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period
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  周期
    Study on Attenuation Relationships of Long Period Ground Motions
    长周期地震动衰减关系研究
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    THE LONG PERIOD SEISMOGRAPH TYPE 763
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    STUDY ON PRE-SLIP PRECURSOR OF THE EARTHQUAKE——LONG PERIOD PRECURSORY SEISMIC WAVE
    预滑与地震前兆——长周期波动研究
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY OF LONG PERIOD SURFACEWAVE FROM LITHOSPHERIC STRUCTURE OFCONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC PATHS
    大陆型与海洋型岩石圈结构的长周期地震面波初步研究
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    LONG PERIOD SOURCE PARAMETERS OF THE WUQIA, XINJIANG EARTHQUAKE OF AUGUST 23,1985——RESULTS FROM INVERSION OF THE RECORDS OF THE IDA NETWORK
    1985年8月23日新疆乌恰地震的长周期震源参数——用 IDA 台网记录反演的结果
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    Study on Reservoir Properties and Changes Mechanism of Well Logging Curves in the Middle-Later Period of Oilfield Development
    油田开发中后期测井响应变化机理及储层性质研究
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    Tectonic Uplift and Deformation Mechanism of the Altun Structural System Since the Middle-Late Period of Late Pleistocene Time
    阿尔金构造系晚更新世中晚期以来的构造隆升及其变形机制
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    THE DETERMINATION OF EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE BY USE OF AMPLITUDE AND PERIOD OF THE PKP WAVES
    論用PKP波測定极远地震的震級
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    The Stratigraphical Division and Stratigraphic Correlation in the Carboniferous Period in Fujian province
    福建省石炭纪地层划分与对比
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    THE SEDIMENTARY CHARACTERS AND ITS GEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MARINE TURBIDITES OF THE CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD INSOUTHWEST FUJIAN
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  period
Let 0≤g be a dyadic H?lder continuous function with period 1 and g(0)=1, and let.
      
The survival probability in finite time period in fully discrete risk model
      
To some two-period economies with countable infinite state spaces, the existence of expectation equilibrium of real asset economies with transaction costs is given.
      
Epidemiologic model of SIS type has a delay corresponding to the infectious period and disease-related deaths, so that the population size is variable.
      
This paper considers an SEIS epidemic model with infectious force in the latent period and a general population-size dependent contact rate.
      
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Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities...

