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race
相关语句
  小种
    STUDIES ON METHODS OF EVALUATION OF RACE T AND O OF HELMINTHOSPORIUM MAYDIS NIS.& MIY.BY USING THE ABSCISSED LEAF TECHNIQUE
    在离体的玉米叶上对玉米小斑病菌(Helminthosporium maydis)T 与O小种鉴定方法的研究
短句来源
    THE PARASITIC ABILITY OF SOUTHERN ROOT KNOT NEMATODES (MELOIDOGYEN INCOGNITA) RACE 2 AND 3 ON COTTON
    南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)小种2,3号对棉花的寄生力
短句来源
    First Report on a New Physiological Race (Race 7) of Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)
    大豆孢囊线虫(Heterodera glycines)7号生理小种的研究初报
短句来源
    STUDIES ON TECHNICS FOR IDENTIFYING RACE OF PHYTOPHTHORA P ARASITICA VAR. NICOTIANAE
    烟草黑胫病菌(Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae)生理小种鉴定技术研究
短句来源
    USING RAPD ANALYSIS AND GENETIC FINGERPRINTING TO DIFFERENTIATE ISOLATES OF RACE O,C AND T OF COCHLIOBOLUS HETEROSTROPHUS
    用RAPD分析和DNA指纹鉴别玉米小斑病菌O、C、T三个小种
短句来源
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  生理小种
    First Report on a New Physiological Race (Race 7) of Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)
    大豆孢囊线虫(Heterodera glycines)7号生理小种的研究初报
短句来源
    STUDIES ON TECHNICS FOR IDENTIFYING RACE OF PHYTOPHTHORA P ARASITICA VAR. NICOTIANAE
    烟草黑胫病菌(Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae)生理小种鉴定技术研究
短句来源
    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON PHYSIOLOGIC RACE DIFFERENTIATION OF TOMATO LEAF MOLD IN THREE NORTHEASTERN PROVINCES OF CHINA
    东北三省番茄叶霉病生理小种分化的初步研究
短句来源
    INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE OF SOYBEAN TO RACE 7 OF CERCOSPORA SOJINAHAR
    大豆对灰斑病7号生理小种的抗性遗传研究
短句来源
    THE VERIFICATION OF RACE 4 OF SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE IN SUBURBAN BEIJING
    北京地区大豆孢囊线虫4号生理小种的验证
短句来源
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    The rice grasshoppers in the south of Qinling mountains are similar, and should be a geographical race or popullation.
    结果表明: 汉中和安康一线沿秦岭山脉南麓汉江两岸的中华稻蝗距离较近, 应为一个地理或居群;
短句来源
    The rice grasshoppers in the north of Qinling mountains are similar, and should be a geographical race or population.
    秦岭山脉北麓的眉县至长安一线的中华稻蝗距离较近, 应为一个地理或居群;
短句来源
    The rice grasshopper in the other side of loess plateau are a geographical race or population.
    黄土高原另一侧的延安地区的中华稻蝗应为一个地理或居群。
短句来源
  “race”译为未确定词的双语例句
    A procedure for purifying a glycoprotein elicitor CSBⅠfrom hyphal cell walls of the strain 97-151a of M.grisea race ZC13 equipped with AKTA Purifier 100 system was optimized.
    利用蛋白纯化系统AKTA Purifier 100对来源于稻瘟菌(Magnaporthe grisea)ZC13菌株97-151a菌丝细胞壁的糖蛋白激发子CSBⅠ进行纯化过程的优化。
短句来源
    Two novel P450 genes (CYP9A18 and CYP6AE12) from the insecticide-resistant strain (YS-FP) of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were cloned with RT-PCR and RACE.
    采用RT-PCR和RACE技术克隆到2个新的棉铃虫细胞色素P450基因:CYP6AE12和CYP9A18。
短句来源
    A full length of PR12 was obtained through 5′RACE method. The nucleotide sequence of PR12 was 818bp in length,which included a 495bp complete open reading frame encoding 164 amino acids,a 147bp 5′ non-translated region(5 NTR),a 155bp 3′ non-translated region(3′ UTR) and a 21-bp poly(A) tail.
    利用5′RACE技术获得了818bp的PR12全长,该基因包含495bp的开放读码框,147bp的5′非翻译区(non translated region,NTR),155bp的3′非翻译区和21bp的多聚腺苷酸尾。
短句来源
    There was great differentiation among ZA,ZB and ZC groups. ZG1 was the predominant race,and its frequency in the total blast fungus population was as high as 26.5%.
    其中ZA、ZB、ZC 3个种群的分化较强,分别含6、10、7个致病型,其中ZG1为优势致病型,出现频率为26.5%。
短句来源
    After inducing inoculation with weak-virulent race (You Ⅱ) , phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity was always higher than that of other treatments.
    弱小种尤Ⅱ诱导接种后,PAL活性始终大于同期其他处理;
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为了更好的帮助您理解掌握查询词或其译词在地道英语中的实际用法,我们为您准备了出自英文原文的大量英语例句,供您参考。
  race
Two DREB-like genes from Bermuda grass that are induced by low-temperature or high-salt stresses were cloned using RT-PCR and RACE methods, and were named BeDREB1 and BeDREB2, respectively (GenBank accession No: AY462117 and AY462118).
      
