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tree canopy
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  树冠
     Basically,there are two research methods,qualitative description and quantitative analysis. Over 20 various competition indices were developed to estimate competition degree. However,none of these indices could accommodate the problem of tree canopy changes in the quantitative analysis reasonably.
     研究林木个体之间的竞争是研究森林生态系统基础,林木竞争的研究方法主要有定性描述和定量分析两种方法并先后提出了20多种衡量竞争程度的竞争指数系统,但有关学者研究后认为,这些竞争指数都没有较好地解决了定量分析中树冠变化的问题。
短句来源
     Analysis on the Space Charge Effects in Tree Canopy Electrostatic Spraying
     果树树冠静电喷雾的空间电荷效应分析
短句来源
     Four calculation methods were introduced for the measurement of tree canopy diameter. Tractor traveling speeds of 0.31 m/s and 0.65 m/s were selected to measure and to examine this measuring system.
     试验分别采用4种树冠直径检测计算方法,并选择0.31 m/s和0.65 m/s两种不同拖拉机行驶速度进行检测。
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     The relationship between the dynamic distribution of the microclimate (including radiation, temperature and relative humidity) in tree canopy and the types of branches and leaves as well as the fruit quality was studied by using 12-year Red Fuji apple orchard trained as Standard open center shape.
     本研究以12年生的宫藤富士苹果(Malus. domestica Borkh cv. Fuji)为试材,系统研究了高于开心形树冠微气候因子(光、温度、湿度)的动态变化与枝量和果实品质的关系,主要研究结果如下:
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     L-system can provide valuable reference for tree branches simulation and dynamic growth visualizing for tree canopy.
     林氏系统可对树木枝条仿真和树冠动态生长可视化模拟提供参考。
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  林冠截留量
     A significant correlation of logarithm function exists between the interception of the tree canopy and the atmospheric precipitation. The amount of the rainfall intercepted varies in different seasons. In winter—spring the equations are the power functions and in summer—autumn, linear or logarithm functions.
     同时,林冠的枝叶生长和林下植物盖度的变化对截留量(率)大小也有一定影响.林冠截留量(率)与林外降水量间存在密切的对数关系,而林下植物截留量(率)与林冠降水量或林外降水量之间的函数关系随不同季节而变化,冬春季为幂函数,夏秋季为直线或对数关系,这主要与降水强度有关。
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  “tree canopy”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The tree canopy was negatively related to the disease index and the correlation coefficient was 0.8686. The effect of soil depth on the disease index was obvious.
     在土壤因子中,病情指数与土壤深度呈负相关(R2=0.772663)、与土壤容重呈正相关(R2=0.683045),即土层越浅、土壤容重越大其感病指数越高;
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     (2) The number and distribution of the species in the artificial forests were mainly decided by tree canopy,altitude and management class.
     (2)人工重建的群落所能容纳的物种数及物种在群落中的分布状况主要取决于乔木物种郁闭度、海拔高度及经营强度。
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     The average biomass indexes for different ages were investigated separately: the trunk perimeter, plant height, tree canopy diameters and the number of new branches of 4 years old trees were found an increase of 42.1%, 42.6%, 34.1% and 31.7% respectively, comparing with the control.
     1-5年生幼树各项指标平均值相对于同龄对照有明显增加; 4年生树干周、树高、冠径和末级梢数量比对照分别增加42.1%、42.6%、34.1%和31.7%。
短句来源
     TyvekTM mulching significantly (P<0. 05) increased the reflected light into the lower tree canopy.
     TyvekTM地面覆盖显著(P<0.05)提高进入冠幕下部的地面反射光水平。
短句来源
     2. Research on DGPS positioning accuracy under the tree canopy in forest land.
     2、DGPS在林区及林冠下的定位精度分析。
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  tree canopy
The performance of this role leads to the formation of the following components of biogeocenosis heterogeneity: phytogenic fields of trees, "gaps in the tree canopy," and windfall-soil complexes.
      
