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enhancement     
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  增强
     Numerical Simulation of Ionizing Radiation Effects and Study on the X-ray Dose Enhancement Effects for Integrated Circuit
     集成电路电离辐射效应数值模拟及X射线剂量增强效应的研究
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     STUDY ON RESOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY
     Fourier变换光谱分辨率增强技术研究
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     Construction of MUC1 DNA vaccine and enhancement of anticancer immunity with co-delivery of GM-CSF adjuvant
     MUC1基因疫苗的构建及GM-CSF增强其抗肿瘤免疫的实验研究
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     Research on Digital X-Ray Medical Image Enhancement Methods Based on Human Visual Properties
     基于人眼视觉特性的数字X线医学图像增强方法的研究
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     Study on the Adaptation to UV-B Enhancement and Active Substances Against Ultraviolet Irradiation of Antarctic Ice Microalga
     南极冰藻对UV-B辐射增强的适应性及其抗紫外线辐射活性物质的研究
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  强化
     Research on Enhancement of Denitrogenizaion and Deoxidation from Melt Steel in Physical Field
     外场作用下强化钢液脱氮、脱氧的研究
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     Fatigue Enhancement Mechanism of the Omni-Axes Random Vibration Environment
     全轴随机振动环境的疲劳强化机理研究
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     Test Method Research on Reliability Enhancement Testing for Module-Level Electronic Products
     模块级电子产品可靠性强化试验方法研究
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     Enhancement of mass and heat transfer of failing liquid film on a spiral grooved tube and its application
     螺纹管强化降液膜流动时的传质传热及其应用
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     STUDY ON HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OF FREON-12 DRY EVAPORATOR USING INTEGRAL INTERNAL SPIRAL FIN TUBE
     整体型内螺旋翅片管氟利昂12干式蒸发器传热强化试验研究
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  提高
     Enhancement of Sensitivity of Bladder Tumor Cells to MMC by Liposome Conjugated C-myc Antisense Oligonucleotides and Expression of C-myc Oncoprotein in Bladder Cancer
     反义c-myc寡核苷酸提高膀胱癌细胞对MMC的敏感性和c-myc癌基因蛋白在膀胱移行细胞癌表达的临床意义
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     Study on Agricultural Mechanization and the Enhancement of Agricultural International Competitiveness in China
     中国农业机械化与提高农业国际竞争力研究
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     Enhancement and Sustained Expression of Naked FⅨ DNA in Mice and M13 Phage Mediated Gene Delivery Vector
     提高和延长裸DNA介导的人凝血Ⅸ(hFⅨ)在小鼠中的表达及M13的噬菌体基因转移体系的研究
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     The Molecular Mechanisms of Salt Osmtic Stress Tolerantion Enhancement of Pseudomonas Putida KT2440 by Betaine and Ectoine
     甜菜碱和四氢嘧啶提高Pseudomonas putida KT2440耐盐性的分子机理研究
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     DISCUSSION ON ENHANCEMENT OF THE CRITICAL TEMPERATURE T_c OF SMALL PARTICLES OF NbC AND NbN
     颗粒状NbC,NbN转变温度T_c提高的探讨
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  增强作用
     Enhancement of p16 and p21 expression in SMMC7721 cells by antisense telomerase RNA
     反义端粒酶RNA对SMMC7721细胞P16、P21表达的增强作用
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     The reason of enhancement in the ~5D_4—~7F_J transition is analyzed and explained as the irradiate resonance transition ofenergy from Ce~(3+) to Tb~(3+) via various transfer channels.
     通过分析,认为体系中Tb~(3+)离子~5D_4→~7F_j跃迁的增强作用是由于Ce~(3+)→Tb~(3+)离子的能量传递所致,其能量传递机理属于非辐射共振能量转移,并存在着多渠道的能量传递过程。
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     However, enhancement of bystander mediated cell killing occurred only in the range of Tan concentrations used (1.3×10 -8 , 1.3×10 -9 mol/L).
     并观察到Tan对GCV旁观者效应的增强作用 ,在一定范围内为 1.3× 10 -8mol/L和 1.3× 10 -9mol/L。
短句来源
     Enhancement of IL-1β-induced expression of α_vβ_3 integrin by nicotine in cultured bovine cerebral microvascular endothelial cells
     烟碱对白细胞介素-1β诱导的培养牛脑微血管内皮细胞表达α_vβ_3整合素的增强作用
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     Inhibitory Effects of BFP and HSH971 on the Aβ_(1-40) Induced Enhancement of Voltage-gated Calcium Channels' Currents
     BFP和HSH971抑制Aβ_(1-40)诱导的VGCC电流增强作用
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  enhancement
The first result is an enhancement of the Paley-Wiener type constant for nonharmonic series given by Duffin and Schaefer in [6] and used recently in some applications (see [3]).
      