In the pathosystem of potato and the causal agent of late blight, the β-glucan caused a local and race-specific suppressor effect on the plant host defense response.
      
Resistance of transgenic cultivars based on the expression of one or more resistance genes is sooner or later broken by pathogens whose race-producing rates are high.
      
Hydrolysis of conjugated forms of salicylic acid and accumulation of its free form was observed after infection of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) with an incompatible race of phytophthora or treatment with an elicitor (chitosan).
      
Infection of tubers with a compatible race of the pathogen or treatment with a suppressor (laminarin) decreased both the degree of hydrolysis of conjugated forms of salicylic acid and the accumulation of its free form.
      
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Among collections chiefly from North China,different races of Pucciniaglumarum were identified by means of differential hosts used by Gassner & Straibor a set of improved varieties of wheat grown in China. Among 14 improved varieties,marked differences in resistance to stripe rustwere observed.Li-Yung I was resistant to 40 out of 50 collections of striperust,with unstable reactions to 7 collections; Nanking 4197 was resistant to 37 ??collections with unstable reactions to 9 collections; while Yechao 35368...

Among collections chiefly from North China,different races of Pucciniaglumarum were identified by means of differential hosts used by Gassner & Straibor a set of improved varieties of wheat grown in China. Among 14 improved varieties,marked differences in resistance to stripe rustwere observed.Li-Yung I was resistant to 40 out of 50 collections of striperust,with unstable reactions to 7 collections; Nanking 4197 was resistant to 37 ??collections with unstable reactions to 9 collections; while Yechao 35368 and Ye-Ta 1885 were susceptible to all except 5 collections from FJymus ckinense.Theinstability of varietal reactions is one of the principal obstacles in identification.As a consequence,tests with 6 improved varieties including Early Premium,Pi-Ma 1,etc.,only 21 out of 50 stripe rust collections could be differentiated into10 distinctly different races (Y 1 to Y10).However,there were great differencesin pathogenicity among different races so far identified.All the 6 improvedvarieties were resistant to race Y 1 and susceptible to race Y 2.The virulenceof other races differed from one another also pronouncedly. Races Y2,Y3,Y4,Y5 ,Y6,Y7 ,and Y8 were collected from wheat; Y 9 andY10 from Agropyron spp.; and Y1 was collected mainly from Elymus chinense(including 1 collection from wheat).Races Y 1,Y 3.Y 4,Y 5,Y 7,Y 8,Y 9,Y 10were found in Hopeh; Y 1,Y 2,Y 6,Y 7 in Shansi; and Y 6 in Shantung. All collections could be readily grouped into 16 different forms if the highestreaction type was taken as a basis for identification (this method of groupingwas adopted by Fang et al).Comparing the results with that of Fang et al,itappeared that reactions of certain varieties,such as Early Premium,Li-Yung 1 tocollections from North China were distinctly different from their reactions tocollections from East China.This suggested strongly that races of stripe rustorganism between these two regions might be quite different. All wheat varieties tested were found to be resistant to stripe rust collectionsfrom Elymus chinense.whereas collections from Elymus sibiricus and Agropyronspp.were capable of attacking many wheat varieties. Single spore infection of stripe rust frequently resulted in sporulation on thewhole leaf blade.This is definitely much more systemic than infections of eitherstem rust or leaf rust organism.Inoculations with single uredospores and mono-uredospore lines often produced mixtures of infection types ranging from resistantto susceptible on same leaf blades.This is analogous to "X" type reactions re-ported in stem rust and leaf rust literature; therefore,"X" type reaction shouldalso be recognized in the study of stripe rust.