Two different pheromone deployment strategies were compared: covering entire tree canopies with synthetic HMP or treating only one half (top to bottom or lower half) of the tree canopy.
      
Pheromone application caused a tenfold reduction in fruit infestation if the entire tree canopy was covered (0.226 vs 0.021 pupae/fruit in untreated and treated trees, respectively).
      
Use of a sprayed L-tryptophan solution to concentrate numbers of the green lacewingChrysoperla carnea in olive tree canopy
      
Females occurred significantly higher in the tree canopy than males, although egg-laying was most frequent at mid-level.
      
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This paper analyses the causes of uprooting and trunk snap/twisting of rubber tree in face of typhoon by using the principles of aerodynamics and structure-dynamics, thereby obtaining different free-vibration frequency equations stemming from various da magede grees and certain vibration factors affecting rubber trees. Based on these frequen cies and the alternatins stress better wind-fast structure and size of a tree canopy were ealettlated, thus to provide a mechanical basis for rabber wind-resistant...

This paper analyses the causes of uprooting and trunk snap/twisting of rubber tree in face of typhoon by using the principles of aerodynamics and structure-dynamics, thereby obtaining different free-vibration frequency equations stemming from various da magede grees and certain vibration factors affecting rubber trees. Based on these frequen cies and the alternatins stress better wind-fast structure and size of a tree canopy were ealettlated, thus to provide a mechanical basis for rabber wind-resistant cultivation.

本文用空气动力学和结构动力学的理论分析橡胶树倒、断、扭的风害成因,推导出橡胶树不同受害形式的自振频率公式,得出影响橡胶树的有关振动因子。根据自振频率和交变应力的强度条件计算抗风树型的结构尺寸,为橡胶树抗风栽培技术措施提供力学依据。

This study was conducted,on sweet orange,Citrus sinensis(L,),trees at Guangzhou district of Guangdong Province during 1979 to 1981.Effec- ttive biological control of citrus red mite,Panonychus cirri (McG.),by he polyphagous predaceous mite,Amblyseius newsarni Evans,is possible when the weed,Ageratum conyzoides Linn.,is growing in citrus orchards. Cultivation of the weed renders the environment of the orchard more favourable for A.newsami.This weed reduces the summer temperature of the air in the canopy of trees...

This study was conducted,on sweet orange,Citrus sinensis(L,),trees at Guangzhou district of Guangdong Province during 1979 to 1981.Effec- ttive biological control of citrus red mite,Panonychus cirri (McG.),by he polyphagous predaceous mite,Amblyseius newsarni Evans,is possible when the weed,Ageratum conyzoides Linn.,is growing in citrus orchards. Cultivation of the weed renders the environment of the orchard more favourable for A.newsami.This weed reduces the summer temperature of the air in the canopy of trees in orchards from 4o~45℃ to below 35℃,in- creases humidity,suppresses the growth of other weeds and provides food in the form of pollen for the predaceous mites,and also can be used as green manure.In the orchards where the weed was grown the hummer of A.newsami on the citrus trees reched 0.1~0.3 mobile stages per leaf and the citrus red mite population was maintained at low level.In the orchards which were free of such weed the number of predaceous mite on citrus trees was less than 0.1 mobiles stages per leaf.Population of pre- daceous mite was higher on the weed leaves than on the leaves of the cit- rus trees,generally exceeding 0.3 mobile stages per leaf.The higher po- pulation were related to the lower temperature and higher relative humi- dites recorded 10 cm above the ground within the weed growth than wi- thin the tree canopy. In order to carry out successful citrus pests control,the integrated use of predaceous mite with chemical and cultural control for other pests should be an effective measures.Dicofol with 0.025 percent active ingre- dient and colloidal sulphurs at rate of 1 to 500 water will kill more than 90 percent of citrus rust mite;carbaryl at 0.04 percent active ingredient will kill about 90 percent of citrus leaf miner and citrus psylla.These pesticides of above concentration have no harm to the predaceous mite.A. newsami This predaceous mite is sensitiye to organophosphates.