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities are importantwithin this area, some geologists including G Schoenmann, hold that it is ageosynclinal region. It is Ю. М Шейманн who first noticed the phenomenon of activizationappearing in the Chinese platform. В. М. Синицын in his "Строенив и развитиекитайской платформы" indicates that some of the mountain ranges includingYinshan, which have been formerly referred to the folding belts developingfrom geosynclines, are in fact the internal structures of the Chinese platform. In this paper the writer after the opinion of В. М. Синицын, assigns theYinshan area as one of the "activizing regions" in the Chinese platform, andgives more detailed descriptions and discussions mainly on the point of thehistory of its stratigraphic development. Really it is a fact that the Yinshan region has an old folded foundationwhich is composed of metamorphic complex including chiefly gneisses, schists,and old granitic intrusions apparently Pre-Sinian in age. Since the formationof this folded foundation during the Luliang movement (=Goto-Karelian mo-vement), the old land of the Yinshan region has "activized" or "resurrected"several times. As early as in the Sinian period, a depression prolonging in E-Wdirection happened on its southern border, where Sinian limestone 900 metresin thickness and in some places up to 9,620 metres was so deposited. During a long time of the Palaeozoic era, the Yinshan old land was in the poriod ofdenudation except some Cambrian marine limestones only 144 metres in thick-ness deposited in the western part. At the end of the Palaeozoic era, local acti-vization with the formation of continental basin-deposits of Permian age, up to1,380 metres in thickness, as found in the Tachingshan area again happened.In the middle Mesozoic era, the Yinshan region came to a period of strongactivity. Structural depressions duo to "Процесс аркогенеза" occurred universallywithin the whole area and magmatie activities in large magnitude associatedthis crustal movement, so that a great sequence of freshwater basin-depositswith intercalations of volcanic beds, up to 8,000 metres in total thickness wereformed. During the formation of these strata, especially at the end of Mesozoic,interruptions of depositon happened frequently, folds and thrusts were abund-antly formed, and intrusive bodies of "young granite" were produced hereand there. In the Tertiary period, the Yinshan region was violently faulted, andvolcanic activities still happened, producing the basalt lava flow spreading ina wide area. The activity of the Yinshan old land has not ceased even to-dayas shown by the facte that its whole area is in the process of uplift and by thepresence of an earthquake zone known in the historical time. Ⅱ. To what Geotectonic Unit does the Southeastern Coastal Region of China Belong? On the Southeastern coast of China there is a district where geotectoniccharacteristics have never been recognized clearly. It is A. W. Grabau who firstreferred it to an old land named "Cathaysia". J. S. Lee holds the same opinion.In his geotectonic map of China, B. M. Синицын also assigns this region to aplatform and marks it as a part of his "Южно-китайский платформенный массив".However, there is still another opinion opposed to this. A. C. Хоминтовский, forinstance, renders recently this district to a geosynclinal region and proposes thename "Minche Pacific folding zone" for it. H. T. Yang and T. Y. Yu agreewith him. In the year 1954, the writer in his compilation-work connected with thegeology of Fukien and Kwangtung, found that the geotectonic characteristics ofthe southeastern coastal region of China are not only unagreeable with thosefound in a common platform on the one hand, but also contrasting, with thoseof a geosynclinal region on the other. In fact, it cannot be referred suitably toany geotectonic unit except to the intermediate type as shown by the history ofits geological development. Apparently it is an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. During the Pre-Sinian crustal movement (the Luliang movement), a foldedfoundation composed of old gneisses, schists, and phyllites was completely for-med. Obviously this is a part of the broad old land of Southern China. In the earlier stage of the Palaeozoic era, the whole area of this region wasexposed in the air and under denudation. Hence, no deposit of any kind wasformed. After the Caledonian movement, depressions happened in the western partof this region, where the Devonian-Lower carboniferous continental deposit, theNanching series consisting mainly of quartzite, conglomerate and shale has beenformed, but the other parts were still under denudation. These facts show thatthis region was still a land at that time. Uralian and Lower Permian limestones, known respectively as the Chuan-shan limestone and the Chihsia limestone, separated from each other by adisconformity, spread widely in this region. This indicates that the marine trans-gressions really happened in the southeastern coastal region of China. However,the thicknesses of these limestones (only 30 metres and 150 metres respectively)and their uniformity in the horizontal direction show that the sea at thosetimes was shallow, and the magnitude of subsidence of the earth crust withinthis region was small. The unnoticed lateral changing of lithological charactersof these limestones proves the same fact. Undoubtedly these limestones arenothing but the marine deposits of platform-type. From Upper Permian toTriassic, this region was under a condition of alternation of transgression andregression of the sea. Owing to the fact that the amplitude of oscillation of theearth crust of this region at that time was small, the deposits formed duringthe marine transgression were thin and interrupted again and again by disconfor-mities (or even unconformities). Sometimes continental deposits are intercalated. Since the later period of Triassic, the southeastern coastal region has neverbeen covered by the sea again. And, a new condition began to happen in LowerJurassic. Here, the old land became to "resurrected", so that a series of depres-sing belts were formed as a result of "Процесс аркогенеза". In association withthe subsidence of these depressions, continental beds with a total thicknessup to 3,000 metres were deposited. In the beds interruptions frequently occurred.Folds were abundants, although they or at least some of them were intermediatetype. At the same time, magmatic activities were significant. Itappearedfirstly in the form of volcanic eruptions as recorded by a great sequence of beds consisting of tuff and rhyolite intercalating in the continental bedsmentioned above. And then, at the end of the Mesozoic, numerous graniticbodies were produced. Coming to the Cenozoic era, this region still sufferedfrom rather strong crustal movements accompanied by basalt lava eruptions. Theactivity of the old land has not yet been ceased even to-day as marked by thepresence of a famous earthquake zone between Kwangtung and Fukien, and theabundance of hot springs which widely spread within this region. All theseshow the typical characters of an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. Final-ly, the complexity of the types of mineral deposits found in Fukien and Kwang-tung also proves the geotectonic nature of this region. Summarizing the whole matter, we may say that the southeastern coastalregion of China was originally an old land. Although it has been agian andagain submerged by the sea, the resulting marine deposits are entirely differentfrom those of geosynclinal region. In the middle of Mesozoic, this region beganto be active violently again, producing a series of depressions or "secondarygeosynclines", in which thick continental beds were deposited, and, at the sametime, folds of intermediate type, serious volcanic eruptions and magmatic intru-sions were produced. Hence, to refer the southeastern coastal region of China toan "activizing" platform is quite strongly proved. The northwestern boundary of this "activizing" platform is generally onthe line starting from central Chekiang through central Kiangsi to the Sou-thwestern part of Kwangtung, because the history and characteristics of geolo-gical development of the Southeastern Kiangsi and Central-southern Kwangtungare quite similar to those of Fukien and Eastern Kwangtung. As to the nomination of this geotectonic unit, the writer proposes to callit "Cathaysian activizing region". This name is derived from the "Cathaysia"of A. W. Grabau but adds, according to necessity, the meaning of activizing or"resurrected" characters of this region. The so-called "Minche Pacific foldingzone" of A. C. Хоминтовский is obviously unacceptable because it entirely doesnot coincide with fact. Compared with the "aetivizing" platforms found in other parts of theworld, the Cathaysian coastal "activizing" platform has its own characteristics,especially shown by the presence of numerous, widely spread, small depressionsor "secondary geosynclines", and the acidic magmatic activities appearing on alarge scale. All these indicate that this is a special type differing from all theknown

~~

In the long-period numerical forcast models, many factors, such as non-adiabatic heating and friction, must be considered. The object of this paper is to study the stability of long wave under the influence of these factors. A two-level quasi-geostrophic model including the effect of non-adiabatic heating, friction and horizontal austausch (1)-(3) is used. The instability criterion is given as (10). In the case of baroclinic atmosphere without these factors the criterion agrees with that of Phillips'(fig....