1950年以来自华北以及少数其他地区搜集的条銹菌种,不論在Gassner和Straib所用的鑒定寄主或在国內推广品种上鑒定,都可区分出許多不同的类型。所用14个推广品种对于这些条绣菌种的抗病性有着很大的差別;其中以驪英1号最抗病,对50个菌种中的40个菌种是抵抗的,对7个菌种反应不稳定;金大4197次之,对37个菌种是抵抗的,9个菌种反映不稳定;燕交35368及燕大1885除了对5个碱草(Elymus chin-ense)条銹菌种抵抗外,对其他所有菌种的反应都是感染型。品种反应的不稳定,是鑒定工作中的主要困难。加根据早洋麦、农大3号、碧螞1号、碧螞4号、驪英3号、玉皮麦等6个品种的稳定反应加以分析,仅能將50个菌种中的21个区分成10个显著不同的类型。这6个品种对第一类型均为抵抗,对第二类型均为感染,其他类型的致病力介于二者之間。在这10个类型中,类型Y_2,Y_3,Y_4,Y_5,Y_6,Y_7,Y_8采自小麦;类型Y_9,Y_(10)采自Agropyron spp.;类型Y_1主要采自Elymuschinense(包括一个小麦菌种)。河北出現的类型有Y_1,Y_3,Y_4,Y_5,Y_7,Y_8,Y_9,...

1950年以来自华北以及少数其他地区搜集的条銹菌种,不論在Gassner和Straib所用的鑒定寄主或在国內推广品种上鑒定,都可区分出許多不同的类型。所用14个推广品种对于这些条绣菌种的抗病性有着很大的差別;其中以驪英1号最抗病,对50个菌种中的40个菌种是抵抗的,对7个菌种反应不稳定;金大4197次之,对37个菌种是抵抗的,9个菌种反映不稳定;燕交35368及燕大1885除了对5个碱草(Elymus chin-ense)条銹菌种抵抗外,对其他所有菌种的反应都是感染型。品种反应的不稳定,是鑒定工作中的主要困难。加根据早洋麦、农大3号、碧螞1号、碧螞4号、驪英3号、玉皮麦等6个品种的稳定反应加以分析,仅能將50个菌种中的21个区分成10个显著不同的类型。这6个品种对第一类型均为抵抗,对第二类型均为感染,其他类型的致病力介于二者之間。在这10个类型中,类型Y_2,Y_3,Y_4,Y_5,Y_6,Y_7,Y_8采自小麦;类型Y_9,Y_(10)采自Agropyron spp.;类型Y_1主要采自Elymuschinense(包括一个小麦菌种)。河北出現的类型有Y_1,Y_3,Y_4,Y_5,Y_7,Y_8,Y_9,Y_(10);山西出現有类型Y_1,Y_2,Y_6,Y_7;山东出現有类型Y_6。品种不稳定反应除通过选擇反应較为稳定的品种来克服外,同时还須严格掌握温室条件。如以品种的最高反应为标准(如方中达、陈迺用所采用),則可將上面50个菌种分成16个不同的类型。与华东的結果比較,許多品种如早洋麦、驪英1号等对兩个地区条銹病菌的反应适相反,表明华东和华北条锈菌的致病力可能有很大的差別。Elymus chinense的条銹菌与小麦条绣菌的致病力有極大差异,所测定的小麦品种对前者均抵抗。Elymus sibiricus和Agropyron spp.的条绣菌則能正常侵染多种小麦品种的幼苗。条銹菌在小麦叶片內能适当的扩展,較秆銹菌和叶銹菌更有系統性,單孢子接种約在二星期左右可蔓延到整个叶片。同一叶片上常出現抗病和感病的反应,用單孢及單孢菌系接种,得出同样結果。条绣菌的鑒定标准中除了原有的反应型外,还应加入混合型“X”一項。

Considerable difficulties caused by unstable reactions of wheat varieties were encountered by the authors in the study of physiologic specialization of Puccinia glumarum. The fluctuation of varietal reactions was chiefly due to the variation of light and temperature in ordinary green house. It was found that strict control of temperature (constantly at 15℃) and a stable light source were necessary. Fluorescent lamps serves as a good source of cool light, and a daily supply of 16-hours illumination with an intensity...

