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chilling
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  低温
    The effect of 40 mg·L-1 Ce(SO4)2 on the germination of eggplant under chilling temperature stress was investigated.
    研究了40 mg·L-1 Ce(SO4)2对茄子种子低温萌发的影响。
    GIS application to the analysis of chilling injury of banana in Zhangzhou
    漳州香蕉低温害分析的GIS应用
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    Dynamic prediction and evaluation method of maize chilling damage.
    玉米低温冷害动态评估和预测方法
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    Impact of different transplanting periods on chilling damage of rice in Heilongjiang Province:a case study on the year 2002
    移栽期变化对黑龙江省水稻低温冷害的影响——以2002年为例
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    Establishment and Application of the System of Forecasting chilling damage in spring of Hunan
    湖南春季低温冷害预报系统的建立和应用
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  “chilling”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Analysis on Chilling Injury of Rice in East of Heilongjiang Province in 2002
    2002年黑龙江省东部水稻冷害解析
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    Study on index for winter’s chilling damage in Guangdong Province
    广东冬季寒害指标研究
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    Relationship between heat shock alleviating chilling injury and lipoxygenase of persimmon fruit
    热激减轻柿果冷害及其与脂氧合酶的关系
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    After different treatments of chilling and plant growth regulators, the flowering rate is 82.2%~89.5%, the length of flowerstem is 40.3~45.6 cm, and the new corm reproduction index is 6.6~6.7. By way of treatments, planting of batches and protected culture, flowers of Dutch iris could be supplied consecutively from December to April in Fuzhou.
    各处理组植株的开花率为82.2%~89.5%,花枝长度为40.3~45.6cm,平均每株繁殖新球6.0~6.7个; 通过分批处理、分批种植、设施栽培等措施,能使荷兰鸢尾在12~4月间开花.
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    The integrative chilling damage index of 22 representative stations for 44 years was calculated.
    对广东22个代表站上述44年的综合寒害指数进行了自然正交分解,得到了2个有意义的特征向量场。
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  chilling
The development rate of embryos reconstructed with skin fibroblasts of different passage number and somatic cells of different chilling durations showed no significant difference.
      
Mechanical damage of the cuticle, treatment with deltamethrin, and chilling of the caterpillars induced similar changes in the hemolymph pattern of esterase activity.
      
The involvement of acyl-lipid Δ9-desaturase in the development of chilling tolerance of sensitive plants
      
Nanocrystalline Iron Particles Synthesized without Chilling by Chemical Vapor Condensation
      
Iron nanoparticles were synthesized without a chilling device in a condensation system of gases vaporized from iron pentacarbonyls as starting precursors.
      
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The Sclerotinia disease of the rape plant is widely distributed in 19 provinces in China. It is more prevalent and destructive in the Yang-Tze Valley and the South-Eastern coastal provinces. These regions are characterized by the concurrence of the relatively cool temperature (around 15℃.), the abundant rainfall (month average exceeds 100 mm.), and the susceptible stage of the host plant (usually during the blooming period). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been found attacking 71 species of economic plants of 19...

The Sclerotinia disease of the rape plant is widely distributed in 19 provinces in China. It is more prevalent and destructive in the Yang-Tze Valley and the South-Eastern coastal provinces. These regions are characterized by the concurrence of the relatively cool temperature (around 15℃.), the abundant rainfall (month average exceeds 100 mm.), and the susceptible stage of the host plant (usually during the blooming period). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been found attacking 71 species of economic plants of 19 families. Beside the rape plant, peanut, soybean, and sunflower, the majority of the hosts are vegetables and herbaceous ornamental plants. In the host range, there are 13 species not hitherto reported; however, there are also 5 species of familiar plants which have been listed as hosts in other countries are not affected in China. No definite period of dormancy appeared to be necessary for the production of apothecia, but the temperaure reguirement for the sclerotial germination was found very narrow. They germinated best in moderately cool temperature (around 15℃.) in moist sand., The sclerotia raising from single spore cultures germinated very slowly and meagrely, while those from the parent mass culture germinated rather quickly and abundantly, a phenomenon pointing to the facultative heterothallic nature of the fungus. The ascospores have been found to germinate under a wide range of conditions. They germinated quite well on dry slide under high relative humidity. It may thus be justified to assume that the ascospores can be carried in a viable condition to a considerable distance by wind. Precentages of their germination under a temperature range of 5—30℃. exceeded 50% in less than 24 hours, being highest at 5—10℃. The pH range for mycelial growth was found to be pH 3—9, with an optimum around pH 5—8. High relative humidity (over 85%) and a supply of pectinase from diseased tissues were necessary for its infection. Flower petals of the rape plant have been found most susceptible to attack by the ascospores, while sound leaves were resistant to attack unless they had been chilled. A sudden drop of temperature, poor drainage, and especially lodging of the rape plants during their blooming stage have been observed to be predisposing under natural conditions. Ordinary, there are two crops of apothecia in a year, one in the Autumn and the other in the next Spring, the second crop should be considered as the major one. A rotation of rice with the rape plant and a big scale control campaign in vast area will materially reduce the source of infection, and thereby decrease incidence of the disease. Since the infection is dependent chiefly upon the number of sclerotia that will persist in the soil and the production of apothecia in the blooming period, epedemics may be forecasted on the basis of weather conditions prevailing at various times of the year. The facts that abundant Summer rainfall promotes decay of the sclerotia, and abundant rainfall in the the Autumn increases their number, may be considered as criteria for long term forecasting. Abundant rainfall in the early Spring and cold wind during the blooming period which promotes the germination of the sclerotia, the infection of either the ascospores or the mycelium, and the lodging and susceptibility of the host, may be based for short term forecasting.

