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upstream     
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  上游
     Study on Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution of Wuchuan Catchment in Upstream Jiulong River
     九龙江上游五川流域农业非点源污染研究
短句来源
     Analysis of Sequences of BoLA-DQB, DRB_3 Genes and Their Upstream Regulatory Region in Chinese Yellow Cattle
     部分中国黄牛BoLA-DQB、DRB_3基因及其上游调控区序列分析
短句来源
     The Molecular Characteristics of pp38 Gene and the Bi-directional Promoter on the Upstream of pp38 Gene of Marek's Disease Virus
     马立克氏病病毒pp38基因及其上游双向启动子的生物学特性
短句来源
     Studies on the Structure and Function of the Upstream Sequence of cpcB Gene from Arthrospira Platensis
     钝顶节旋藻cpcB基因上游序列结构功能的研究
短句来源
     Promoter Functional Study on Upstream Region of rad25 Gene from Halophilic Archaea in Three Domains of Life
     嗜盐古生菌rad25基因上游序列在三域生物中的启动子功能研究
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  上行
     Upstream Physical Layer Technologies of DOCSIS2.0 Protocol
     DOCSIS2.0协议的上行物理层技术
短句来源
     A S-CDMA Scheme for HFC Networks Upstream Communication
     HFC网络上行通信的S-CDMA方案
短句来源
     Simulation of Upstream Communication Sender of HFC Based on SCDMA/QPSK
     基于SCDMA/QPSK的HFC上行通信发送机的Simulink仿真
短句来源
     Performance Analysis of Upstream Channel MAC Layer Protocol in HFC Networks
     HFC网络中上行信道的MAC层协议性能分析
短句来源
     Implementation of Synchronization with Upstream Cell in PON System Based on TDM/TDMA
     基于TDM/TDMA的PON系统上行信元同步实现
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  上游的
     Further studies proved that HNF1 could bind to a canonical HNF1 site upstream the TATA box of hb1f(nr5a2) promoter and activate its transcription.
     进一步研究发现HNF1能够与hb1f(nr5a2)基因启动子的TATA盒上游的一个典型位点相结合,并激活该基因的转录。
短句来源
     Objective To study the association of diabetic neuropathy with eNOS Glu298Asp, PON1 Gln191Arg and Leu54Met, RAGE Gly82Ser, and (CA)n dinucleatide repeat polymorphism at 5' upstream of aldose reductase gene.
     目的 明确终末糖化产物受体基因 (RAGE)的Gly82Ser多态、对氧磷酶基因 (PON1)的Gln191Arg多态及Leu5 4Met多态、内皮型一氧化氮合酶基因 (eNOS)的Glu2 98Asp多态以及醛糖还原酶基因 (ALR2 ) 5′端上游的二核苷酸 (CA)n串联重复序列多态与糖尿病周围神经病变的关系。
短句来源
     YY1′s repression effect on HPV16 promoter P97 depends on the upstream enhancer sequences
     YY1蛋白对HPV16启动子P97的抑制效应依赖于上游的增强子序列
短句来源
     A 5.7 kb putative promoter region of pib gene was isolated from the pib genomic clone and substituted for the 35S promoter upstream of gus gene in plasmid pCAMBIA1301 to construct a new plant expression vector pNAR604(putative pib promoter-GUS+35S-hpt).
     将pib基因上游5.7 kb区段取代pCAMBIA1301中gus基因上游的35S启动子,构建了pib拟启动区-GUS+35S-hpt植物表达载体pNAR604。
短句来源
     Nonstructural proteins NS2 and NS3 are present as diad NS2-3 in wildtype noncytopathic CSFV. NS2 gene is deleted together with all upstream coding regions in CSFV DI particles, and diad NS2-3 is changed to NS3 monomer.
     野生型CSFV非结构蛋白NS2和NS3以二联体形式NS2-3存在,而在干扰缺损颗粒中,NS2基因连同上游的全部编码区被缺失,NS2-3二联体变成NS3单体。
短句来源
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  上游区
     The 389 bp 5′ upstream region has the putative -10 box, -35 box and SD sequence, similar to that of procaryotes.
     其389 bp 的5′上游区含有类似于原核生物的- 10 box、- 35 box 和SD序列。
短句来源
     Comparison of expression of cry1D with cry1Ab in the same host revealed that different upstream and competition for σ-factor were involved in the difference of cry1D and cry1Ab expression.
     而在同一菌株中Ccry1D lacZ和cry1Ab lacZ的表达差异是由于上游区的不同以及竞争有限的σ因子所致。
短句来源
     By fusing the upstream activation sequence (UAS) of ADH2 gene to the 5' end of a series of deletions in the upstream region of SUC2 gene, 4 expression plasmids YFD1110#1, YFD110#9, YFD110#17 and YFD110#11 were constructed. They contained different hybrid promoters for transciption of SUC2 gene.
     将ADH2基因的UAS与带有不同长度缺失上游区的SUC3基因融合,构建成4种具有不同融合启动子的SUC2基因的表达质粒YRD1101.YFD110△9.YFD110△17、YFD110△11。
短句来源
     The Enhancer-like Effect of the Upstream Fragment of the BGC-Ha-ras Oncogene to the Expression of Bacterial Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Gene
     BGC-Ha-ras癌基因上游区片段对细菌氯霉素乙酰转移酶报告基因表达的促进作用
     Specific binding of TNF-α-induced fator to the 5' upstream region of human lymphotoxin gene
     TNF-α诱导的蛋白质因子与淋巴毒素基因5’端上游区特异性结合的研究
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  upstream
A study on the relationship between vegetation pattern and environment in the upstream of Minjiang River, China
      