Considerable difficulties caused by unstable reactions of wheat varieties were encountered by the authors in the study of physiologic specialization of Puccinia glumarum. The fluctuation of varietal reactions was chiefly due to the variation of light and temperature in ordinary green house. It was found that strict control of temperature (constantly at 15℃) and a stable light source were necessary. Fluorescent lamps serves as a good source of cool light, and a daily supply of 16-hours illumination with an intensity of 4,000 Lux is sufficient for normal development of infection-types. Temperature plays most important role among the environmental factors causing the variability of varietal reactions of wheat to stripe rust. In general, wheat varieties become more resistant to stripe rust as the temperature raises from 10℃ upward. The critical temperature at which host reactions changed from susceptible to resistant varied with different combinations of wheat varieties and races of P. glumarum. Eight variety-race combinations out of 60 had their infection types changed from susceptible to resistant at 15℃, 15 combinations changed at 20℃, 18 combinations at 25℃, while 16 combinations had their resistant infection types unchanged under different temperatures. Highly resistant wheat varieties such as Early Premium, Li-Yung 1, Naking 4179 remained resistant to all 4 races tested under a wide range of light intensities, while highly susceptible variety Ycnta 1885 remained susceptible throughout. Other susceptable varieties behaved rather specifically as light intensity and daily length of illumination varied. Infection type, amount of sporulation and range of cnvironmental conditions for sporulation should all be considered as criteria for the exact evaluation of varietal resistance of wheat and pathogenicity of rust races. Race Y6B isolated from wheat vareity Pima-1, has been proved to be a dangerous race, causing Pima strains severely diseased at 10°—20℃, with the capability to sporulate at 25℃. Race Y6, of which the pathogenicity resembled that of race Y6B on 6 differential hosts, had been(?)olated from Shantung and Shansi provinces during 1954—55. These findings correlated well with the breakdown of Pima 1 in resistance to stripe rust over a wide geographic area since 1955. Early Premium, Naking 4197, Liyung 1 and Nungta 6 are highly resistant varieties to race Y6B.

試驗証明温度和光对小麦品种抗条銹病性的影响极大。由于小麦品种对条銹菌不稳定反应所造成生理鑑定小种的困难,基本上可通过严格控制温度和光获得解决。条锈菌生理小种的鑑定最好在15℃恆温和恆光的設备下进行。用日光灯为光源,光強度保持4,000 Lux,每日照射16小时即已足够使小麦品种正常发病。当温度逐漸提高时小麦品种漸由感染变为抵抗。由感染型变为抵抗型的温度轉变点因品种和生理小种的不同組合而有差异,在60个品种小种組合中,自15℃起变为抵抗型的有8个組合,自20℃起变为抵抗型的有15个組合,在25℃下变为抵抗型的有18个組合,在10—25℃温度范围內均为抵抗型的有16个組合。高度抗病的品种如早洋麦、金大4197、驪英一号等在所有光強度(日光40.000 Lux及鎢絲灯与日光灯組成人工光強度为8,000 Lux、6,500 Lux、5,000 Lux、2,500 Lux和1,200Lux.)及各种不同光照时間下(日光灯为光源,4,000 Lux,不同光照时間每日为8、12、16及24小时)均抗病。高度感病品种燕大1885則在所有光強度及各种不同光照时間下均为感染型。孢子产生的数量則随光強度和光照时間的增加而增多。其他...

