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the old     
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  老年人
     Objective: To study the difference of retina artery branch angle among the youth, the old and the hypertension patients.
     目的:探讨视网膜动脉分支角(retina artery branch angle)在高血压性视网膜病变(hypertension retinopathy,HRP)中的改变和其在青年人、老年人中的差异性。
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     The CD45, RA/CD45, RO positive cells ratio in the old persons was 0. 66 and in the young persons 0. 91. It was considered that RgI showed a marked stimulatory effect on CD45, RA and CD45, RO surface antigen of lymphocytes.
     青、老年人的CD45RA+/CD45RO+比值分别为0.91和0.66。 说明RgI对淋巴细胞表面抗体CD45RA和CD45RO有显著的刺激作用。
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     44 cases of clinical analysis of acute cholecystitis operative treatment for the old
     老年人急性胆囊炎手术治疗44例临床分析
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     The positive expressions of p16 INK4 in young gastric carcinomas (60%) were higher than those in aged patients(10%)(P<0.05),but ras p21 positive rates (62.8%) in the young men were significantly lower than those in the old men (90%)(P<0.05).
     p16INK4在青年人胃癌中的阳性率(60%)显著高于老年人(10%)(P<0.05),而rasp21在前者的阳性率(62.8%)则显著低于后者(90%)(P<0.05)。
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     The old persons of over 60 years in 8 cases (72. 71%).
     60岁以上的老年人8例,占72.73%。
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  老年
     Research on the Old Age Security System in China: Theoretical Foundations, Value Orientation and System Selection
     中国老年保障制度研究:理论基础、价值取向与制度选择
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     Clinical Analysis On 27 Cases of Viral Hepatitis of the Old Age
     老年病毒性肝炎27例临床分析
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     Clinical Analysis on 164 Cases of the Old—age With pulmonary TB
     老年肺结核164例临床分析
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     Acute Nonlymphoblastic Leukemia in the old: A Clinical Analysis Cof 31 ases
     老年急性非淋巴细胞白血病31例临床分析
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     A Study on the Relationship between the sIL-2R Plasma Levels and Clinical Change in the Old Patient with Hypertension Cerebral Hemorrhage
     老年高血压脑出血患者血清sIL-2R水平的研究
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     Between the New and the Old
     新之间
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     The practice of repairing the old parts of drilling machine with tooth head
     牙轮钻机件修复应用的实践
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     Analysis and Practice of Demolishingand Removing the old Basement
     某工程基础爆破拆除实践与分析
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     Comparison of the New Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law and the Old One
     新水污染防治法的比较
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     Analysis of the Error and Systematic Dirference Between the New GPS Control Network and the Old Triangulation Control Network Established in a Mining Area
     应用GPS技术重建矿区控制网后新网的系统差别与误差分析
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  老旧
     Furthermore, the S11 type distribution transformer is suit to be applied widely in power distribution system because of its mature manufacture technology and enough scale of production. It is suggested that the new purchased distribution transformer should be S11 type primarily in the future, and the old distribution transformers such as S7 type or those, which have been used for more than 12 years, should be replaced with the S11 type gradually.
     S11型配电变压器的技术已趋成熟,生产已具规模,具备大批量采购的条件,建议新采购时应以S11型配电变压器为主,对于运行12a及以上的老旧S7型(或更早期的)配电变压器应考虑逐步更换。
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     Communication internet digital DC speed-adjusting system comprised of AT59RH,PLC,OULU590 etc have been introduced in this paper,by innovation of heavy-duty machine such as T6216A Floor boring mill,both stability of the electric control system and property and accuracy of the speed-adjusting were increased,also a new method was made by renewing the old machine.
     本文介绍了用AT5 9RH、PLC、欧陆 5 90等组成通讯联网全数字直流调速系统 ,对重型机床如T6 2 16A落地镗床等实施技术改造 ,不但提高了电气控制系统的可靠性、稳定性 ,而且提高了调速性能和精度 ,为老旧机床的电气设备更新换代提供了一条新路
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     A communication network digital DC speed-regulation system comprised by AT59RH,PLC,OULU590 etc have been introduced in this paper,to rebuilld heavy-duty machines such as B2025 gantrg planer,both stability of the electric control system and property and accuracy of the speed-regulation were increased,a new method of renewing the old machine is provided.
     本文介绍了用AT5 9RH、PLC、欧陆 5 90等组成通讯联网全数字直流调速系统对B2 0 2 5龙门刨床实施技术改造 ,不但提高了电气控制系统的可靠性、稳定性 ,而且提高了调速性能和精度 ,为老旧机床的电气设备更新换代提供了一条新路。
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     The remanufacturing technology combining advanced surface engineering techniques and to realize computer digital control can make the old machine tools renovated and improved greatly in performance.
     以计算机数字控制技术(CNC)和表面工程技术集成为手段的机床数控化再制造,能使老旧机床批量翻新并提升其性能。
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     Research on Evaluating Standard of the Operation State of the Old Transmission Lines
     老旧架空输电线路运行状态评估标准的研究
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      the old
    Next we settle the remaining cases, with a computer-aided variation on the old method of Donkin.
          
