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western countries     
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  西方国家
     An Analysis on Trend of Development Aid from Western Countries
     西方国家发展援助态势分析
短句来源
     Analysis and Thoughts of the Readjustment of the Export Credit Policy of the Western Countries
     对西方国家出口信贷政策调整的分析和思考
短句来源
     In the regulation practice of natural monopoly industry,the western countries have adopted various incentive regulation forms,such as price cap regulation,social contract system,franchise bidding regulation and yardstick competition regulation.
     西方国家在自然垄断产业的规制实践中,采用了多种多样的激励性规制形式,如价格上限规制、社会契约制度、特许投标规制、标尺竞争规制等。
短句来源
     Compromise was an important way in which many western countries resolved domestic political conflict and achieved political development.
     妥协是许多西方国家解决国内政治冲突、实现政治发展的重要方式。
短句来源
     The governing theory arose from the Western countries in the 90s of the 20th century.
     治理理论自20世纪90年代在西方国家兴起。
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  西方
     Institutional Analysis on Evolution of Financial System in Western Countries
     西方各国金融系统演进和功能的制度分析——兼论我国金融系统的改革
短句来源
     An Analysis on Trend of Development Aid from Western Countries
     西方国家发展援助态势分析
短句来源
     Analysis and Thoughts of the Readjustment of the Export Credit Policy of the Western Countries
     对西方国家出口信贷政策调整的分析和思考
短句来源
     Theories on art emotion in 20th-century western countries
     20世纪西方文论中的艺术情感理论
短句来源
     Thinking on Development of ManagementTheory in Western Countries
     对西方管理理论发展的思考
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  西方发达国家
     Comparing with the insurance education in western countries ,our national insurance education has to endure a series of reforms according to specific situations in our country in general and professional education ,certificate exams and training in insurance.
     与西方发达国家的保险教育相比较,我国民族保险教育在学校的保险教育,包括在高中阶段的普及型教育和高校的专业教育,以及保险类资格证书的考试与培训,和民族保险公司的继续教育等方面,还必须根据我国的具体情况进行一系列改革。
短句来源
     Financial market is the leading intermediate by which the developed western countries play the role of monetary policy.
     金融市场是西方发达国家货币政策发挥作用的主要中介 ,这也是现代市场经济条件下货币政策传导的主要方式。
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     First, it explores into the reform of privatization in the developed countries, believing that the modern idea of property rights is the theoretical basis for the reform of privatization in the Western countries and Russia.
     第三章《私有化与俄罗斯微观基础构筑》首先论述了西方发达国家私有化的内涵及在产权私有化和经营权私有化方面所采取的政策措施,并认为西方及俄罗斯私有化的理论基础是现代产权理论。
短句来源
     Developed Western countries market for labour social management and public service study
     西方发达国家劳动力市场的社会管理与公共服务研究
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     The paper tries to examine the course and the problems, and then explore the proper boundary and measures based on analysis of basic problems in urban planning and how the western countries do in the process.
     本文试图通过对城市规划基本问题和西方发达国家城市规划过程中先进做法的研究,检视我国城市规划的进程和问题,进而从政府职能的角度探讨政府城市规划的合理边界和做法。
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  西方各国
     Institutional Analysis on Evolution of Financial System in Western Countries
     西方各国金融系统演进和功能的制度分析——兼论我国金融系统的改革
短句来源
     Meanwhile, government performance auditing has got general and successful development in western countries with the change of the management idea in government.
     同时,由于新公共管理理念对政府管理理念的冲击以及政府解脱自身受托管理责任的需要,政府绩效审计在西方各国得到普遍而成功的开展。
短句来源
     Secondly, it introduces the theory of western labor relations describing the history evolvement of labor management and practices in western countries and summarizes labor management philosophies of contemporary enterprises with the labor relations management of late conservatism and the schools of human managerialism, systematism and radicalism.
     其次介绍了西方的劳动关系研究理论,描述了西方各国劳动关系管理的历史演变和实践活动,并对当代企业劳动关系管理理论做了一个综述,主要有新保守派的劳动关系管理理论、新制度学派劳动关系管理理论、人事管理主义学派劳动关系管理理论、组织行为学派劳动关系管理理论和激进派劳动关系管理理论;
短句来源
     Relying on the educational reforms of respective western countries in the 1980s,regarding liberalism theory as its foundation,under the slogan that pursues the school managing performance,efficiency in school management and quality of education,thinking that the government should withdraw from the education field,the market mechanism is the good medicine to solve the low-level problem of the educational poor efficiency of state-run school.
     20世纪80年代以来,西方各国的教育改革,以自由主义理论为其基础,在追求学校管理绩效、办学效益和教育质量的口号下,认为政府应退出教育领域,市场机制是解决公立学校教育低效率低水平问题的良药。
短句来源
     Theories on government tools have become a focus in the field of public administration and policy science in the western countries,and it has emerged as a new discipline or new research area as well.
     2 0世纪80年代以来,随着“新公共管理”和“政府再造”运动在西方各国的兴起,政府的治理手段呈现多元化,政府工具理论也逐渐成为现今西方公共管理和政策科学研究的一个焦点,并正在成为一个新的学科分支或主题领域。
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      western countries
    It is believed that there are no marked differences in the pathological changes of ARVC between Chinese patients and patients from western countries.
          