試驗証明温度和光对小麦品种抗条銹病性的影响极大。由于小麦品种对条銹菌不稳定反应所造成生理鑑定小种的困难,基本上可通过严格控制温度和光获得解决。条锈菌生理小种的鑑定最好在15℃恆温和恆光的設备下进行。用日光灯为光源,光強度保持4,000 Lux,每日照射16小时即已足够使小麦品种正常发病。当温度逐漸提高时小麦品种漸由感染变为抵抗。由感染型变为抵抗型的温度轉变点因品种和生理小种的不同組合而有差异,在60个品种小种組合中,自15℃起变为抵抗型的有8个組合,自20℃起变为抵抗型的有15个組合,在25℃下变为抵抗型的有18个組合,在10—25℃温度范围內均为抵抗型的有16个組合。高度抗病的品种如早洋麦、金大4197、驪英一号等在所有光強度(日光40.000 Lux及鎢絲灯与日光灯組成人工光強度为8,000 Lux、6,500 Lux、5,000 Lux、2,500 Lux和1,200Lux.)及各种不同光照时間下(日光灯为光源,4,000 Lux,不同光照时間每日为8、12、16及24小时)均抗病。高度感病品种燕大1885則在所有光強度及各种不同光照时間下均为感染型。孢子产生的数量則随光強度和光照时間的增加而增多。其他感病品种对光的变动反应較为复杂。衡量小麦品种抗病性和不同小种致病力应同时考虑反应型、孢子堆数量和产生孢子堆的环境条件范围。采自碧螞一号的小种Y_(δB)証明是极为危险的生理小种,由于它在較大温度变差的范围內(10℃—20℃)使碧螞系統的小麦严重感病,并在25℃下仍能产生孢子堆。类似Y_(δB)的生理小种Y_δ过去曾在山东和山西采集的条銹菌标样中发現过,这一事实和碧螞一号在愈来愈广泛的区域內丧失抗銹性的現象是符合的。早洋麦、金大4197、驪英一号及农大6号是对Y_(δB)小种高度抵抗的品种。

The wide occurrence of Elymus chinense heavily infected with Puccinia glumarum, was found around wheat fields in central part of Shensi Province. It was proved experimentally that the stripe rust on E. chinense differed greatly from that on wheat in pathogenicity as well as in uredospore Mearurement, and the former was identified as a biological race of P. glumarum (race YIE). E. chinense was resistant to 14 stripe rust collections from wheat while 13 improved varieties of wheat were resistant to...

The wide occurrence of Elymus chinense heavily infected with Puccinia glumarum, was found around wheat fields in central part of Shensi Province. It was proved experimentally that the stripe rust on E. chinense differed greatly from that on wheat in pathogenicity as well as in uredospore Mearurement, and the former was identified as a biological race of P. glumarum (race YIE). E. chinense was resistant to 14 stripe rust collections from wheat while 13 improved varieties of wheat were resistant to 5 stripe rust collections from E. chinense. Field observations also verified that infections of wheat due to uredospores of race YlE all developed highly resistant infection types with only, scanty sporulatiou. Successive incculation starting with large amount of uredospores showed that race YlE could not perpetuate on wheat beyond 5 uredospore generations. Different wheat species of wide genetic diversity were either immune or highly resistant to race YlE. Stripe rust from wheat could attack different species of grasses, among which Bromus teciorum and E. sibiricus were highly susceptible. Race YlE could tolerate much higher temperature than races collected from wheat varieties and prolific sporulation was obtained at 25℃. Stripe rust from E. sibiricus and Agropyron spp. severely attacked seedlings of many wheat varieties. The practical importance of these grasses to the perpetuation of these biological races of stripe rust needs further study.

山西晉中一带麦田边生有大量碱草(Elymus chinense),严重感染条锈病。接种試驗証明小麦条銹菌与碱草条銹菌在致病力方面有显著差异。碱草对14个小麦条銹菌种均抵抗,碱草条銹菌虽能侵染小麦,但13个小麦推广品种对所有5个碱草菌种都表現抵抗。田間調查結果亦示明碱草条銹菌虽能侵染小麦,但麦叶仅产生抗性的枯斑及形成极少量的夏孢子堆,并証实其不能在小麦上继續繁殖。不同小麦的种对碱草条锈菌亦均免疫或高度抵抗。小麦条銹菌能侵染冰草(Agropyron cristatum)等11种禾草,其中旱雀麦(Bromus tectorum)及西伯利亚碱草,(Elymus sibiricus)高度感染。碱草条銹菌較小麦条銹菌能适应更高的气温,在25℃仍能正常侵染碱草且产生大量孢子堆,其夏孢子(28.94μ×22.41μ)亦显著較小麦条銹菌的夏孢子(26.10 μ×19.48μ)为大,因此是条銹菌(Puccinia glumarum)的一个較为特殊的生理小种(YIE)。西伯利亚碱草(Elymus sibiricus)、山大麦及麦穗草(Agropyron spp.)的条銹菌均能正常侵染小麦,但尚未发現其大量感染条銹病的羣落。

 
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