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   nitrogenous fertilizers 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.182秒
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nitrogenous fertilizers
相关语句
  氮肥
     On using 5 portion of ammonia-fixing synergists and 100 portion of nitrogenous fertilizers as the base fer- tilizer,the wheat output goes up by 45-52.5kg/mu in dry farmland,54.5-74.5kg/mu in rice field,and the reward of nitrogenous fertilizer rises by 41.4-68.6%.
     保氮增效剂用量为氮肥实物量的5%作小麦基肥,旱地增产45~52.5kg/亩,稻田增产54.5~74.5kg/亩,氮肥报酬提高41.4~68.6%。
短句来源
     But nitrogenous fertilizers efficiency increased with the increase of nitrogen rate when the nitrogen was less than 135kg·hm~(-2) , they were decreased by higher nitrogen application.
     随着施氮量的增加,氮肥农学利用率和氮肥生理利用率都增加,但施氮量大于135kg·hm~(-2)时,二者均随之降低,氮肥吸收利用率和氮肥偏生产力随着施氮量的增加而呈下降的趋势。
短句来源
     Study Technology and Effect of Herbicides and Nitrogenous Fertilizers in Wheat Fields
     小麦田除草剂与氮肥混施技术和效果的研究
短句来源
     When nitrogenous fertilizers are combined with organic fertilizer to be applied to rape, one of the best ratios of combined application of urea and horse dung is 1∶2, the total application amount of urea and cow dung is lower 750 kg/hm~2, and urea ratio of combined application with cow dung should be lower than 1∶3.
     氮肥与有机肥配合施用,尿素与马粪配施比例以1∶2为最佳; 尿素与牛粪的总施氮量应控制在750kg/hm2以下,且其配比中尿素氮用量应低于1∶3。
短句来源
     The recovery and utilization of waste gases from the production of nitrogenous fertilizers are briefly reviewed, and typical examples are presented for saving of energy, improvement on econo mic benefit of enterprises and reduction in environmental pollution.
     扼要论述氮肥生产中尾气的回收与利用,并介绍典型实例,以节约能源,提高企业的经济效益,减少对环境的污染。
短句来源
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  氮肥研制
     Study on the Making of the Slow Release Nitrogenous Fertilizers and the Effect of the Fertilizers
     新型缓释氮肥研制及其肥效研究
短句来源
  “nitrogenous fertilizers”译为未确定词的双语例句
     To seek for mutual effects of water and fertilizer on winter wheat,pot experiments were conducted in south China,where there is adequate rain,during 2004~2005 to study effects of soil moisture on winter wheat yield under different nitrogenous fertilizers.
     为了探讨冬小麦水肥交互效应,于2004~2005年在南方雨水较多地区开展了不同施氮量条件下孕穗开花期控水对冬小麦产量效应的盆栽试验研究。
短句来源
     To seek for mutual effect of water and fertilizer on winter wheat, pot experiments were conducted in south China, where has adequate rain, during 2004-2005 to study effects of soil moisture on winter wheat yield under different nitrogenous fertilizers.
     为了探讨冬小麦水肥交互效应,于2004-2005年在南方雨水较多地区开展了不同施氮量条件下孕穗开花期控水对冬小麦产量效应的盆栽试验研究。
     The results showed, in the treatments of 5,15 g/(m~2·a) nitrogenous fertilizers, the variance of soil microorganism in quantity and biomass, compared with control, was not significant. But in the treatment of 25 g/(m~2·a) nitrogenous fertilizers, there were significantly incremented.
     结果表明,在施氮量为5 ,15g/ (m2 ·a)时,土壤微生物的数量和生物量均没有明显变化,而当施氮量增加到2 5g/ (m2 ·a)时,土壤微生物的数量和生物量比对照明显增加。
短句来源
     The new manufactured coated nitrogenous fertilizers in Japan were characterized by the advanced controllable release of nitrogen.
     日本新研制的被覆氮素肥料 ,具有先进的氮素溶释调控性能。
短句来源
     TXEFFECTIVENESS TEST OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS AND MIXTURE OF NITROGEN PHOSPHOROUS AND POTASSIUM ON TURF LOLIUM PERENNE
     草坪型黑麦草氮肥品种及氮磷钾配施肥效试验
短句来源
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  nitrogenous fertilizers
Different nitrogenous fertilizers in general gave similar results, but calcium cyanamide gave inferior results.
      