    A method of algebraic operation of special matrices involved in the problem is given in this paper for obtaining a new solution for the m + 1 experiments based upon the old solution for the primary m experiments.
          
    To deal with the problem that the process may change with time, recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.
          
    The old knowledge of the "dispensable spleen" has been abandoned, while the exact role that it plays in the body continues to be unveiled.
          
    We introduce a generalized notion of semiring and prove that all known properties that semirings have according to the old definition are preserved.
          
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    4-Methyl-5-ethyl-2-thiouracil reacts with ethyl bromide in alcoholic solution in presence of sodium ethylate,forming 2-ethylmercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-uracil(m. p.141°),from which 2-ethylmercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-chloropyrimidine,boiling at 148-150° at 13 mm.,at 164-166° at 17 mm.,or at 180-185° at 25 mm.,is prepared according to the directions given by Johnson and Bailey.This chloro- pyrimidine reacts with sodium methylate in methyl alcohol forming 2-ethyl- mercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-methoxypyrimidine,boiling...

    4-Methyl-5-ethyl-2-thiouracil reacts with ethyl bromide in alcoholic solution in presence of sodium ethylate,forming 2-ethylmercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-uracil(m. p.141°),from which 2-ethylmercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-chloropyrimidine,boiling at 148-150° at 13 mm.,at 164-166° at 17 mm.,or at 180-185° at 25 mm.,is prepared according to the directions given by Johnson and Bailey.This chloro- pyrimidine reacts with sodium methylate in methyl alcohol forming 2-ethyl- mercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-methoxypyrimidine,boiling at 152-154° at 11 mm., at 156-160° at 16.5 mm.,or at 162° at 22 mm.,and with sodium ethylate in ethyl alcohol forming 2-ethylmercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-ethoxypyrimidide,boiling at 139-140° at 5 mm.or 142-145° at 7 mm. 2-Ethylmercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-methoxypyrimidine interacts with chlorine with formation of 2-ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-methoxypyrimidine,m.p.45- 47°,in a yield of 81% of the theory.2-Ethylmercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-ethoxy- pyrimidine interacts with chlorine with formation of 2-ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5- ethyl-6-ethoxypyrimidine,boiling at 202-205° at 5 mm.or at 212-215° at 10 mm.,in a yield of 91% of the theory.2-Ethyl-mercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6- chloro-pyrimidine interacts with chlorine with formation of 2-ethylsulfonyl-4- methyl-5-ethyl-6-chloro-pyrimidine,m.p.74-75.5°,in a nearly quantitative yield. 