30% of dioxane.We thus obtain 49 velo- city constants as summarized in the following table. At low temperatures,the velocity constant decreases slightly with decrease of dielectric constant of solvent.At higher temperatures,such decreases...

    The velocities of reaction of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide in dioxane- water mixture have been determined in seven different temperatures(5°,10°, 15°,20°,25°,30°and 35°).For each temperature,the compositions of solvent mixture are 0,5,10,15,20,25 and 30% of dioxane.We thus obtain 49 velo- city constants as summarized in the following table. At low temperatures,the velocity constant decreases slightly with decrease of dielectric constant of solvent.At higher temperatures,such decreases of k' become more pronounced. The“isocomposition”energy of activation decreases slightly with increase of percentage of dioxane in the solvent mixture. The“isodielectric”energy of activation shows practically no change,when the dielectric constant changes from 80 to 50.Its value is 11300 calories. The experimental data are compared with the three modern theories of ion- molecule reaction,namely,by(1)Moelwyn-Hughes,(2)Laidler and Eyring and (3)Amis and Jaffe.From the viewpoint of influence of dielectric constant on the rate of the present reaction,the first two theories disagree qualitatively with our experimental data,while the last one,though qualitatively successful,fails quantitatively.(The “enhanced moment” and index of refraction as calculated from the last theory with the use of our data are unreasonably large.)

    作者在7具不同温度(5°,10°,15°,20°,25°,30°,35°)下,研究了乙酸乙酯和氢氧化钠在二氧六圜和水的混合溶剂中的反应速度。每个温度有7个不同的二氧六圜和水的成分(0%,5%,10%,15%,20%,25%,30%的二氧六圜),因此得到49个速度常数。在每个温度里,反应速度常数随溶剂介电常数的减小而略为下降:温度愈高,下降趋势愈为显著。同溶剂成分的活化能随着溶剂里二氧六圜成分的增加而略为下降。同介电常数的活化能,在80至50的介电常数范围中,却和介电常数的变化无关。它的平均值是11300卡。我们用实验结果检验最近三个溶液里离子和分子反应速度理论:(1)Moelwyn-Hughes 的、(2)Laidler-Eyring 的和(3)Amis-Jaffe 的理论。就介电常数对反应速度的影响来说,理论(1)和(2)在质上就不和实验相符。理论(3)在质上似和实验相符,但在量上却相差太远。因此就乙酸乙酯对氢氧化钠的反应来说,三个理论都是不合的。

     
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