The effect was compared with that of spraying a phyllosphere N2-fixing isolate of Klebsiella, KUPBR2, and application of nitrogenous fertilizers.
      
Nitrogen leaching losses from conventional and new nitrogenous fertilizers in low-land rice culture
      
Ammonia volatilization, which follows upon the application of nitrogenous fertilizers to a flooded tropical soil, was directly measured in the greenhouse and in the field.
      
The efficiency of different nitrogenous fertilizers under forced leaching conditions was determined in pot experiments using ryegrass as an indicator plant in a sandy loam soil.
      
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High percentage of chlamydospore germination of Neovossia horrida (Tak.)P.& K.with abundant basidiospore production was obtained by placing moistenedspores in a Petri dish with limited supply of water,the dish-cover being inkedblue to insure a favordable light condition.Moistened spores applied on the sur-face of kernels of a growing rice head enclosed in a paraffin paper bag was alsofound to germinate by producing a very short basidium and a large number ofbasidiospores.It is,therefore,concluded that not only...

High percentage of chlamydospore germination of Neovossia horrida (Tak.)P.& K.with abundant basidiospore production was obtained by placing moistenedspores in a Petri dish with limited supply of water,the dish-cover being inkedblue to insure a favordable light condition.Moistened spores applied on the sur-face of kernels of a growing rice head enclosed in a paraffin paper bag was alsofound to germinate by producing a very short basidium and a large number ofbasidiospores.It is,therefore,concluded that not only light but also oxygen isrequired for normal germination of the spores of the rice kernel smut. Results of a series of inoculation experiments conclusively show that thefungus infects rice kernels during the milky dough stage.Basidiospore inoculationgives higher percentage of infection than chlamydospore inoculation. Field observation indicates that the incidence of high percentage of infectionis coincident with the excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer.Fluctuationof the amount of infection from year to year is probably determined chiefly by theduration of high moisture period from heading to dough stage.There are someevidences of varietal difference in the susceptibility of rice to the kernel smut.

(一)稻粒黑穗病菌厚垣孢子的正常萌发,在外界环境條件的關係上,不僅要求一定的光照,而且需有充分的氧氣供給。至於對水分的要求,只要空氣中?窒喈敐穸?已足供萌发的需要,不一定要有水滴的經常存在。(二)接種試驗證明病原係在水稻的灌漿期侵入種实。在自然界中,這種侵染顯然是通過氣流傳播而實现的。但種子與土壤所荷带的病原菌厚垣孢子,都是侵染的來源。(三)过量的氮素肥料,與高的稻粒黑穗病感染率有密切的關係。(四)稻粒黑穗病发生程度的年份间差異可能主要是决定於抽穗至乳熟期的高濕度的持續時間。(五)初步調查的資料表示水稻品種间具有顯著的感病性差別。

The materials of present report were collected from reconnaissence soil survey of Kwangtung and Kwangsi provinces in 1958—1960. Soils investigated include yellow earths, red earths and lateritic soils. They are developed under natural vegetations of tropic monsoon forest (secondary), subtropic evergreen broadleaf forest, conifer and broadleaf mixed forest, subalpine dwarfing and bamboo ferests, confer forests of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana, and grass land. A few samples of rice paddy soil were...