The vegetation pattern in the upstream of Minjiang River, and its relationship with environment factors, such as landscape position (elevation, slope, aspect), precipitation and temperature and soil are analyzed in this paper.
      
In addition, the vegetation distribution pattern of upstream of Minjiang River was closely related with elevation and temperature, but the relationship between vegetation and precipitation was not statistically significant.
      
Landscape pattern and eco-hydrological characteristics at the upstream of Minjiang River, China
      
The results were: (1) The selected six catchments at the upstream of Minjiang River, China were different in landscape patterns in terms of landscape type and cover.
      
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A synoptic and aerological study on a cold wave in the Far East is made during the periodof the break down of the blocking situation over Euroasia and Atlantic.It is found thatduring this period the hemispherical circulation pattern is markedly changed.It is changedfrom low index pattern into high index pattern.The onset of the cold wave occured duringthe period of changes.The source of the arctic air for this cold wave may be traced upstream tothe Arctic Ocean to the east of Greenland.Furthermore,the...

A synoptic and aerological study on a cold wave in the Far East is made during the periodof the break down of the blocking situation over Euroasia and Atlantic.It is found thatduring this period the hemispherical circulation pattern is markedly changed.It is changedfrom low index pattern into high index pattern.The onset of the cold wave occured duringthe period of changes.The source of the arctic air for this cold wave may be traced upstream tothe Arctic Ocean to the east of Greenland.Furthermore,the structure of the jet streams over125°E during the cold wave is analysed.Two distinct jet streams—polar front jet and thesubtropical jet—were found.

作者对1956年2月下旬的一次东亚寒潮天气,进行了天气学的分析。分析得出,在寒潮爆发的时期,原先维持在大西洋和乌拉尔上空的阻塞高压发生崩溃。北半球的环流型式亦表现有极明显的改变,即从低指数的环流变向高指数的环流。此次寒潮的冷空气源地,一直可以溯源至格林兰东方的北冰洋上。此外,对此次寒潮爆发时期中,东经125度上空急流的结构亦作了分析,我们发现在这个时期中,有两个急流出现——即极锋急流及副热带急流。

Due to the gradual energy decay the free turbulent shear flow far downstream resembles the final stage motion of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. As in the latter case we adopt the concept of vortex motion structure of turbulence to solve the present problem. The dynamical basis of vortex motion solution is the set of equations of turbulent velocity fluctuation. In the flow field of the final stage motion of free turbulence the Reynolds number of turbulence is comparatively small, hence the non-linear terms...

Due to the gradual energy decay the free turbulent shear flow far downstream resembles the final stage motion of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. As in the latter case we adopt the concept of vortex motion structure of turbulence to solve the present problem. The dynamical basis of vortex motion solution is the set of equations of turbulent velocity fluctuation. In the flow field of the final stage motion of free turbulence the Reynolds number of turbulence is comparatively small, hence the non-linear terms in the dynamical equations can be neglected. Furthermore the size of vortices which form the turblent flow is regarded small, so within the range of each vortex the mean turbulent velocity and its gradient can be considered to be independent of the changes of the space coordinates. We now seek the following approximate solution of the linearized equations of turbulent velocity fluctuation; one part of the turbulent velocity fluctuation represents the final stage motion of homogeneous isotropic turbulence, while the other is proportional to the gradient of mean velocity, the latter part being smaller than the former. From this approximate solution the shearing component of the Reynolds stress is found to be directly proportional to the gradient of mean velocity. As a special example of the general solution we consider the case of the two-dimensional wake. Within the wake we put, furthermore, a plane grid normal to the plane of symmetry of the wake. This grid then creates in its downward stream a homogeneous isotropic turbulence field superimposed upon that of the wake. Our solution is applicable to places far downstream both from the body which creates the wake and from the grid. Since the flow here is nearer to the grid, so the turbulence level of the homogeneous isotropic turbulence would be higher than that of the wake. Consequently the conditions of the general solution can be satisfied. The present paper presents the solutions of the mean velocity and the mean squares of turbulent velocity fluctuation of the wake. These theoretical results can all be tested by experiment. On account of that we only discuss the final stage motion of free turbulence, the question how to lay down the upstream boundary condition of the flow field when solving the differential equations of the mean flow needs further consideration by other methods.