2-Ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-chloro-pyrimidine reacts with sodium methy- late in methyl alcohol,producing 4-methyl-5-ethyl-2,6-dimethoxypyrimidine,boil- ing at 123° at 15 mm.or 113-115° at 11 mm.;while 2-ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl- 5-ethyl-6-methoxypyrimidine reacts with sodium methylate in methyl alcohol, producing the same pyrimidine-dimethyl ether,boiling at 123° at 17 mm.2- Ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-ethoxy-pyrimidine reacts with sodium ethylate in ethyl alcohol in an analogous manner to form 4-methyl-5-ethyl-2,6-diethoxypyri- midine,which boils at 130° at 8 mm.4-Methyl-5-ethyl-6-methoxy-uracil,m.p. 194-195°,is produced by boiling 2-ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-methoxypyri- midine with 10% sodium hydroxide solution.Likewise,4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-ethoxy- uracil,m.p.179-180°,is produced by boiling 2-ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5-ethyl- 6-ethoxypyrimidine with 10% sodium hydroxide solution.The action of alcoho- lic ammonia upon 2-ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-chloropyrimidine at 100—105° gives 2-ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-aminopyrimidine,melting at 108—109°. 4-Methyl-5-ethyl-cytosine,m.p.296-298° or m.p.294°,is formed (i) by boiling 2-ethylsulfonyl-4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-amino-pyrimidine with 6 N hydrochloric acid and (ii) by heating 4-methyl-5-ethyl-6-methoxy-uracil with alcoholic am- monia at 120-140° for 18 hours.Thus,there are two new routes for synthesiz- ing 4-methyl-5-ethyl-cytosine,starting from 2-ethylmercapto-4-methyl-5-ethyl- uracil.Although these new methods involve one or two steps more than the old method described by Johnson and Bailey,who heated 2-ethylmercapto-4-me- thyl-5-ethyl-6-chloropyrimidine with alcoholic ammonia,producing the correspond- ing mercaptoaminopyrimidine,from which the ethylmercapto-group was removed by boiling with hydrochloric acid,they appear to be unique.

    (1)2-乙硫醇基-4-甲基-5-乙基-6-氯代嘧啶和醇钠在醇溶液中反应,则生成它相应的乙硫醇-嘧啶-醚类。(2)2-乙硫醇-嘧啶类有下列结构:式中 X 为卤素或烷氧基。它很容易和氯互相作用,形成嘧啶一砜。(3)当2-乙磺醯-嘧啶类和醇钠及碱作用时,则嘧啶中的乙磺酰基在所有的情况下都相似于一个易于被烷氧基和羟基所置换的卤原子。然而氨和氯-乙磺酰-嘧啶反应时,则氯原子为氨基取代,而乙磺酰基仍然是不作用的。(4)叙述了两种新的合成4-甲基-5-乙基-6-氨基-2-氧-嘧啶的方法。

    The oxygen consumption of some pondfishes—Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis has been investigated. The results thus obtained are summarized as follows:The oxgen consumption of the fingerlings of the above-mentioned fishes, which weigh 0.4—1.7 gm, is on average 0.325 to 0.532 mg/gm/hr at a temperature varying between 28.5℃ and 31.7℃; that of the yearlings of these fishes with body weight of 38.9 to 172.3 gm. is 0.161 to 0.264 mg/gm/hr at a temperature of 26.3—30.5℃;...