The materials of present report were collected from reconnaissence soil survey of Kwangtung and Kwangsi provinces in 1958—1960. Soils investigated include yellow earths, red earths and lateritic soils. They are developed under natural vegetations of tropic monsoon forest (secondary), subtropic evergreen broadleaf forest, conifer and broadleaf mixed forest, subalpine dwarfing and bamboo ferests, confer forests of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana, and grass land. A few samples of rice paddy soil were also studied for comparison. Laboratory investigations invplved the determination of chemical composition of forest litters, fraction of soil humus (after Turin and Kononova), and analysis of soil exchangeable bases, active iron and alumina, etc. From the results obtained the writers come to the following conclusions: 1. The ratios of humic acid over fulvic acid under natural vegetations are usually less than 1. Fulvic acid prevails in acid soils of tropic and subtropic regions with the presence of active iron and alumina. On the contrary, intensively cukivated paddy soils of neutral to slightly alkaline reaction in the same areas, after a long-time application of lime and manures, give a humic acid over fulvic acid ratio of about 2. 2. Active soil humus, including humic and fulvic acid extractable by 0.1 N NaOH (Fraction Ⅰ), also predominates in soil organic matter. The ratio of soil humus "Fraction 1" over "Fraction Ⅱ, including humic acid and fulvic acid only soluble through repeatedly extraction by 0.1 N H_2SO_4 and NaOH", ranges from 5:1 to 10:1. 3. Soils developed under natural vegetations contain 20—35% of readily soluble humus {extractable by 0.05 N H_2SO_4) in total organic matter. Rice paddy soils in the same area usually contain readily soluble humus less than 5%. It appears that under present agricultural practices, the more active forms of soil humus undergo rapid decomposition, and the maintenance of soil fertility is largely dependded on manures and nitrogenous fertilizers. 4. Soils of the investigeted areas contain 40—50% humin (residual organic matter resistant 1.0 acid and alkaline extraction) in total organic matter. 5. Soil litters of conifer forest of Cunninghamia lanceolate contain CaO+Mg+K_2O+Na_2O up to 59.51% and SiO_2 10.57% in the ash. Litters of bamboo forest contain CaO+MgO+K_2O+ Na_2O 8.87% and SiO_2 up to 78.21% in the ash. Litters of Pine massoniana contain CaO+MgO + K_2O+Na_2O 11.18% and a very high content of A1_2O_3 (13.91%). The present data, however, give no correlation between the chemical composition of soil litter and that of soil exchangeable bases. Soils under Pine massoniana contain relatively greater amounts of exchangeable alumina (4—16 m.e./100 gm. of soil) and active iron (65—200 m.e./100 gm. of soil) in surface layer.

本文对华南地区不同植被下的土壤有机貭、土壤活性矿物貭組成及枯枝落叶层进行了研究,企图探求植被类型对于土壤腐殖貭組成以及肥力变化的影响。供試土壤包括山地草甸土、黃壤、紅壤及砖紅壤性紅壤,由不同母貭发育而成。植被类型包括常綠闊叶林、針叶闊叶混交林、高山矮林及竹林、杉木林、馬尾松灌丛、草坡等。此外,还选了三个珠江三角洲地区不同肥力的水稻土,以比較自然植被下土壤性貭和农田土壤性貭的异同。根据初步研究結果,获得下列几点认識。 1.土壤活性腐殖质的变化两广地区自然植被下的土壤,其活性腐殖貭占土壤有机貭总量的百分比显然高于农田土壤。森林及以禾本科为主的中生性草地下的土壤,表土有机貭中合有約20—35%的活性腐殖貭(为0.1 N NaOH所能提取),但是水稻土中,通常只占6%以下。这点說明了在热带和亚热带地区的生物气候条件下,一年2—3造的耕作制度,可使結构比較簡单的活性腐殖貭很快的被矿化,而土壤肥力的維持在很大程度上依賴于有机肥料和化学肥料的逐年补給。 2.土壤中胡敏酸与富里酸的比率华南自然植被下的土壤有机貭中,胡敏酸与富里酸的比率通常小于1,紅壤地区土壤中富里酸比胡敏酸高的特点,是由于富里酸能在酸性溶液中和活性R_2O_...