具有剪应力的自由湍流到下游相当远的地点由于能量的逐渐耗损将衰变成为类似均匀各向同性湍流的后期运动。如同处理后一种流动问题一样,我们现在根据湍流是由涡旋所组成的概念来求自由湍流的后期运动解。求涡旋运动解的动力学的基础是湍流速度涨落方程。在后期湍流场中湍流Reynolds数比较小,故方程中的非线性项可以略去。再考虑到组成湍流的涡旋尺寸比较小,在每个涡旋范围内平均湍流速度和它的坐标梯度可以近似地认为和坐标的改变无关。我们求线性化了之后的湍流速度涨落方程如下的近似解:涨落速度的一部分代表均匀各向同性湍流的后期运动:另一部分是和平均流速的坐标梯度成正比,后一部分要比前一部分为小。从这样的近似解得出的Reynolds剪应力是和平均流速的坐标梯度成正此。当作这一般解的特例我们求一个二元尾流的后期运动。在产生尾流的物体的后面还置放一个平面与尾流对称平面成垂直的栅格。这个栅格在它的下游可产生一个迭加在物体所产生的尾流场上的均匀各向同性的湍流(?)。我们的解是适用在离物体和栅格相当远处的后期运动,但此处的流场距栅格较近,所以栅格所产生的均匀各向同性湍流要比尾流的湍流度为高,因此一般解的近似条件是可以满足的。本论文给出尾流平均流速...

具有剪应力的自由湍流到下游相当远的地点由于能量的逐渐耗损将衰变成为类似均匀各向同性湍流的后期运动。如同处理后一种流动问题一样,我们现在根据湍流是由涡旋所组成的概念来求自由湍流的后期运动解。求涡旋运动解的动力学的基础是湍流速度涨落方程。在后期湍流场中湍流Reynolds数比较小,故方程中的非线性项可以略去。再考虑到组成湍流的涡旋尺寸比较小,在每个涡旋范围内平均湍流速度和它的坐标梯度可以近似地认为和坐标的改变无关。我们求线性化了之后的湍流速度涨落方程如下的近似解:涨落速度的一部分代表均匀各向同性湍流的后期运动:另一部分是和平均流速的坐标梯度成正比,后一部分要比前一部分为小。从这样的近似解得出的Reynolds剪应力是和平均流速的坐标梯度成正此。当作这一般解的特例我们求一个二元尾流的后期运动。在产生尾流的物体的后面还置放一个平面与尾流对称平面成垂直的栅格。这个栅格在它的下游可产生一个迭加在物体所产生的尾流场上的均匀各向同性的湍流(?)。我们的解是适用在离物体和栅格相当远处的后期运动,但此处的流场距栅格较近,所以栅格所产生的均匀各向同性湍流要比尾流的湍流度为高,因此一般解的近似条件是可以满足的。本论文给出尾流平均流速和速度涨落平方平均值的解。?

This paper is confined to a discussion of prevention of seepage from earth dams by means of blankets upstream which is considered to be a method for greater,quicker,better and more eco- nomical results.The following main problems are included: 1.Ideas of possibilities of piping through foundation soil and resistance of soil to percola- tion,and their effects on calculations of the lengths of blankets; 2.Calculations of economical and safe lengths of blankets and discharge of seepage; 3.Determination of...

