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incubation
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  孵育
    Alteration of multidrug resistant profiles in MDR1 gene trans- fected Swiss 3T3 cells after incubation in colchicine
    MDR1基因转染的Swiss3T3细胞经秋水仙碱孵育后多药抗药性模式改变
短句来源
    After 12 h or 24 h incubation,cell proliferation was detected by MTT,cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometer.
    此外,培养的NIH3T3直接与CDB共孵育12h和24h后,MTT法检测其对细胞增殖的影响,流式细胞术检测其对细胞周期和凋亡的作用。
短句来源
    UDPGA(3mmol/L) was added to start enzymatic reaction after preincubation for 5 min at 37. At designed time, CCl3COOH (2mmol/L) was added to stop the incubation and nitrobenzoic acid was added as internal standard. Sodium hydroxide (2mol/L) was added to change the value of pH to about seven.
    测定方法:大鼠肝微粒体孵育液体积0.5ml,加入R/S-普萘洛尔,37℃水浴预孵育5min,然后加入适量UDPGA(3mmol/L)启动反应,恒温振摇孵育一定时间,加入内标液(对硝基苯甲酸),同时加Zmol/L三氯醋酸适量终止反应,用2 mol/L氢氧化钠液调节pH至近中性,8000rpm离心10min。
短句来源
    Methods: On the establishment of the Caco-2 cell model, the research is carried out to study ①the effect on famotidine absoiption by different incubation time, pH value and drug concentration, ②the transport of famotidine and ③the effects of teprenone and sucralfate on famotidine absorption and transport;
    方法:建立Caco-2细胞模型,研究不同孵育时间、孵育液pH值和药物浓度对法莫替丁摄取的影响,同时进行法莫替丁转运研究,了解替普瑞酮和硫糖铝对法莫替丁吸收和转运的影响; 建立大鼠离体和在体肠吸收模型,了解法莫替丁在大鼠肠道吸收的节段性差异以及动力学特征,以及替普瑞酮对此过程的影响;
短句来源
    The result showed that the reoxygenation and incubation of the isolated adult rat cardiomycytes with anisodamine(1. 64×10~(-4)mol/L, 1. 64×10~(-3)mol/L)significantly enhanced the ability of mycytcs to stand reoxygenation injury,which increased the cell vability,and inhibited Ca~(2+)influx.
    结果发现,复氧孵育时给予山茛菪碱(1.64×10~(-4)、1.64×10~(-3)mol/L)明显增强心肌细胞对复氧损伤的耐受性。 表现为杆形细胞存活率增加,细胞外钙内流被抑制,显示有直接的细胞保护作用。
短句来源
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  温育
    Na-K phosphate buffer (pH7.4). 0.8mg membrane protein, and various amount of 3H-QNB. The incubation time was 30min. The bound fraction was filtered onto a glass fiber filter disc (Type 79, manufactured in Shanghai), 0.01μM QNB was used to estimate the non-specific binding.
    经28000×g低温离心制备膜制剂,在2ml Na-K磷酸缓冲液(pH7.4)中含0.8mg膜蛋白,不同浓度~3H-QNB 37℃温育半小时,用国产79型滤膜分离结合与游离部份,用0.01μM QNB作测非特异结合用。
短句来源
    Addition of H2O2 to the incubation medium also enhanced the proteoglycan degradation of articular cartilage, and this effect was promoted significantly by Cu2+ or Co2+.
    在温育的介质中加入H_2O_2,也可使关节软骨蛋白聚糖降解增高,Cu~(2+)或Co~(2+)对此有显著促进作用,其它过渡金属则作用不明显。
短句来源