本文对华南地区不同植被下的土壤有机貭、土壤活性矿物貭組成及枯枝落叶层进行了研究,企图探求植被类型对于土壤腐殖貭組成以及肥力变化的影响。供試土壤包括山地草甸土、黃壤、紅壤及砖紅壤性紅壤,由不同母貭发育而成。植被类型包括常綠闊叶林、針叶闊叶混交林、高山矮林及竹林、杉木林、馬尾松灌丛、草坡等。此外,还选了三个珠江三角洲地区不同肥力的水稻土,以比較自然植被下土壤性貭和农田土壤性貭的异同。根据初步研究結果,获得下列几点认識。 1.土壤活性腐殖质的变化两广地区自然植被下的土壤,其活性腐殖貭占土壤有机貭总量的百分比显然高于农田土壤。森林及以禾本科为主的中生性草地下的土壤,表土有机貭中合有約20—35%的活性腐殖貭(为0.1 N NaOH所能提取),但是水稻土中,通常只占6%以下。这点說明了在热带和亚热带地区的生物气候条件下,一年2—3造的耕作制度,可使結构比較簡单的活性腐殖貭很快的被矿化,而土壤肥力的維持在很大程度上依賴于有机肥料和化学肥料的逐年补給。 2.土壤中胡敏酸与富里酸的比率华南自然植被下的土壤有机貭中,胡敏酸与富里酸的比率通常小于1,紅壤地区土壤中富里酸比胡敏酸高的特点,是由于富里酸能在酸性溶液中和活性R_2O_3相結合(特別是活性鉄),这項特性在邱林、科諾諾娃、波諾馬列娃等人的研究中早已証明了。珠江三角洲上的高度熟化水稻土(土壤pH7.8),由于长期施用有机肥料及石灰的影响,有机貭中胡敏酸的数量高出富里酸一倍,胡敏酸与富里酸的比率为1.95。但是在新垦的紅壤性水稻土中(土壤pH4.5),这項比率是0.39,这点也可以証明有机貭分解过程和富里酸的形成是和土壤酸度及活性鉄、鋁有关的。 3.活性铁和鋁与腐殖质組成的关系本区一般森林及草本植被下的土壤,表土活性鋁的合量通常为每百克土4—10毫克当量,活性鉄为20—100毫克当量;馬尾松灌丛下的紅壤,活性鋁的含量每百克土可达20毫克当量左右。这些土壤的盐基飽和度一般在20—30%之間,每百克土的代換性鈣通常仅在1—2毫克当量上下,但是土壤有机貭分組分析結果,第一組腐殖貭(包括活性較強的胡敏酸和富里酸)的含量远远超过了第二組腐殖貭(指由酸液和碱液反复提取以后能溶解的部分),它們的比率为5:1和10:1(只有一个例外)。这項結果說明土壤中大量活性鋁离子和鉄离子的存在,使腐殖貭的活度增強。在珠江三角洲水稻土中,第一組腐殖貭和第二組腐殖貭的比例也在这个范围內。 4.土壤腐殖貭中的不溶性殘渣(胡敏素)的含量在表土中所有供試土壤都很一致,約占土壤腐殖貭总量的40—50%上下。植被类型、海拔高度、耕作过程、成土母质等对于胡敏素的合量,均沒有明显的影响。这样在热带和亚热带土壤的腐殖貭中,似乎有一半是胡敏素,它在短期內是不能矿化的。 5.土壤腐殖貭中的碳氮比率(C/N) 森林及草本植被下的表土腐殖貭中,其C/N比率通常在10—15左右,只有馬尾松灌丛下的紅壤,C/N比率为19.6。在这个地区的水稻土中C/N比率一般为9—11。耕作縮小了C/N比率,但是自然植被下有机貭中活性腐殖貭的含量,都远远地超过农田土壤,因此,碳氮比率的縮小,很难认为土壤有机貭中氮素有效性的提高。这在国內外的研究材料中也指出过,例如合胡敏素极高的泥炭和褐煤,其C/N比率可以在10以下。 6.不同植被下殘落物的灰分組成杉木林的殘落物合有最高的基性物貭,CaO+MgO+K_2O+Na_2O的总量占灰分的59.51%;竹林和馬尾松灌丛的殘落物合基性物貭最低,前者为8.87%,后者为11.18%(都是CaO、MgO、K_2O、Na_2O的总量)。竹林殘落物的灰分中含SiO_2高达78.21%,而杉木林的殘落物灰分中含SiO_2量最低,为10.57%。馬尾松灌丛及亚热带針闊叶混交林下的殘落物灰分中含Al_2O_3高于其他植被的殘落物,为13.91%5及12.86%。其他一般的常綠闊叶林、針闊叶混交林和亚高山矮林等殘落物灰分中的基性物貭总量均在30%左右。虽然不同植被类型地表殘落物的矿貭組成有明显的差异,但就現在的初步材料,远远不足以闡明这項差异在生物物貭循环过程中的作用。这些成分上的变化,对于土壤活性矿物貭很少有直接的相关性。只有馬尾松灌丛下的紅壤,其活性鋁含量高于一般土壤,这点可能是受了殘落物貭腐解体的影响。我們初步接触了华南地区的植被类型、土壤腐殖貭組成和活性矿物貭間相互关系的問題以后,觉得波雷諾夫所启示我們的生物地球化学的研究方向,在这一地区中有許多工作可以推进。这項研究方法如果进一步地应用于农田土壤中的輪作方式及耕作措施对于土壤肥力消长关系的研究,便可以把森林和草地土壤以及农田土壤的生成发育方向做出具体的比較。此外,我們感到,尽管邱林、科諾諾娃和瓦克斯曼(Waksman,S.A.)等近三十年来在土壤有机貭的研究上做了很多工作,但是目下的有机貭分級方法应用于热带及亚热带的土壤(特别是水稻土)的适应性还值得研究。至于胡敏酸、富里酸等在土壤中与活性矿物貭的結合情况,以及各种腐殖貭物貭对于土壤肥力及植物营养上的作用,更是一个急待进一步研究的問題。