    The application of high-frequency acoustic devices to the enhancement of electronics saw an extraordinary growth in both Eastern and Western countries in the sixties and seventies.
          
    On the whole, the answers did not envision any service arrangement which goes beyond anything known and in practice now in various Western countries.
          
    The gender related suicide and unemployment rates for 1964-1986 from twenty-three Western countries were reviewed.
          
    Given the increasing proportion of long term unemployed in many Western countries this health service over-utilization will impose a substantial burden on public health expenditures unless other means of psychological and social support are provided.
          
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    Under the guidance of Chairman Mao's revolutionary line, the medical workers of our hospital have gone out to the factories, worker-shops and workers' residential districts to examine and prevent diseases of the broad labouring masses. The variation of serum lipids in 1835 healthy subjects (from the newborn to 102 years of age), most of them workers, were investigated during the period from October, 1973 to December, 1974. The results are summarized as follows:The frequency distribution of serum cholesterol...

    Under the guidance of Chairman Mao's revolutionary line, the medical workers of our hospital have gone out to the factories, worker-shops and workers' residential districts to examine and prevent diseases of the broad labouring masses. The variation of serum lipids in 1835 healthy subjects (from the newborn to 102 years of age), most of them workers, were investigated during the period from October, 1973 to December, 1974. The results are summarized as follows:The frequency distribution of serum cholesterol values followed the normal distribution in all age groups. The frequency distribution of values for serum triglyceride and β-lipoprotein were both skewed in most age groups.In general, there was a tendency for the concentration of serum lipids to increase with age. There was no difference in cholesterol concentration between men and women below fifty years of age, while women had a higher value than men at ages above fifty. The serum triglyceride level was slightly higher in men than in women below fifty; above fifty years of age women had a significantly higher serum triglyceride level than men.The results of statistical analysis indicate that the normal limits of values for serum cholesterol, triglyceride and β-lipoprotein in healthy working people to be 100 mg/100 ml, 110 mg/100 ml and 500 mg/100 ml respectively; the upper limits being 220 mg/100 ml, 160 mg/100 ml and 610 mg/100 ml respectively. Using the WHO classification, Type Ⅱ_a, Type Ⅱ_b and Type Ⅳ hyperlipoproteinemia were shown to be the most prevalent types in this population.The concentration of β-lipoprotein closely correlated with those of cholesterol and triglyceride. It was shown that the quantitative determination of β-lipoprotein is a simple and effective method for screening hyperlipidemia.This preliminary investigation indicated that the pattern of serum lipid variations of the working people in our country was different from that of western countries. Differences in race, the social system, and dietary habits, probably all account for such differences in pattern.

    在毛主席革命路线的指引下,我院医务工作者走出医院大门,深入工厂车间,街道里弄,为劳动人民查病、防病。本文报告我院自1973年10月至1974年12月调查1385名以工人为主的上海市健康人(自新生儿到102岁老年人)的血脂改变,所得结论如下: 1.血脂含量的频率分布:各年龄组胆固醇含量基本上呈正态分布,甘油三酯和β脂蛋白含量多数年龄组均呈偏态分布。2.血脂含量与年龄和性别的关系:一般均有随年龄而增高的趋势。胆固醇在50岁以前男女并无差别,50岁以后女性高于男性。甘油三酯50岁以前男性略高于女性,50岁以后女性显著增高超过男性。3.根据统计分析,求得健康劳动人民血胆固醇、甘油三酯和β脂蛋白的正常上限分别为180毫克/100毫升、110毫克/100毫升和500毫克/100毫升;过高界限分别为220毫克/100毫升、160毫克/100毫升和610毫克/100毫升。按国际暂行的分类标准,本组中出现的高脂蛋白血症以II_a、II_b和IV型最为多见。4.β脂蛋白含量与胆固醇和甘油三酯含量之间存在着密切关系。认为β脂蛋白测定是一项预测高脂血症的简便有效的方法。初步调查表明,我国人民血脂改变规律与西方资本主义国家不尽一样,可...