In the long-period numerical forcast models, many factors, such as non-adiabatic heating and friction, must be considered. The object of this paper is to study the stability of long wave under the influence of these factors. A two-level quasi-geostrophic model including the effect of non-adiabatic heating, friction and horizontal austausch (1)-(3) is used. The instability criterion is given as (10). In the case of baroclinic atmosphere without these factors the criterion agrees with that of Phillips'(fig. 1). It is found that in barotropic atmosphere the friction and horizontal austausch are purely damping factors. In baroclinic atmosphere it is, however, not so simple. With the parameter A_T=A_v=0.00213 arc~2 day~(-1),k=0.26 day~(-1),ε=1.05 arc~(-2) day~(-1), A_1~2=30.4 arc~(-2), the curves of stability criterion are given in fig. 2. We notice in the figure that for sufficiently short wave or for small wind shear, these parameters are damping factors; but for long waves (m, n<3) the minimum baroclinity for initia'e instability is smaller than that for the case without these factors. Finally, the structure of the unstable wave.is shown in fig. 4a-b. Fig. 4a is without damping factors and the other is with these factors under the same baroclinity. It may be seen that these factors decrease the instability. In the case without damping factors the disturbance starts to damp when the temperature wave and pressure wave are in phase, but in the case with damping factors the disturbance starts to damp when the phase of temperature wave is still left behind the pressure wave (fig. 4c). This is because when the phase of temperature wave is left behind the pressure wave, there is release of potential energy and this energy is used to compensate the frictional loss.

本文中采用二层线性模式讨论了地面摩擦,水平热量交换和动量交换,以及长波辐射冷却等因子对长波稳定状况的影响.并且给出了相应的温压场结构,由理论上证实了当温度波还落后于气压波时,运动就已经开始阻尼的这个事实.

The phase velocities of Rayleigh waves in China were obtained by using the seis- mograms from twelve stations in China.Two earthquakes from New Britain Islands were chosen.The amplitudes of Rayleigh Waves with the period of about 35 seconds are considerably smaller than their following phases with shorter periods.This particular feature of the seismograms can be traced from most of the stations.It makes the cor- relation more feasible.Detailed correlations are obtained by analyzing the variation...

The phase velocities of Rayleigh waves in China were obtained by using the seis- mograms from twelve stations in China.Two earthquakes from New Britain Islands were chosen.The amplitudes of Rayleigh Waves with the period of about 35 seconds are considerably smaller than their following phases with shorter periods.This particular feature of the seismograms can be traced from most of the stations.It makes the cor- relation more feasible.Detailed correlations are obtained by analyzing the variation of periods with distances and also the arrival times of each crest of Rayleigh waves in the seismograms.The phase velocities of separate regions as computed from two different earthquakes are in good agreement.The results show that in calculating the phase velo- cities with tripartite method,the corrections due to different oceanic paths can not be neglected if the angular distances between them were great.Because the parameters of the earth crust in China are not well-known,we have to compare these calculated phase velocities of Rayleigh waves in China with the revised phase velocity nomograms of Rayleigh waves by Press,based on the materials obtained in Africa.The crust thick- nesses in separate regions are thus computed,the results being merely tentative.How- ever,unless more geophysical data were available,these data as given by this method still show a rather close correlation with the principal tectonic features in China.In the region of Tibetan Plateau,the phase velocities are very low,and the calculated thick- ness of the earth crust there is 74 kms;whereas in the region of southeastern coast,the phase velocities are high,and the calculated thickness is only 20 kms.

本文利用新不列颠岛两个地震在十二个基本台站所记录到的瑞利波,计算了我国不同地区的相速度.着重讨论鉴别和对比不同台站记录中同一震相的方法.在大部分台站的记录中,见到有周期约为35秒的相位,和后面的位相比较,它的周期较大,振幅较小.波形的对比对初步鉴别震相有很大的帮助.详细的震相对比是根据周期随距离变化的规律和各震相到时的规律.两个地震所得的相速度很符合.计算的结果表明:利用三台计算相速度时,如果射线的路程差别较大,海洋路程的校正是不能忽略的.因为有关我国地壳构造的资料还很少,我们所得的瑞利波相速度只能与普瑞司修正后非洲大陆的相速度理论相比较,由此得到我国不同地区的地壳厚度.这样所得的厚度,虽然不能视为最后的结果,但是它们仍然表现与主要地质单元之间有密切的联系.

 
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