    Anaerobic incubation of 560μmol/L trinitrotoluene(TNT),an explosive applied widely in the munitions and mining industries,with 1 mmol/L NADPH and 2 mg rat liver mitochondria protein/ml produced an electron spin resonance(ESR)spectrum of nitro anion free radical. The radical formation depended on all three components in the incubation system.
    在无氧条件下,以560μmol/L TNT与1mmol/L NADPH和大鼠肝线粒体(2 mg蛋白/ml)在室温下温育,用ESR波谱直接观察到TNT还原活化后形成的硝基阴离子自由基信号,信号的出现取决于温育体系中的所有三种成分。
短句来源
    the incubation time,15 minutes, the incubation temperature, 37℃ and that ANS solutionstored under 0~4℃ is considered being used within two weeks.
    膜与ANS温育15分钟; ANS在0~4℃下保存两周之内仍可考虑使用。
短句来源
    There were a 1.96-fold and 1.8-foldincreases in AR binding activities following 24 h incubation with 5 nmol/L R1881 inthree normal GSFs and GSFtfm3 respectively.
    当正常GSF和患者GSF(GSFtfm3)与5nmol/L的R1881预温育24h后,其AR水平分别增至1.96倍(为三个正常GSF系的平均值)及1.8倍。
短句来源
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  “incubation”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Incubation of PC12 cells with bupivacaine 0.09 mmol/L resulted in significant increase in LDH activity and decrease in the expression of Trx-1 and TrxR-1 as compared with the control group.
    与对照组比较,布比卡因组和布比卡因+异丙酚组LDH活性升高,Trx-1和TrxR-1表达率降低(P<0.01);
短句来源
    RESULTS chitosan-PLA-NP containing 6-coumarin was generally spherical with a mean diameter of 185.4± 49.5 nm, a positive surface charge, 71.2% encapsulation efficiency, 8.85% residual PVA and no ciliotoxicity. It was stable in lysozyme and nasal washes after incubation 2 h at 37℃. In vitro leak was less than 8% within 24 h under two different pH conditions.
    结果chitosan-PLA-NP形态圆整,粒径分布185.4±49.5nm,Zeta电位2.81mV,包封率71.2%,PVA残留量8.85%,在溶菌酶和鼻洗液中稳定,没有鼻纤毛毒性,在pH7.4和pH4条件下24h累积泄漏百分率<8%。
    The toxic effects of high dose Bcl-2 antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides incubation on cell line
    大剂量Bcl-2反义硫代磷酸寡核苷酸对细胞系的毒性作用
短句来源
    IN VITRO METABOLIC STUDIES OF THE NOVEL ANTI ANXIETIC DRUG AF-5 AND ITS METABOLITES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOME INCUBATION SYSTEM
    抗焦虑新药AF-5及其代谢物在人肝微粒体体外温孵体系中代谢研究
短句来源
    Research on Influence of in situ Liver Perfusion and Microsomal Incubation on Para Toluene Sulfonamide Liver Metabolism in Rat
    大鼠原位肝灌流及体外肝微粒体温孵研究对甲基苯磺酰胺代谢的影响因素
短句来源
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  incubation
After 24h incubation, cellular DNA was isolated and analyzed for BP-derived DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling technique.
      