    在毛主席革命路线的指引下,我院医务工作者走出医院大门,深入工厂车间,街道里弄,为劳动人民查病、防病。本文报告我院自1973年10月至1974年12月调查1385名以工人为主的上海市健康人(自新生儿到102岁老年人)的血脂改变,所得结论如下: 1.血脂含量的频率分布:各年龄组胆固醇含量基本上呈正态分布,甘油三酯和β脂蛋白含量多数年龄组均呈偏态分布。2.血脂含量与年龄和性别的关系:一般均有随年龄而增高的趋势。胆固醇在50岁以前男女并无差别,50岁以后女性高于男性。甘油三酯50岁以前男性略高于女性,50岁以后女性显著增高超过男性。3.根据统计分析,求得健康劳动人民血胆固醇、甘油三酯和β脂蛋白的正常上限分别为180毫克/100毫升、110毫克/100毫升和500毫克/100毫升;过高界限分别为220毫克/100毫升、160毫克/100毫升和610毫克/100毫升。按国际暂行的分类标准,本组中出现的高脂蛋白血症以II_a、II_b和IV型最为多见。4.β脂蛋白含量与胆固醇和甘油三酯含量之间存在着密切关系。认为β脂蛋白测定是一项预测高脂血症的简便有效的方法。初步调查表明,我国人民血脂改变规律与西方资本主义国家不尽一样,可能与社会制度、民族特点、饮食习惯不同有关。

    In order to approach the factors affecting its results, biliaryintestinal drainage was studied through the analyses of eighty-one of 98 cases which were followed up for 1-19 years. There were no noticeable differences among the results of various operations besides cholecysto-enterostomy and sphincterotomy due to its anatomical defect. The reflux of the intestinal content only a factor leading to cholangitis. and the speciality of intrahepatic calculi frequently associated with ductal stenesis in our country...

    In order to approach the factors affecting its results, biliaryintestinal drainage was studied through the analyses of eighty-one of 98 cases which were followed up for 1-19 years. There were no noticeable differences among the results of various operations besides cholecysto-enterostomy and sphincterotomy due to its anatomical defect. The reflux of the intestinal content only a factor leading to cholangitis. and the speciality of intrahepatic calculi frequently associated with ductal stenesis in our country would be the main cause of poor results except the stricture of anastomosis. That was why operative results were not as good as those in Western countries. In the light of this fact, we suggest that. the utilization of biliary-intestinal drainage must be determined by the condition of cholelithiasis in different individuals.

    本文通过98例中的81例随诊分析,探讨了影响胆肠内引流术疗效的因素。除因存在解剖缺陷致疗效差的胆囊肠吻合和括约肌切开术外,其它术式对疗效并无显著影响。肠胆返流仅为胆管炎发作提供了外因,影响疗效的确切内因除吻合口狭窄外,在我国肝胆管结石特别是肝胆管狭窄更具重要性。显然,这也是疗效比欧美差的主要原因。据此,提出应根据我国胆石症的这一特点合理地应用胆肠内引流术。

    Colon cancer ranks 6th to 8th in its frequency in various parts of China and its incidence is on the increase. This article deals with colon carcinomas treated in Tianjin People's Hospital in 1974-1978. In keeping with other reports in China, the present series of 709 patients with colo-rectal carcinoma shows significant difference in several factors from that of the western countries. The age incidence is younger by one to two decades; rectal carcinoma predominates, accounting for 2/3 of large bowel cancers;...

    Colon cancer ranks 6th to 8th in its frequency in various parts of China and its incidence is on the increase. This article deals with colon carcinomas treated in Tianjin People's Hospital in 1974-1978. In keeping with other reports in China, the present series of 709 patients with colo-rectal carcinoma shows significant difference in several factors from that of the western countries. The age incidence is younger by one to two decades; rectal carcinoma predominates, accounting for 2/3 of large bowel cancers; the ratio of males to females is 1.8 to 1; lesions occur in equal frequency in right and left half of the colon. 5-year survival rate of those patients with resection is 69.8%. Degree of invasion of local serosa, successful extirpation of invaded adjacent structures and pathologic stage of the lesion are important prognostic factors; anemia does not influence resectability, nor the patient's survival. Pain of some sort is the most frequent initiating and presenting symptom, followed by a mass for the right colon, and bloody stools for the left colon. Patients who live 7 years after resection have great probability of lasting cure.

    国内大肠癌占为害最大癌瘤的第6~8位,且有日趋增多之势,故应在各方面予以重视,本文就我院在25年间收治的大肠癌患者709例进行分析,本组大肠癌与欧美在年龄,性别,直、结肠比例,左、右半结肠比例等方面回然不同,其特点是直肠多于结肠,左半与右半相近,,发病年龄早,男>女。本组236例结肠癌,手术切除组随访率98.8%,五年存活率69.8%,其予后与是否有肠壁浆膜受累、是否将受累犯的邻近脏器完整切除及病理分期等有关,与有否贫血无关,我国结肠癌发病年龄早与血吸虫病无关。本组结肠癌在首发症状及就诊主诉中均以腹痛为主,其外右半有肿块,左半有便血,故中年以上患者有旷日持久的腹痛应引起高度警惕。竭力排除结肠癌之可能性,甚至手术探查,术后生存超过7年者可初步认为已治愈。

     
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