The state and amount of Ag species within the film and the enhancement mechanism of photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO2 were discussed.
      
Enhancement of wave and acceleration of electron in plasma in the external field
      
This paper investigates the enhancement of Langmuir and ion-acoustic wave and the acceleration of the electron in collisionless plasma, in the presence of an external transverse field.
      
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of long-term UV-B enhancement on stomatal conductance, leaf tissue δ13C, leaf water content, and leaf area.
      
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Recently, attention has been directed to the effect of chelation upon thephysiological action of certain chemical compounds. A number of investiga-tors, especially Albert and his coworkers have demonstrated the importantrole played by the chelation structure of 8-hydroxyquinoline in producingfungicidal action. Our preliminary tests on p-nitrobenzaldehyde (ⅩⅩⅪ) ascompared with o-hydroxy-p-nitrobenzaldehyde (ⅩⅩⅩ) and on o-methoxy-p-nitroacetophenone (ⅩⅢ) as compared with o-hydroxy-p-nitroacetophenone(Ⅻ) confirmed...

Recently, attention has been directed to the effect of chelation upon thephysiological action of certain chemical compounds. A number of investiga-tors, especially Albert and his coworkers have demonstrated the importantrole played by the chelation structure of 8-hydroxyquinoline in producingfungicidal action. Our preliminary tests on p-nitrobenzaldehyde (ⅩⅩⅪ) ascompared with o-hydroxy-p-nitrobenzaldehyde (ⅩⅩⅩ) and on o-methoxy-p-nitroacetophenone (ⅩⅢ) as compared with o-hydroxy-p-nitroacetophenone(Ⅻ) confirmed this view. The two compounds with chelation structures areinvariably more active than the corresponding compounds where this kindof structure is no more possible (see Table 1). This result encourages us toextend the examination on the so-called dehydrochloramphenicol (Ⅱ), ananalogue of chloramphenicol (Ⅰ) but devoid of the antibiotic activities of thelatter, except those against M. tuberculosis and fungi. Our project is to introduce a hydroxyl group to the position ortho to thecarbon side-chain in (Ⅱ), producing α-dichloroacetamido-β-hydroxy-o-hydroxy-p-nitropropiophenone (Ⅲ), a compound in which chelation will be possible, andto compare its antibiotic activities with those of (Ⅱ) in which there is nochelation. To make sure that any enhancement of activity is not due to substitutionat the ortho position, the hydroxyl group of Ⅲ was methylated so as to makechelation impossible in the resulting compound, α-dichloroacetamido-β-hydroxy-o-methoxy-p-nitropropiophenone (Ⅳ). Furthermore, compounds with simplerstructure, (ⅩⅩ), (ⅩⅪ), (ⅩⅤⅢ), and (ⅩⅩⅨ), in which the hydroxymethylgroup is lacking and consequently does not contain any asymmetric carbonatom, are also examined. In all these cases, compounds able to form chelationring invariably showed higher antibiotic activities than the correspondingcompounds unable to do so (see Table 1). The function of the nitro group in these molecules has also been considered.When this group in (Ⅲ) or (Ⅳ) is changed to an amino group, there is suchmarked decrease of activity in the resulting compounds (Ⅴ) or (Ⅳ) thatneither of them showed any activity below a concentration of 400 γ/ml. As compared with chloramphenicol, compound Ⅲ is almost as effectiveagainst Gram-positive bacteria, especially St. Aureus, but is much less effectiveagainst Gram-positive bacteria. The present authors are of the opinion thatthe mechanisms of antibiotic action of the two compounds must be different. Compound ⅩⅢ was obtained from o-methoxy-p-nitroethylbenzene (Ⅹ) byoxidation with potassium permanganate buffered with manganese nitrate.Compound Ⅹ was in turn prepared from o-amino-p-nitroethylbenzene (Ⅶ)through diazotization, hydrolysis, and methylation with dimethylsulfate.Methylation of Ⅻ also gave ⅩⅢ. As to compound Ⅻ, it was obtained in two ways: (1) Demethylation ofcompound ⅩⅢ with hydrobromic acid or anhydrous aluminum bromide incarbon disulfide, the latter procedure giving better results, (2) oxidation of themethoxymethyl ether (Ⅸ) of compound Ⅷ with potassium permanganate toyield compound Ⅺ followed by hydrolysis with dilute hydrochloric acid. Ourproduct did not depress the melting point of a sample prepared fromm-nitrophenol through Fries rearrangement according to Gerecs et al.Derivatives of Ⅻ have been prepared, they are: the acetate (Ⅻa) and itsα-bromo-derivative (ⅩⅠⅤa), the benzoate (Ⅻb)and its α-bromo-derivative(ⅩⅠⅤb). Compounds Ⅻ and ⅩⅢ were then separately subjected to the five-stepsynthesis recorded in the literature [8, 11--13] for the preparation of dehydrochlo-ramphenicol, namely: (1) bromination to give ⅩⅠⅤ and ⅩⅤ, (2)treatmentwith urotropine to give ⅩⅠⅤ and ⅩⅠⅡ, (3) hydrolysis to give ⅩⅤⅢ and ⅩⅠⅩ,(4) dichloroacetylation to give ⅩⅩ and ⅩⅪ or acetylation to give ⅩⅩⅡ andⅩⅩⅢ, and (5)condensation with formaldehyde in the presence of sodiumhydroxide (for Ⅲ and ⅩⅩⅣ) or sodium bicarbonate (for Ⅳ and ⅩⅩⅤ)(see scheme). When compound ⅩⅩⅤ was subjected to hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid, acompound was obtained, which is believed to be a diketene (ⅩⅩⅥ). When compound ⅩⅩⅢ was treated with acetyl chloride, a compoundC_(11)H_(10)O_4N_2 was obtained. This formula corresponds to 2-methyl-5-(o-methoxy-p-nitrophenyl)-oxazoline (ⅩⅩⅦ). The amino-compounds Ⅴ, Ⅵ, ⅩⅩⅤⅢ and ⅩⅩⅨ were obtained from thecorresponding nitro-compounds by reduction with sodium hydrosulphite.