Cell incubation experiments show that PLA-PU has biocompatibility comparable to that of pure PLA.
      
We studied the effects of nitrogen source, initial pH, temperature, incubation time, medium composition, and surfactants on cellulase production.
      
The only known Early Cretaceous bird embryo fossil has shown that precocial birds had occurred prior to altricial birds in avian history, and the size of the embryo and other analysis indicate it probably had a short incubation period.
      
Individuals of the species in pair-banding and nest-detecting periods have larger home ranges than those in incubation and rearing periods.
      
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Purified succinic dehydrogenase is a metallo-flavin-adenine protein containing non-haematin iron.The flavin-adenine prosthetic group is firmly bound to the protein part of the enzyme and cannot be split from the latter by boiling in weak acid medium.By digesting with trypsin and chymotrypsin,however,the prosthetic group can be liberated in combination with a peptide chain.The product has been purified by a procedure which involves cresol extraction, mercuric sulphate precipitation,decomposition of the latter...

Purified succinic dehydrogenase is a metallo-flavin-adenine protein containing non-haematin iron.The flavin-adenine prosthetic group is firmly bound to the protein part of the enzyme and cannot be split from the latter by boiling in weak acid medium.By digesting with trypsin and chymotrypsin,however,the prosthetic group can be liberated in combination with a peptide chain.The product has been purified by a procedure which involves cresol extraction, mercuric sulphate precipitation,decomposition of the latter with hydrogen sulphide,followed by paper electrophoresis and paper chromatography.The purified product has been separated into four flavin-adenine peptides with different amino acid contents.One fraction with comparatively high mobility on paper electrophoresis and containing 12 amino acids(hydrolyzed in 6 N HCl) has an absorption spectrum with maxima at 265,350 and 450 mμ(compared with 260,375 and 450 mμ of FAD),the ratio of E_(260) and E_(450) mμ is equal to 3.87.The other three fractions has similar absorption spectra as that of the first,except for a slight shift of the 265 mμ maximum to 270 mμ.All the four flavin-adenine peptides contain cysteine and show a greenish yellow fluorescence in the u.v.light.The fluorescent intensity of the prosthetic group varies with pH and exhibits a maximum at pH 2.9.All fractions are inactive in the D-amino acid oxidase test and give on analysis 1 mole of adenine and 2.5 moles of phosphorus per mole of flavin.The pentose flavin ratio was much higher than that of FAD. Photolysis of the flavin-adenine peptides in alkaline solution yields a product which is insoluble in chloroform after acidification.Removal of the adenine results in the formation of flavin peptides.These facts indicate that the peptide chain is linked to the isoalloxazine nucleus of the prosthetic group.It is known that the absorption peak at 375 mμ of either FAD or FMN shifts to about 355 mμ at pH 12 due probably to the enolization of the keto group at the 2 or 4 position resulting in a redistribution of double bonds in the isoalloxazine ring system. In contrast our flavin-adenine peptide has the corresponding absorption maximum at 350 mμ which shows little positional shift at pH 12.This seems to suggest that the linking of the peptide chain to the isoalloxazine nucleus affects the enolization of the-NH-CO-,which may probably be the site of the linkage. The iron content increases with the specific activity of the enzyme during purification.Iron in the purified enzyme is present in the reduced state.It is firmly bound to the enzyme and can not be removed by prolonged dialysis against phosphate buffer or tris-hydroxymethyl-amino-methane buffer.Enzymatic activity is lost during prolonged incubation with o-phenanthroline or α,α'- dipyridyl and can not be recovered by incubation with Fe~(2+) or Fe~(3+).These experiments de- monstrate a close relationship between enzyme activity and the iron present in the enzyme molecule. The enzyme activity is lower in borate than in phosphate buffer.When 40 mM ethylenedi- aminetetraacetic acid is added to the borate buffer,the enzyme activity is raised almost to the level of that observed in the same concentration of phosphate buffer.The effect of EDTA and phosphate,when present together,is somewhat higher than of either alone.Alanine has a similar effect'as EDTA.

(一)用结晶胰蛋白酶及结晶胰凝乳蛋白酶处理净化的水溶性琥珀酸脱氢酶,经过对甲酚抽提,硫酸汞沉淀,硫化氢分解及纸电泳纸层析等方法净化得到四种带有不同肽链的腺嘌呤异咯嗪核苷酸。从它们的组成成份的分析以及它们的性质的观察,我们认为它们与已知的腺嘌呤异咯嗪二核苷酸略有不同。肽链是连接在异咯嗪上,其连接方式异于一般异咯嗪蛋白。肽链部份的氨基酸组成的分析结果,证明它们都含有半胱氨酸。(二)琥珀酸脱氢酶中的铁处于还原状态。铁与酶朊紧密结合,它与酶活力有密切关系。(三)无机磷可增加琥珀酸脱氢酶的活力,但琥珀酸脱氰酶的活力并不是必需依靠无机磷的存在,乙二胺四乙酸与丙氨酸也有类似无机磷的作用。

The last step in the biosynthesis of vitamin C has been shown to be carried out enzymatically by a particulate preparation from rat liver.In the presence of oxygen and glutathione,L-gulono-or L-galactono-γ-lactone is oxidized to L-ascorbic acid. When the mitochondria and the microsomes are separated by means of differential centri- fugation,the enzyme activity is found in both fractions but is much higher in the microsomes. In the particulate form,the enzyme is insensitive to inhibitors such as cyanide,azide,iodoacetate,...