1.油菜菌核病在我国的分布共有19省,而以长江流域及东南沿海各省为主。它的分布区域决定于較低的温度(15℃左右)、充沛的雨量(月平均超过100毫米)及寄主易感阶段(一般为花期)三者的密切配合。在秦岭以南的早春和深秋以及松花江流域的夏季,其配合是符合于这种情况的,因此发病較为普遍而严重。秦岭以北,包括华北与西北,上述三方面的配合基本上是不协調的,因此菌核病很少发生。2.它在我国的寄主共有19科71种,除油菜、花生、大豆及向日葵等油料作物外,主要为害蔬菜及草本观赏植物,因此花园菜圃是此菌潛伏埸所之一。在我国所发现的寄主中,有13种是未經报导过的,但也有5种常見的寄主在我国尙未见其被害。3.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum的各个发育阶段对于外界条件的要求是不一致的。菌核不需要休眠,但它发芽的要求很严格,只有继續在低温高湿的土壤中约一月左右才能盛发。它从单子囊孢子菌系所产生的菌核发芽率很低,而且发芽很缓慢,说明此菌是一个较弱的(己廾)宗配合菌类。子囊孢子发芽的要求最宽,它有耐干耐寒的能力。在5—30℃之间,24小时内的发芽率都能超过50%,而在5℃或10℃的温度下发芽率最高,而且发芽最快。它在接近饱和...

1.油菜菌核病在我国的分布共有19省,而以长江流域及东南沿海各省为主。它的分布区域决定于較低的温度(15℃左右)、充沛的雨量(月平均超过100毫米)及寄主易感阶段(一般为花期)三者的密切配合。在秦岭以南的早春和深秋以及松花江流域的夏季,其配合是符合于这种情况的,因此发病較为普遍而严重。秦岭以北,包括华北与西北,上述三方面的配合基本上是不协調的,因此菌核病很少发生。2.它在我国的寄主共有19科71种,除油菜、花生、大豆及向日葵等油料作物外,主要为害蔬菜及草本观赏植物,因此花园菜圃是此菌潛伏埸所之一。在我国所发现的寄主中,有13种是未經报导过的,但也有5种常見的寄主在我国尙未见其被害。3.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum的各个发育阶段对于外界条件的要求是不一致的。菌核不需要休眠,但它发芽的要求很严格,只有继續在低温高湿的土壤中约一月左右才能盛发。它从单子囊孢子菌系所产生的菌核发芽率很低,而且发芽很缓慢,说明此菌是一个较弱的(己廾)宗配合菌类。子囊孢子发芽的要求最宽,它有耐干耐寒的能力。在5—30℃之间,24小时内的发芽率都能超过50%,而在5℃或10℃的温度下发芽率最高,而且发芽最快。它在接近饱和的相对湿度中,并不需要一层水膜也能发芽。因此,推论它有一定距离的气流传播可能性。菌絲的要求介于两者之间,它对酸硷的适应范围很广(pH3—9,最适为pH5—8)。它对温度的要求和对子囊孢子发芽的相同。其侵染及生长最主要的条件为高湿度(相对湿度高于85%)及足够的果胶酵素。4.油菜易感的阶段为花期。花冠最容易感染,衰老的叶片及受冻后的嫩叶也容易感病。通过这些桥梁,进而侵染莖稈。春季的寒流,后期的漬水和倒伏,造成发病的小气候;鼓励子囊孢子的发芽与侵入和菌絲的侵染与发展。因此,是此病猖獗的关键。5.子囊孢子是此病主要的而且是首次侵染源。菌核每年产生两次子囊盘,一次在深秋,是次要的;一次在早春,是主要的。菌核的潛伏埸所为:本田、种子间、花园、菜圃、打谷埸及堆肥中。水旱轮作可以消灭菌核;大面积联防可以减少侵染源。6.夏季的雨量丰富,使田间的菌核数下降;相反,深秋的雨量丰富,使菌核数增加;因此,前一年的夏季和秋季的雨量,可以用作长期测报的根据。本年早春的雨量丰富,促进菌核的发芽;花期的寒潮,后期田间渍水,植株倒伏,都使寄主易感,并鼓励子囊孢子的发芽侵入及菌絲的侵染与发展,是造成当年猖獗的主要原因,因此可以用为短期测报的依据。