1.本文叙述自邻氨基-对硝基乙苯开始分别经过九步或八步反应,合成α-二氯乙酰胺基-β-羟基-邻羟基对硝基苯丙酮(Ⅲ)和α-二氯乙酰胺基-β-羟基-邻甲氧基对硝基苯丙酮(Ⅳ),以及一些有关的化合物。 2.硝基化合物Ⅲ及Ⅳ均可以低亚硫酸钠还原成相应的氨基化合物,α-二氯乙酰胺基-β-羟基-邻羟基-对氨基苯丙酮(Ⅴ)和α-二氯乙酰胺基-β-羟基-邻甲氧基-对氨基苯丙酮(Ⅵ)。 3.曾试验邻羟基-对硝基苯甲醛与对硝基苯甲醛,及邻羟基-对硝基苯乙酮与邻甲氧基对硝基苯乙酮等两对化合物的抗菌效力。结果凡有氢键钳合结构的化合物均有较强的抗菌作用。 4.曾试验化合物Ⅲ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ,Ⅵ及其相应的去羟甲基化合物ⅩⅩ,ⅩⅪ,ⅩⅩⅧ和ⅩⅩⅨ对金色葡萄球菌,枯草杆菌,大肠杆菌和副伤寒菌B型的抑制作用。在此等化合物中(除去Ⅴ),凡有酚基与羰基形成钳合结构的化合物均有比较强的抗菌作用。化合物Ⅲ对金色葡萄球菌的抑制效力接近于氯霉素,但对革兰氏阴性菌的效力低于氯霉素;这种不一致的现象可能是Ⅲ的抗菌作用机理与氯霉素不同。

Under weak illumination the photophosphorylation activity of sweet potato leaf cell preparation (LOP) was shown to be less influenced by the "light intensity effect" (Fig.1). It serves as an excellent experimental material in investigating the efficiency of photophosphorylation.The action spectra of both cyclic (endogenous cofactor and PMS) and non-cyclic (K_3Fe(CN)_6 and NADP) photophosphorylation catalyzed by sweet potato LCP within the orange-red region of the visible light were determined. In all the systems...