The last step in the biosynthesis of vitamin C has been shown to be carried out enzymatically by a particulate preparation from rat liver.In the presence of oxygen and glutathione,L-gulono-or L-galactono-γ-lactone is oxidized to L-ascorbic acid. When the mitochondria and the microsomes are separated by means of differential centri- fugation,the enzyme activity is found in both fractions but is much higher in the microsomes. In the particulate form,the enzyme is insensitive to inhibitors such as cyanide,azide,iodoacetate, arsenite and atebrin but is stimulated by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Upon treatment with sodium desoxycholate,the microsomes can be partially solubilized.The solubilized enzyme can be purified 5—6 fold by adsorption on alumina C_γ gel and precipitation by ammonium sulfate at 0.2 saturation.The partially purified enzyme still requires oxygen for its action and is incapable of utilizing ferricytochrome c as acceptor or artificial hydrogen acceptors such as ferricyanide,methylcne blue and 2:6-dichlorophenol indophenol.It still acts only on the lactones and cannot utilize the acid form of the substrates.With the iemoval of most of the substances capable of oxidizing ascorbic acid, glutathione is no longer a necessary factor in the reaction medium.Its addition,however, slightly enhances the reaction.This and the facts that p-chloromercuribenzoate strongly inhibits it while metal-chelating agents such as 8-hydroxyquinoline and thiocyanate enhance its activity show that the enzyme probably contains essentiai-SH-groups.The enzyme action is still in- sensitive to cyanide,being only slightly depressed by very high concentration of KCN(10~1M). The inhibitory effect,however,is more marked upon incubation in the absence of the substrate. The ()nzyme is also inhibited by BAL but not by atebrin,arsenite or fluoride,while 2,4-dinitro- phenol has a markedly stimulating effect.Inhibitors that are known to affect catalase activity, such as hydroxylamine and azide have an inhibitory effect on our enzyme only when gluta- thione is absent.It is suggested that in the oxidation of the substrate,H_2O_2 is produced and normally is immediately decomposed by catalase which accompanies our enzyme and proves to be very difficult to remove completely.In the presence of inhibitors which act on catalase, however,H_2O_2 accumulates resulting in either the oxidation of ascorbic acid or inactivation of the enzyme or both.Glutathione,if present,protects both the product and the enzyme from destruction.The action of KCN which,in addition to its strong effect on catalase,also protects L-ascorbic acid,is not influenced by glutathione in the same way.The enzyme shows a decided requirement for inorganic phosphate which can only be partially replaced by metal chelating agents such as versene(ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid). Work on the further purification of the enzyme and detailed investigation on its nature and action is still in progress.

(一)用差示离心方法,由大白鼠肝得到的颗粒体制剂在谷胱甘肽的保护作用下,有将 L-古罗糖酸-或 L-半乳糖酸-γ-内酯氧化为 L-抗坏血酸的作用,活力大部存在于微粒体。(二)利用脱羟胆盐处理微粒体可使之成为局部溶解的酶制剂,经氧化铝凝胶 C_r 吸附,硫酸铵沉淀续加纯化,活力提高5—6倍。(三)对于酶作用的一般情况和一些因素对它的影响,我们作了一些观察。(四)比较并讨论了我俩所得结果与其他工作者所报告者的异同。

Evidences obtained previously from in vivo experiments indicated that there are some possible relationships between the diuretic actions and the physiological dispositions of several sulfonamide diuretics. In the present investigation, tubular transport of these compounds was studied in slices of the rat kidney by a modification of the method developed by Cross and Taggart for PAH (para-aminohippuric acid). Chemical determinations of these compounds were carried out by a modification of the method of Baer et...

Evidences obtained previously from in vivo experiments indicated that there are some possible relationships between the diuretic actions and the physiological dispositions of several sulfonamide diuretics. In the present investigation, tubular transport of these compounds was studied in slices of the rat kidney by a modification of the method developed by Cross and Taggart for PAH (para-aminohippuric acid). Chemical determinations of these compounds were carried out by a modification of the method of Baer et al., and S/M ratios (ratios of concentrations of drug in slice versus medium after incubating at 25℃ for 2 hours) were calculated. Both HCT (hydrochlorothiazide) and PAH accumulated to a considerable degree in the renal slices. The S/M ratios of these compounds were found to be 9.3 and 7.2 respectively. However, when the incubation was carried out at 37℃, the S/M ratios of both drugs decreased appreciably in spite of an increase of Qo_2. Variations from an optimal pH of 7.8 to 8.0 either towards the acid or alkaline side produced a decrease of S/M values for both drugs. Anaerobic condition inhibited, while addition of acetate stimulated, the accumulation of HCT in the slices. DNP (2.5×10_5M) or cyanide (50—100×10_5M) decreased the S/M values of PAH, CT (chlorothiazide) and HCT considerably. Diodrast or penicillin G, when added in concentrations 15 times as high as that of the substrate, also decreased the S/M value of HCT, without affecting the Qo_2 of the slices. These results suggest that HCT and its analogs may share a common renal transport mechanism with PAH, penicillin G and Diodrast. In addition, the S/M values of 8 sulfonamide diuretics (including CT and HCT) were compared. It was found that those compounds such as HCT-55 (5-chloro-hydrochlorothiazide), HCT and HFT (hydroflumethiazide) which showed relatively high diuretic activities also exhibited higher S/M values. On the contrary, inactive compounds or compounds with low diuretic activities, such as HCT-18 (3-[3',4'-dimerhoxy-2'-ethyl-carboxylate-phenyl]-hydrochlorothiazide), CT and DSA (5-chloro-2,4-disulphamyl-aniline) had lower S/M values. These results would be in favor of the concept that these sulfonamide derivatives exert their diuretic actions in the process of being transported by the renal tubular epithelium. CT-S (benzthiazide) accumulated in the liver slices of the rat to the same extent as in the renal slices, while HCT accumulated preferentially in the kidney slices.