在柑桔园种植一种菊科杂草——藿香蓟覆盖地面,对桔全爪螨的重要天敌纽氏钝绥螨有明显的助长作用。柑园覆盖藿香蓟后,在夏季高温季节,可使柑桔树冠外围温度从40~45℃降至35℃以下,相对湿度增加;藿香蓟的花粉可供作钝绥螨的食料。这种小生境的改善,有利于钝绥螨种群的稳定和增长。藿香蓟草丛中的生态条件适合钝绥螨的生存繁殖,钝绥螨在藿香蓟叶片上的密度,常比在柑桔叶片上为高。在需要使用化学农药防治其他害虫或病害而引致柑桔树上的钝绥螨数量明显减少时,藿香蓟上的钝绥螨是一个重要的补充源泉。藿香蓟的生长抑制了其他杂草,大大减少用于除草的劳动力。藿香蓟可作绿肥,根系较浅,无明显与柑桔争肥现象。经多年试验,证明上述方法防治桔全爪螨的效果良好,目前这种措施已在广东省的一些柑桔产区应用。对柑桔害虫的综合防治,可利用钝绥螨防治桔全爪螨,对其他重要害虫如桔锈螨、柑桔潜叶蛾和柑桔木虱可通过采取选择性农药防治或农业技术防治而加以控制。

The paper stuby undertaken to compottiion and foraging niches of two tits in winter,in mon—made Larch forest. we know that from 12 flocks that two tits was soon general species in the mixed flocks.The two tits were foraging in tree canopy The two tits was difference in foreging nichs breadth and niche overlap.The Ma h tit niche breadth was 3.49 froaging height and Long tailed tit was 3.04,both overlap was0.65.From foraging staion,Long tailed tit niche bradth was 2.29,and Ma h tit wa 2.16,both overlap wa...

The paper stuby undertaken to compottiion and foraging niches of two tits in winter,in mon—made Larch forest. we know that from 12 flocks that two tits was soon general species in the mixed flocks.The two tits were foraging in tree canopy The two tits was difference in foreging nichs breadth and niche overlap.The Ma h tit niche breadth was 3.49 froaging height and Long tailed tit was 3.04,both overlap was0.65.From foraging staion,Long tailed tit niche bradth was 2.29,and Ma h tit wa 2.16,both overlap wa 0.7890.Therefore,two tite foraging niche overlap was lage t in foraging tation. The two tit were compation coeflicients 0.6237 from foraging haight and inton ity compotion wa0.3430.From foraging station, both competition coefficients was 0.5321,and inten ity comtpsion was 0.2926.

本文对两种山雀:沼泽山雀(parus palustnis)和长尾山雀(Aegiraloscaudau)在人工落叶松林中冬季捕食生态位和竞争作了观察。对两种鸟捕食生态位,共收集2284个数据。从观察的12个群得知,两种山雀是混合群中的常见种,为群的主体。两种山雀均在人工落叶松树的树冠部侧枝上取食。两种山雀在人工落叶松林中捕食生态位的宽度和重迭不同。沼泽山雀生态位宽度,从捕食高度看其宽度为3.49,长尾山雀为3.04;两者重迭为0.65。从捕食位置看,生态位宽度以长尾山雀较宽为2.29,沼泽山雀为2.16;两者重迭为0.789。因此,两种山雀在捕食位置上生态位重迭较大。捕食高度上,生态位重迭也在50%以上。两种山雀在资源利用上的重迭都在50%以上,必然会产生竞争。我们对此竞争和竞争强度作了测定,捕食高度上竞争较大,aj=0.6237,竞争强度 L=0.3430;捕食位置上竟争 a_(ij)=0.5321,竞争强度 L=0.2929。

 
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