1.In the field,the prevalence and severence of the rape mosaic disease depend-ed,to a large extent,on the dispersal of the winged aphid vectors during the lateseed-bed stage and the early field planting stage.Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicaeDavis was the principal form of aphid vectors found in the vicinity of Hang-chow.The peak of flight of its winged form(occuring from the last part ofSeptember to the last part of October)correlated closely with the extensivenessof the disease prevalence.2.New growths(during...

1.In the field,the prevalence and severence of the rape mosaic disease depend-ed,to a large extent,on the dispersal of the winged aphid vectors during the lateseed-bed stage and the early field planting stage.Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicaeDavis was the principal form of aphid vectors found in the vicinity of Hang-chow.The peak of flight of its winged form(occuring from the last part ofSeptember to the last part of October)correlated closely with the extensivenessof the disease prevalence.2.New growths(during the late summer and early fall)from the natural-ly infected dormant root of a cruciferous weed,Rorippa montana(Wall)Smallplayed a significant part as one of the primary sources for the new infection ofthe fall-sown crucifers.Only the summer sown Brassica sinensis had so far beenidentified as the host of R.pseudobrassicae during the hot weather of middleJuly to the first part of August.However,no mosaic symptoms appeared in theseplants.The absence of diseased plant was not due to masking effect.3.Studies of several-years meteorological data revealed that rainy days inOctober,days of precipitation and relative humidity were generally the most in-fluencing factors in checking the disease.Heavy showers or rains extending longerthan 2 days had a profound depressing effect on the activity of the winged aphidsand consequently a check on disease spread.On the other hand,the occurrenceof a drought in October was closely correlated with an outbreak of the rapemosaic disease.4.Results of the preliminary control experiment with the Chinese rapevariety Ai-da-gan showed that controlling aphids with insecticides in the seed-bed,in connection with light application of liquid nitrogenous fertilizer,had abeneficial effect in reducing the disease.By surface dressing of the seed-bedwith 6% of wettable benzene hexachloride(BHC)followed by spraying the seed-lings with Rogor and a mixture of DDT and BHC 4 times,beginning from the2-leaf stage,together with three applications of liquid fertilizer reduced the dis-ease by 84% over the plot which received only one spray of DDT+BHC and twoapplications of liquid fertilizer.

油菜苗期病毒病的发生,决定于带毒有翅蚜从毒源寄主上迁入的时间与虫口数;本田期病毒病的流行为害,在很大程度上与苗床后期和本田初期有翅若蚜的长成和扩散有关。杭州地区的传毒蚜虫主要为菜缢管岈,其有翅蚜的发生及迁飞高峯期约在9月下旬至10月下旬,油菜病毒病发病率的高峯与有翅蚜发生高峯成正相关。本研究进一步证实了带病的十字花科杂蔊菜的蓿根,越夏后萌发的植株是秋菜及油菜的重要毒源之一。在7月中旬正8月上旬的炎热夏天仅看到火白菜是菜缢管蚜的寄主,但未检查到病株,另一试验火白菜感病后无隐蔽现象。杭州地区10月份的降水量、降雨天数以及相对湿度对当年病毒病流行与否影响最大,天气干旱病毒病相当严重。暴雨或连续降雨两天以上能影响有翅蚜,发生量与迁飞量显著下降,因而在一定程度上抑制了病毒病的蔓延。播种时用6%可湿性六六六粉每亩3斤撒施畦面,苗床期两片真叶开始,连续用乐果及二二三、六六六混合液治蚜4次,与加强肥水管理,效果达84.7%。

 
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