This paper is confined to a discussion of prevention of seepage from earth dams by means of blankets upstream which is considered to be a method for greater,quicker,better and more eco- nomical results.The following main problems are included: 1.Ideas of possibilities of piping through foundation soil and resistance of soil to percola- tion,and their effects on calculations of the lengths of blankets; 2.Calculations of economical and safe lengths of blankets and discharge of seepage; 3.Determination of the line of saturation behind a inclined wall and the equipotential line below a blanket. The choice of the minimum blanket length depends in the main on the following conditions: 1.The seepage gradient through the dam foundation below the blanket jo is lower than or equal to the allowable gradient for the soil in the dam foundation(in consideration of no de- formation in seepage); 2.The discharge of seepage per unit width q is lower than or equal to the allowable design discharge (in consideration of storage and exploitation of water energy). Based on the subdivision principles of and the above-mentioned con- siderations,the following equations are derived.For the first condition,the blanket length is calculated from Equation(15);and that for the second condition,Equation(14). When the blanket length is known,the discharge of seepage can be calculated from Equa- tion (18). The blanket thickness is calculated by Equation(25). The 72 experiments made in the laboratory show that the formulas presented in the paper appear to be for the present more accurate than that of other scholars at home and abroad. The theoretical analysis and experiments may lead to the following important ideas regarding prevention of seepage by means of blankets: 2.The less the permeability of a blanket(k_0/k_n>5000)is,the greater its effect of seepage prevention will be,and vice versa; 2.Independent of the permeability of a blanket,there exists the idea of“effective blanket length”,i.e.,for a length larger than the effective length,the effect of seepage prevention of blanket is its permeability increases. 3.It is impossible for a blanket of stronger permeability(independent of length)to do as well as that of weaker permeability(with respect to discharge of seepage).Thus the weaker the permeability of blanket,the better and the value of k_0/K_n should be higher than 2000 at least.

本文指出土坝上游用铺盖防渗是一种符合多、快、好、省的方法.本文主要研究了下列问题:1.介绍基础土壤的管涌可能性及其所谓抗渗强度的概念,并讨论它们对设计铺盖长度的影响;2.讨论了经济安全的铺盖长度、厚度及渗流量计算;3.确定斜墙后浸润线的位置及铺盖下等势线的分布.选择最短铺盖长度,主要取决于下面两个条件:1.铺盖下坝基渗透坡降 j_0小于或等于坝基土壤的尤许坡降(以不发生渗透变形为原则);2.单宽渗流量小于或等于允许设计渗流量 (以蓄水水能利用为原则).根据巴夫洛夫斯基的分段法原理及上述原则得到下列计算公式.铺盖长度计算:表示第一个条件的计算公式为(15)式;表示第二个条件的为(14)式.给定了铺盖长度后,渗流量按(18)式计算.铺盖的厚度按(25)式计算.从72个试验资料证实本文所建议的计算公式在目前说来,较其他国内外学者的公式精度高.从理论和试验研究结果可得铺盖防渗的几点重要的概念:1.铺盖的透水性愈小(k_0/k_n≥5000)防渗的效用也就愈大,反之防渗的效用则很小.2.不管铺盖的透水性强与弱都存在着“有效铺盖长度”的概念,即铺盖的长度如大于有效铺盖长度时,它的防渗作用不显著.“有效铺盖长度”是随铺盖的...

本文指出土坝上游用铺盖防渗是一种符合多、快、好、省的方法.本文主要研究了下列问题:1.介绍基础土壤的管涌可能性及其所谓抗渗强度的概念,并讨论它们对设计铺盖长度的影响;2.讨论了经济安全的铺盖长度、厚度及渗流量计算;3.确定斜墙后浸润线的位置及铺盖下等势线的分布.选择最短铺盖长度,主要取决于下面两个条件:1.铺盖下坝基渗透坡降 j_0小于或等于坝基土壤的尤许坡降(以不发生渗透变形为原则);2.单宽渗流量小于或等于允许设计渗流量 (以蓄水水能利用为原则).根据巴夫洛夫斯基的分段法原理及上述原则得到下列计算公式.铺盖长度计算:表示第一个条件的计算公式为(15)式;表示第二个条件的为(14)式.给定了铺盖长度后,渗流量按(18)式计算.铺盖的厚度按(25)式计算.从72个试验资料证实本文所建议的计算公式在目前说来,较其他国内外学者的公式精度高.从理论和试验研究结果可得铺盖防渗的几点重要的概念:1.铺盖的透水性愈小(k_0/k_n≥5000)防渗的效用也就愈大,反之防渗的效用则很小.2.不管铺盖的透水性强与弱都存在着“有效铺盖长度”的概念,即铺盖的长度如大于有效铺盖长度时,它的防渗作用不显著.“有效铺盖长度”是随铺盖的透水性增加而减小.3.想用强透水性的铺盖防渗(不管铺盖怎样长),要达到弱透水性铺盖那样的效果是不可能的(指渗流量的大小而言),因此,铺盖的透水性愈小愈好,k_0/k_n 值最好至少大于2000.

 
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