前交报告了磺胺类利尿剂的利尿作用与在大鼠体内的代谢特点。本研究系继这个工作之后进行的离体大鼠腎切片的实验,目的在于观察体外腎組織轉运这类化合物的某些特点,及其与化合物利尿作用间的联系。实驗按Cross和Taggart研究兔腎切片摄聚对氨基马尿酸(PAH)的方法进行,用Warburg组織呼吸器温孵,同时观察腎切片耗氧量(Qo_2)。以s/M值(温孵后药物在切片与介液中浓度之比)表示腎切片摄聚药物的能力。测得的s/M值双氫氯噻嗪(HCT)平均为9.34±0.28,PAH为7.17±1.23。二者的s/M值在25℃时均此37℃时的高。其最适pH分別为7.8及8.0。乏氧环境抑制HCT及氯噻嗪(CT)的s/M值;醋酸刺激HCT在腎的积聚;半胱氨酸則无作用。DNP(2.5××10~(-5)M)和氰化钠(50—100×10~(-5)M)均抑制PAH、CT及HCT的s/M值。加入15倍于底物浓度的碘呲啦啥或青霉素亦能抑制HCT的s/M值(此时組織耗氧量不变)。这些結果提示HCT类化合物的腎脏轉运机制与PAH、青霉素及碘呲啦啥等可能相同。此外,还比較了8个磺胺类化合物的s/M值,其中HCT-55(5-氯双氫氯噻嗪)、HCT、...

前交报告了磺胺类利尿剂的利尿作用与在大鼠体内的代谢特点。本研究系继这个工作之后进行的离体大鼠腎切片的实验,目的在于观察体外腎組織轉运这类化合物的某些特点,及其与化合物利尿作用间的联系。实驗按Cross和Taggart研究兔腎切片摄聚对氨基马尿酸(PAH)的方法进行,用Warburg组織呼吸器温孵,同时观察腎切片耗氧量(Qo_2)。以s/M值(温孵后药物在切片与介液中浓度之比)表示腎切片摄聚药物的能力。测得的s/M值双氫氯噻嗪(HCT)平均为9.34±0.28,PAH为7.17±1.23。二者的s/M值在25℃时均此37℃时的高。其最适pH分別为7.8及8.0。乏氧环境抑制HCT及氯噻嗪(CT)的s/M值;醋酸刺激HCT在腎的积聚;半胱氨酸則无作用。DNP(2.5××10~(-5)M)和氰化钠(50—100×10~(-5)M)均抑制PAH、CT及HCT的s/M值。加入15倍于底物浓度的碘呲啦啥或青霉素亦能抑制HCT的s/M值(此时組織耗氧量不变)。这些結果提示HCT类化合物的腎脏轉运机制与PAH、青霉素及碘呲啦啥等可能相同。此外,还比較了8个磺胺类化合物的s/M值,其中HCT-55(5-氯双氫氯噻嗪)、HCT、HFT(三氟甲基双氫噻嗪)及CT-S(Benzthiazide)等利尿作用較强者,s/M值亦較高。DSA、CT及HCT-18等利尿作用较弱(或没有利尿作用),s/M值亦较低。大鼠肝及腎切片摄聚CT-S的能力相同,但肝切片摄聚HCT的能力远不及腎切片。

 
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