    The oxygen consumption of some pondfishes—Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis has been investigated. The results thus obtained are summarized as follows:The oxgen consumption of the fingerlings of the above-mentioned fishes, which weigh 0.4—1.7 gm, is on average 0.325 to 0.532 mg/gm/hr at a temperature varying between 28.5℃ and 31.7℃; that of the yearlings of these fishes with body weight of 38.9 to 172.3 gm. is 0.161 to 0.264 mg/gm/hr at a temperature of 26.3—30.5℃; and that of Ctenopharyngodon of two years old, weighing 1103—1355 gm., is 0.139 to 0.151 mg/gm/hr at 21—23.5℃. In the same species of fishes, oxygen consumption decreases as the age or the body weight increases. This indicates that the younger fish require higher oxyen consumption than do the older ones.It was found that the rate of oxygen consumption of a fish is directly proportional to the temperature of the water; thus oxygen consumption increases as the water temperature rises. The rate of oxygen consumption of Aristichthys nobilis in the winter season is only 1/6 of that in the summer. Differences in the rate of oxygen consumption among these species of fishes were also noticed. The rate of oxygen consumption in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is higher than in Aristickthys nobilis, and that of the latter is still higher than that of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    1.草鱼、白鲢、花鲢的鱼苗和第2年鱼,以及草鱼的第3年鱼在夏季水温下的耗氧率,均经连续至少7小时以上的测定。 体重0.4-1.7克的鱼苗,在28.5-31.7℃的水温中,平均耗氧率篇0.325-0.632毫克/克/小时;体重38.9-172.3克的第2年鱼,在26.3-30.6℃的水温中,平均耗氧率为0.161-0.264毫克/克/小时;体重1103-1355克的第3年鱼(草鱼)在水温21-23.5℃时,平均耗氧率为0.139-0.151毫克/克/小时。 2.耗氧率随体重的增加而减低;同种之内,小鱼的耗氧率较大鱼为高。 3.耗氧率随水温的上升而增加;花鲢在冬季的耗氧率不及夏季的1/6。 4.在体重和水温相仿的情形下,白鲢的耗氧率较花鲢为高,花鲢的耗氧率又较草鱼为高。

    As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until...

    As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until December 1950, no further developments were made. The main instruments we had in 1950 were: a 80mm Prin transit with impersonal micrometer, two Leroy pendulums as standard clocks, three astronomical clocks and their slaves, equipments for receiving and recording time signals, etc. Since 1952, we began to make some improvements, especially on rhythmic signals. First, we converted a common clock into a "transmitting clock" to obtain 61 impulses in every minute and second by making use of photoelectric arrangement (Fig. 1), we succeeded to raise the accuracy of our signals. To improve signal accuracy further, we have to deal with various sources of errors which are conditioned by our equipments. The most important among these are: 1. error in prediction of corrections of the standard clocks, 2. error in the adjustment of the transmitting clock and 3. time lag in transmission. In consequence of last three-year's research, these errors are reasonably reduced. The first two are now±0~s.007 and ±0~s.005 respectively and the last is small. Accordingly, the deviation of time signals XSG has been supposed to be±0~s.01. However, this is not enough for the requirement. The more efforts are being made to bring further improvements. But as the requirements for signal accuracy is far above what the present installation can offer, some new equipments are ordered and they will joint in force with the old ones in the nearest future. Since February 1954, Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory has cooperated with the time service departments in Soviet Union. This has been helpful to our works in every way.

    授時包括测時、守時和播時三个主要方面。在時號的发播中包含了预報主钟改正量的差误,工作钟的調節誤差和電路遲滯变化等三种誤差。如果使用石英钟及有關设备,这就可基本解决。各台站在其天文观测基础上订定的時號改正數也包含有偶然差和系统差,比較全面解決的只有蘇聯和国際時間局这两个标准系统。徐家匯觀象台授時工作歷史很久,作了一些工作,但抗戰以來,郎停滯不前,直到人民政府接办,才逐步在原有基礎上開展了改進。幾年来主要是改裝了一具工作钟,裝置光電设备以发播科学式時號,對時号精确度解决了秒距誤差和五分间誤差。工作钟的调节誤差被其本身品質所限,仍未解决,只是在加強值班工作之后,有了一定限度的提高,目前約為±0~s.005,在预报主钟改正量時,也有很大程度的不稳定,約為±0~s.007。所以時号的精确度在±0~s.01左右。要进一步提高质量,满足要求,有待於新設備的增添使用。在時号改正數方面,所存在的相當大的系统差,可採用蘇聯或国際時間局系統的改正數來避免。

     
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