Black spot of cotton seedlings caused by Alternaria tenuis Nees.Formerly designated as“zenate leaf spot”is differentiated from the true zonate leaf spot of cotton caused by A.macrospora Zimm.The former appears on the cotyledons and the young true leaves asirregular brownish-black spots which then covered with olivaceous sporulations with a fewinconspicuous zonations,while the later occurs most prevalent in the late autumn as circularbrown spot with several zonations.Owing to the fact that spores of this pathogen...

Black spot of cotton seedlings caused by Alternaria tenuis Nees.Formerly designated as“zenate leaf spot”is differentiated from the true zonate leaf spot of cotton caused by A.macrospora Zimm.The former appears on the cotyledons and the young true leaves asirregular brownish-black spots which then covered with olivaceous sporulations with a fewinconspicuous zonations,while the later occurs most prevalent in the late autumn as circularbrown spot with several zonations.Owing to the fact that spores of this pathogen was disseminated by air current,the seedtreatment or crop rotation alone,was not sufficient to attain satisfactory control.The disease development was closely correlated with chilling and wind injuries of theseedlings and also with growth-stage of the plant.The date of disease incidence varied withyears and was apparently influenced by the climatic factors.This correlation suggested thepossibity for prognosis.It was suggested that for avoiding the chilling and wind injuries in the seedling stage,anadequate early thining was to be scheduled.The varietal difference in resistance to this diseasewas not significant.However it was demonstrated that,the application of a mixture ofBordeaux mixture and E1059 before the temperature lowering,yielded a fair result.

棉苗黑斑病的致病菌在关中棉区初步认为是 Alternaria tenuis Nees 与棉成株期叶片上的致病菌不同。病菌孢子借气流传布。种子带菌率虽然很高,但诱发苗病率却很低,因此,种子消毒或采用轮栽来控制这个病害,是不能达到预期效果的。病害发生与棉苗受冻、强风对棉苗的伤害以及棉苗阶段发育有密切的关系。各年发病期有早有晚,但以真叶出现时为易感阶段。本文阐述了棉苗生育阶段、气候条件与发病的关系,为预测病害发生的物候与气象参考条件提供了资料。棉株伤害与发病有关系,建议在生产上适当降低播种量,提高播种质量,适期早疏苗、早间苗;以减轻由于伤损而导致病害侵染。品种与病害发生的关系不显著。试验证明,使用波尔多液加1059于降温前喷射效果较好。

It was not necessary to have a period of chilling for diapause termination in the paddy borer, but the diapauseof the borer would not be terminated until sufficient water had been taken in by the borer. Diapause termination in the borer was accelerated greatly by long day-length ( LD 14 : 10 ) at 25℃. At the temperature of 25℃ and photoperiod of LD 14 : 10 in December, the critical prepupal period was about 23 to 26 days.At 17-20℃ long day-length did not play signifcant accelerative role in the diapause...

It was not necessary to have a period of chilling for diapause termination in the paddy borer, but the diapauseof the borer would not be terminated until sufficient water had been taken in by the borer. Diapause termination in the borer was accelerated greatly by long day-length ( LD 14 : 10 ) at 25℃. At the temperature of 25℃ and photoperiod of LD 14 : 10 in December, the critical prepupal period was about 23 to 26 days.At 17-20℃ long day-length did not play signifcant accelerative role in the diapause termination. The cumulative action of effective temperatures above the developmental threshold ( 15℃) during the borer's overwintering period was a major factor affecting diapause termination in the borer. The total effecive temperatures for the borer population were about 267.5 day-degrees.

三化螟滞育的解除不必经一段时期的低温处理。水是滞育解除的先决条件。滞育幼虫只有在获得足够水分以后才能解除滞育。在25℃,光周期LD14:10条件下,滞育解除得以极大地促进,其临界化蛹前期为23~26天。15℃以上的有效温度的累积作用是滞育解除的主导因子,其群体临界有效积温约为267.5日度。

 
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