Under weak illumination the photophosphorylation activity of sweet potato leaf cell preparation (LOP) was shown to be less influenced by the "light intensity effect" (Fig.1). It serves as an excellent experimental material in investigating the efficiency of photophosphorylation.The action spectra of both cyclic (endogenous cofactor and PMS) and non-cyclic (K_3Fe(CN)_6 and NADP) photophosphorylation catalyzed by sweet potato LCP within the orange-red region of the visible light were determined. In all the systems studied,relatively uniform efficiencies were observed between 620-680 mμ (Table 1 and Fig. 2).But as the wave length of the activating light exceeded 680mμ, the relative efficiencies of the non-cyclic photophosphorylation systems decreased abruptly, exhibiting a "red drop" phenomenon similar to those observed in photosynthesis and Hill reaction (Fig.2). In the case of cyclic photophosphorylation, relative efficiency at 700mμ light was nearly the same or a little higher than those under shorter wave lengths. When the wave length of the activating light went farther into the far-red region, the relative efficiency of cyclic photophosphorylation also dropped rapidly (Fig. 2).Both cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation showed two-lights(640 and 708mμ)enhancement effect under aerobic conditions (Table 2). In H_2 atmosphere the efficiency of cyclic photophosphorylation at 708mμ light was raised and the two-lights enhancement effect disappeared (Table 4). It was concluded that the appearance of the "red drop" phenomenon and the two-lights enhancement effect in the cyclic photophosphorylating systems under aerobic conditions was due to the autooxidation of a part of the reduced cyclic cofactors. A second light reaction activated by shorter wave length light thus became necessary in order to reduce the oxidized intermediate and to enable the electron transport chain in full operation.The results of the present investigation substantiates the contention that two separate photochemical reactions, activated by different pigment systems, are present in the photosynthetic machinery of the chloroplast.

我们利用光强效应较不显著的甘薯叶细胞制剂为材料,测定了循环(内源、PMS)及非循环光合磷酸化[K_3Fe(CN)_6,NADP~+]在橙—红光区段的作用光谱及双光增益效应,所得的主要结果如下: (1)在620—680mμ范围内,各系统作用光谱的起伏均很小,没有出现显著的高峰或低谷。(2)当波长超过680mμ时,非循环光合磷酸化系统的效率大降,出现与光合作用及希尔反应中相似的“红降”现象。以640mμ光与708mμ光同时照射,见到双光增益效应的存在。(3)循环光合磷酸化在700mμ光照下,相对效率与短波长光下相近或稍高。波长再向上移则效率也迅速降低。在有氧条件下,708mμ光下的效率也受同时加照的640mμ光的增益,但在无氧条件下则不显示增益效应。作者认为由于部分循环光合磷酸化辅助因子的自动氧化,远红光下放氧反应受阻,影响了光氧化物的还原及重复使用,因而使相对效率降低。本文结果从光合磷酸化的角度,支持叶绿体中存在着两个独立的、有不同色素参与的光化学反应。

The branching ratio R+=W(K~+→2π)/W(K~0→2π)is estimated from the late experimental data of R_0=W(K_1~0→2π~0)/W(K_1~0→2π)and the knowledge of π-π interactions. It is shown that if there is a resonance in the I=0 of the two points then the enhancement of the R_+ can be well explained.

利用目前K_(2π)衰变分枝比R_0=W(K_1~0→π~0+π~0)/W(K_1~0→π~0+π~0)+W(K_1~0→π~++π~-)的实验数据和π-π作用方面的有关知識,估計了衰变分枝比R_+=W(K~+→π~++π~0)/W(K_1~0→π~0+π~0)+W(K_1~0→π~++π~-);结果表明,如果存在一个I=o S波π-π共振,則能很好地解釋R_+的增加。

 
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